The Lebanese pound is the currency of Lebanon. It used to be divided into 100 piastres but high inflation in the Lebanese Civil War has eliminated the subdivisions; the plural form of lira, as used on the currency, is either lirat or the same, whilst there were four forms for qirsh: the dual qirshan, the plural qirush used with numbers 3–10, the accusative singular qirsha used with 11–99, or the genitive singular qirshi used with multiples of 100. In both cases, the number determines. Before the Second World War, the Arabic spelling of the subdivision was غرش. All of Lebanon's coins and banknotes are bilingual in French. Before World War I, the Ottoman lira was used. In 1918, after the fall of the Ottoman Empire, the currency became the Egyptian pound. Upon gaining control of Syria and Lebanon, the French replaced the Egyptian pound with a new currency for Syria and Lebanon, the Syrian pound, linked to the French franc at a value of 1 pound = 20 francs. Lebanon issued its own coins from 1924 and banknotes from 1925.
In 1939, the Lebanese currency was separated from that of Syria, though it was still linked to the French franc and remained interchangeable with Syrian money. In 1941, following France's defeat by Nazi Germany, the currency was linked instead to the British pound sterling at a rate of 8.83 Lebanese pounds = 1 pound sterling. A link to the French franc was restored after the war but was abandoned in 1949. Before the Lebanese Civil War, 1 U. S. dollar was worth 3 pounds. During the civil war the value decreased until 1992, when one dollar was worth over 2500 pounds. Subsequently the value increased again, since December 1997 the rate of the pound has been fixed at 1507.5 pounds per US$. Lebanon's first coins were issued in 1924 in denominations of 2 and 5 girush with the French denominations given in "piastres syriennes". Issues did not include the word "syriennes" and were in denominations of 1⁄2, 1, 2, 2 1⁄2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 girsha. During World War II, rather crude 1⁄2, 1 and 2 1⁄2 girsh coins were issued.
After the war, the Arabic spelling was changed from girsh to qirsh. Coins were issued in the period 1952 to 1986 in denominations of 1, 2 1⁄2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 qirsh and 1 lira. No coins were issued between 1994, when the current series of coins was introduced. Coins in current use are: Lebanon's first banknotes were issued by the Banque du Syrie et Grand-Liban in 1925. Denominations ran from 25 girsha through to 100 pounds. In 1939, the bank's name was changed to the Bank of Lebanon; the first 250-pound notes appeared that year. Between 1942 and 1950, the government issued "small change" paper money in denominations of 5, 10, 25 and 50 girsh or qirsh. After 1945, the Bank of Syria and Lebanon continued to issue paper money for Lebanon but the notes were denominated in "Lebanese pounds" to distinguish them from Syrian notes. Notes for 1, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 pounds were issued; the Banque du Liban was established by the Code of Money and Credit on 1 April 1964. On 1 August 1963 decree No. 13.513 of the “Law of References: Banque Du Liban 23 Money and Credit” granted the Bank of Lebanon the sole right to issue notes in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250 pounds, expressed in Arabic on the front, French on the back.
Higher denominations were issued in the 1980s and 1990s as inflation drastically reduced the currency's value. Banknotes in the current use are: All current notes feature an Arabic side with the value in Arabic script numerals of large size; the other side is in French with the serial number in both Arabic and Latin script and in bar code below the latter one. Economy of Lebanon Banque du Liban Historical and current banknotes of Lebanon
British West African pound
The British West African Pound was the currency of British West Africa, a group of British colonies and mandate territories. It was equal to the pound sterling and was subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence. In the 19th century, the pound sterling became the currency of the British West African territories and standard issue United Kingdom coinage circulated; the West African territories in question were the Gold Coast, Sierra Leone and The Gambia. In 1912, the authorities in London set up the West African Currency Board and issued a distinctive set of sterling coinage for use in British West Africa; the circumstance prompting this move was a tendency for existing UK coins used in the West African territories to leave the region and return to the UK, hence causing a local dearth of coinage. A unique British West African variety of the sterling coinage would not be accepted in the shops of Britain and so would remain in circulation locally. There was a precedent for this move: in 1910, Australia had commenced issuing its own distinctive varieties of sterling coinage, but the reasons for doing so were quite different from those relating to British West Africa.
Australian authorities issued local coinage as a step towards full nationhood. With the exception of Jamaica where special low denomination coins were issued in place of the United Kingdom copper coins, due to local superstitions surrounding the use of copper coinage for church collections, authorities in London did not replace any UK sterling coins with local issues for any other British colony; the British West African pound was adopted by Liberia in 1907, replacing the Liberian dollar, although it was not served by the West African Currency Board. Liberia changed to the U. S. dollar in 1943. Togo and Cameroon adopted the West African currency in 1914 and 1916 when British and French troops took over those colonies from Germany as part of World War I. Beginning in 1958, the British West African pound was replaced by local currencies in the individual territories; the replacements were: In 1907, aluminium 1⁄10 penny and cupro-nickel 1 penny coins were introduced. Both coins were holed. In 1908, cupro-nickel replaced aluminium in the 1⁄10 penny and, in 1911, cupro-nickel ½ penny coins were introduced.
In 1913, silver 3 and 6 pence, 1 and 2 shillings were introduced. In 1920, brass replaced silver in these denominations. In 1938, cupro-nickel 3 pence coins were introduced, with nickel-brass replacing brass in the higher denominations. In 1952, bronze replaced cupro-nickel in the 1/2 and 1 penny coins; the last coins of British West Africa were struck in 1958. In 1916, the West African Currency Board introduced notes for 2, 10 and 20 shillings, followed by 1 shilling notes in 1918. Only the 10 and 20 shillings notes were issued after 1918, until 100 shillings notes were introduced in 1953; the last notes were produced in 1962. Biafran pound Gambian pound Ghanaian pound Gold Coast ackey Nigerian pound West African Monetary Zone Economic Community of West African States References Sources Coins from British West Africa
The peanut known as the groundnut, goober, or monkey nut, taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown for its edible seeds. It is grown in the tropics and subtropics, being important to both small and large commercial producers, it is classified as both a grain legume and, due to its high oil content, an oil crop. World annual production of shelled peanuts was 44 million tonnes in 2016, led by China with 38% of the world total. Atypically among legume crop plants, peanut pods develop underground rather than aboveground. With this characteristic in mind, the botanist Linnaeus named the species hypogaea, which means "under the earth." As a legume, the peanut belongs to the botanical family Fabaceae. Like most other legumes, peanuts harbor symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules; this capacity to fix nitrogen means peanuts require less nitrogen-containing fertilizer and improve soil fertility, making them valuable in crop rotations. Peanuts are similar in taste and nutritional profile to tree nuts, such as walnuts and almonds, as a culinary nut are served in similar ways in Western cuisines.
The botanical definition of a "nut" is a fruit. Using this criterion, the peanut is not a typical nut. However, for culinary purposes and in common English language usage, peanuts are referred to as nuts. Cultivated peanuts arose from a hybrid between two wild species of peanut, thought to be A. duranensis and A. ipaensis. The initial hybrid would have been sterile, but spontaneous chromosome doubling restored its fertility, forming what is termed an amphidiploid or allotetraploid. Genetic analysis suggests the hybridization event occurred only once and gave rise to A. monticola, a wild form of peanut that occurs in a few restricted locations in northwestern Argentina, by artificial selection to A. hypogaea. The process of domestication through artificial selection made A. hypogaea different from its wild relatives. The domesticated plants are bushier and more compact, have a different pod structure and larger seeds; the initial domestication may have taken place in northwestern Argentina, or in southeastern Bolivia, where the peanut landraces with the most wild-like features are grown today.
From this primary center of origin, cultivation spread and formed secondary and tertiary centers of diversity in Peru, Brazil and Uruguay. Over time, thousands of peanut landraces evolved. Subspecies A. h. fastigiata types are more upright in their growth habit and have shorter crop cycles. Subspecies A. h. hypogaea types have longer crop cycles. The oldest known archeological remains of pods have been dated at about 7,600 years old; these may be pods from a wild species, in cultivation, or A. hypogaea in the early phase of domestication. They were found in Peru, where dry climatic conditions are favorable to the preservation of organic material. Peanut cultivation antedated this at the center of origin where the climate is moister. Many pre-Columbian cultures, such as the Moche, depicted peanuts in their art. Cultivation was well established in Mesoamerica. There, the conquistadors found the tlālcacahuatl being offered for sale in the marketplace of Tenochtitlan; the peanut was spread worldwide by European traders, cultivation is now widespread in tropical and subtropical regions.
In West Africa, it replaced a crop plant from the same family, the Bambara groundnut, whose seed pods develop underground. In Asia, it became an agricultural mainstay and this region is now the largest producer in the world. In the English-speaking world, peanut growing is most important in the United States. Although it was a garden crop for much of the colonial period, it was used as animal feed stock until the 1930s; the United States Department of Agriculture initiated a program to encourage agricultural production and human consumption of peanuts in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. George Washington Carver developed hundreds of recipes for peanuts during his tenure in the program. Peanut is an annual herbaceous plant growing 30 to 50 cm tall; as a legume, it belongs to the botanical family Fabaceae. Like most other legumes, peanuts harbor symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in their root nodules; the leaves are pinnate with four leaflets. Like many other legumes, the leaves are nyctinastic, that is, they have "sleep" movements, closing at night.
The flowers are 1.0 to 1.5 cm across, yellowish orange with reddish veining. They are borne in axillary clusters on the stems above ground and last for just one day; the ovary is located at the base of what appears to be the flower stem but is a elongated floral cup. Peanut pods develop an unusual feature known as geocarpy. After fertilization, a short stalk at the base of the ovary elongates to form a thread-like structure known as a "peg"; this peg grows down into the soil, the tip, which contains the ovary, develops into a mature peanut pod. Pods are 3 to 7 cm long containing one to four seeds. Parts of the peanut include
The dalasi is the currency of the Gambia, adopted in 1971. It is subdivided into 100 bututs, it replaced the Gambian pound at a rate of 1 pound = 5 dalasis, i.e. 1 dalasi = 0.2 pound = 4 shillings. The name derives from dala, a nickname of the 5 French West African franc note, which in turn derived from "dollar", while butut is from Wolof butuut, "small thing". In 1971, coins in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 bututs and 1 dalasi were introduced; the 1 and 5 bututs were struck in bronze while the 10 bututs were brass and the 25, 50 bututs and 1 dalasi were cupro-nickel. The reverse designs of the three higher denominations were taken from the corresponding denominations of the previous currency, with the reverse designs for the lower three coins coming from the 6, 1 and 3 pence coins, respectively. All coins of this series depict Sir Dawda Jawara. New 1 dalasi coins were introduced in 1987, modeled on the 50 pence coin of the United Kingdom; these replaced the larger, round dalasi coins which never saw its widespread use as the lower denominations.
In 1998, a new coin series was introduced, in which the effigy of Dawda Jawara was dropped and replaced with the national coat of arms on the obverses. However, older Jawara era coins still circulate as legal tender; the 1 dalasi coin was downsized in size and weight, but none of the other coins were changed. Only 25 and 50 bututs and 1 dalasi coins are in circulation, they are of the 1998 issue which included 1, 5 and 10 bututs coins but have since disappeared due to low valuation. Banknotes in circulation are 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 dalasis. 1 dalasi notes were issued between 1971 and 1987. Current banknotes were first issued on 27 July 1996 reprinted in 2001. On 27 July 2006, the Central Bank of the Gambia issued a new series of notes with images similar to the preceding issues, but with improvements in the design, paper thickness, security features. Most noticeably, the old white borders have been removed. Furthermore, the 5 and 10 Dalasis are coated with a special varnish to extend circulation life.
The security features of the 100 Dalasis have been upgraded by the inclusion of a silver foil on the front of the note with the image of 100 embossed into the foil. A polymer commemorative 20 Dalasis was put into circulation to commemorate 20 years of Yahya Jammeh's regime. On April 15, 2015, the Central Bank of the Gambia released a new family of banknotes that includes two new denominations, a 20 dalasis note to replace the 25 Dalasis note and a 200 dalasis note, twice the value of the highest denomination. All of the notes feature a portrait of the former President of Yahya Jammeh. In February 2018, a new series of banknotes believed to be a reprinting of the 2006-13 issues, but with a new signature combination, will be released as an interim measure to replace notes with the portrait of former President of the Gambia Yahya Jammeh; the notes bearing his image will be removed from circulation. By the end of 2018, a whole new series, including new security features will be released. 1978 1 Dalasi - opening of the Central Bank of The Gambia's building in Banjul.
2014 20 Dalasis - 20 Years of Yahya Jammeh's regime. Economy of the Gambia Central Bank of The Gambia
A wharf, staith or staithe is a structure on the shore of a harbor or on the bank of a river or canal where ships may dock to load and unload cargo or passengers. Such a structure includes one or more berths, may include piers, warehouses, or other facilities necessary for handling the ships. Wharfs are considered to be a series of docks in which boats are stationed. A wharf comprises a fixed platform on pilings. Commercial ports may have warehouses that serve as interim storage: where it is sufficient a single wharf with a single berth constructed along the land adjacent to the water is used. A pier, raised over the water rather than within it, is used for cases where the weight or volume of cargos will be low. Smaller and more modern wharves are sometimes built on flotation devices to keep them at the same level as the ship during changing tides. In everyday parlance the term quay is common in the United Kingdom, Canada and many other Commonwealth countries, the Republic of Ireland, whereas the term wharf is more common in the United States.
In some contexts wharf and quay may be used to mean berth, or jetty. In old ports such as London many old wharves have been converted to residential or office use. Certain early railways in England referred to goods loading points as "wharves"; the term was carried over from marine usage. The person, resident in charge of the wharf was referred to as a "wharfinger". One explanation is that the word wharf comes from the Old English "warft" or the Old Dutch word "werf", which both evolved to mean "yard", an outdoor place where work is done, like a shipyard or a lumberyard. Werf or werva in Old Dutch referred to inhabited ground, not yet built on, or alternatively to a terp; this could explain the name Ministry Wharf located at Saunderton, just outside High Wycombe, nowhere near any body of water. In support of this explanation is the fact that many places in England with "wharf" in their names are in areas with a high Dutch influence, for example the Norfolk broads. In the northeast and east of England the term staith or staithe is used.
The two terms have had a geographical distinction: those to the north in the Kingdom of Northumbria used the Old English spelling staith, southern sites of the Danelaw took the Danish spelling staithe. Both referred to jetties or wharves. In time, the northern coalfields of Northumbria developed coal staiths for loading coal onto ships and these would adopt the staith spelling as a distinction from simple wharves: for example, Dunston Staiths in Gateshead and Brancaster Staithe in Norfolk. However, the term staith may be used to refer only to loading chutes or ramps used for bulk commodities like coal in loading ships and barges. Quay, on the other hand, has its origin in the Proto-Celtic language. Before it changed to its current form under influence of the modern French quai, its Middle English spelling was key, keye or caye; this in turn came from the Old Norman cai, both meaning "sand bank". The Old French term came from Gaulish caium tracing back to the Proto-Celtic *kagio- "to encompass, enclose".
Modern cognates include Welsh cae "fence, hedge" and Cornish ke "hedge", the Dutch kade. Bollard Canal basin Dock Safeguarded wharf The dictionary definition of wharf at Wiktionary The dictionary definition of quay at Wiktionary
Aluminium bronze is a type of bronze in which aluminium is the main alloying metal added to copper, in contrast to standard bronze or brass. A variety of aluminium bronzes of differing compositions have found industrial use, with most ranging from 5% to 11% aluminium by weight, the remaining mass being copper; the following table lists the most common standard aluminium bronze wrought alloy compositions, by ISO 428 designations. The percentages show the proportional composition of the alloy by weight. Copper is the remainder by weight and is not listed: Aluminium bronzes are most valued for their higher strength and corrosion resistance as compared to other bronze alloys; these alloys are tarnish-resistant and show low rates of corrosion in atmospheric conditions, low oxidation rates at high temperatures, low reactivity with sulfurous compounds and other exhaust products of combustion. They are resistant to corrosion in sea water. Aluminium bronzes' resistance to corrosion results from the aluminium in the alloys, which reacts with atmospheric oxygen to form a thin, tough surface layer of alumina which acts as a barrier to corrosion of the copper-rich alloy.
The addition of tin can improve corrosion resistance. Another notable property of aluminium bronzes are their biostatic effects; the copper component of the alloy prevents colonization by marine organisms including algae, lichens and mussels, therefore can be preferable to stainless steel or other non-cupric alloys in applications where such colonization would be unwanted. Aluminium bronzes tend to have a golden color. Aluminium bronzes are most used in applications where their resistance to corrosion makes them preferable to other engineering materials; these applications include plain bearings and landing gear components on aircraft, guitar strings, valve components, engine components, underwater fastenings in naval architecture, ship propellers. Aluminium bronze is used to fulfil the ATEX directive for Zones 1, 2, 21, 22; the attractive gold-toned coloration of aluminium bronzes has led to their use in jewellery. Aluminium bronzes are in the highest demand from the following industries and areas: General sea water-related service Water supply Oil and petrochemical industries Specialised anti-corrosive applications Certain structural retrofit building applicationsAluminium bronze can be welded using the MIG welding technique with an aluminium bronze core and pure argon gas.
Aluminium bronze is used to replace gold for the casting of dental crowns. The alloys used have the appearance of gold. Alloys similar to aluminium bronze are used in making coins, for example the 20, 200 and 500 Italian Lire, 10 Philippine peso coin on the inner ring, the one and two dollar coins of Australian and New Zealand currency produced by the Royal Australian Mint, some Mexican coins and the Nordic gold used for some euro coins; the Canadian 2 dollar coin, produced by the Royal Canadian Mint and circulated since 1996, is a bi-metallic piece with an outer ring of nickel-plated steel and an inner circle of Aluminium bronze composed of 92% copper, 6% Aluminium, 2% nickel. Copper Development Association. "Publication Number 80: Aluminium Bronze Alloys Corrosion Resistance Guide", PDF. Retrieved April 9, 2014. Copper Development Association. "Publication Number 82: Aluminium Bronze Alloys Technical Data". Retrieved April 9, 2014
Elaeis is a genus of palms containing two species, called oil palms. They are used in commercial agriculture in the production of palm oil; the African oil palm Elaeis. It is native to southwest Africa, occurring between Angola and Gambia; the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera is native to tropical Central and South America, is used locally for oil production. Mature palms are single-stemmed, can grow well over 20 m tall; the leaves are pinnate, reach between 3–5 m long. The flowers are produced in dense clusters; the palm fruit is reddish, about the size of a large plum, grows in large bunches. Each fruit is made up of an oily, fleshy outer layer, with a single seed rich in oil; the two species, E. guineensis and E. oleifera can produce fertile hybrids. The genome of E. guineensis has been sequenced, which has important implications for breeding improved strains of the crop plants. Since palm oil contains more saturated fats than oils made from canola, linseed, soybeans and sunflowers, it can withstand extreme deep-frying heat and resists oxidation.
It contains no trans fat, its use in food has increased as food-labelling laws have changed to specify trans fat content. Oil from Elaeis guineensis is used as biofuel. Human use of oil palms may date back to about 5,000 years in coastal west Africa. Palm oil was discovered in the late 19th century by archaeologists in a tomb at Abydos dating back to 3000 BCE, it is thought. Elaeis guineensis is now extensively cultivated in tropical countries outside Africa Malaysia and Indonesia which together produce most of the world supply. Palm oil is considered the most controversial of the cooking oils - for both health and environmental reasons. Palm oil plantations are under increasing scrutiny for social and environmental harm because rainforests with high biodiversity are destroyed, greenhouse gas output is increased, because people are displaced by unscrupulous palm-oil enterprises and traditional livelihoods are negatively impacted. In Indonesia, there is growing pressure for palm oil producers to prove that they are not harming rare animals in the cultivation process.
In 2018 a Christmas TV advertisement by supermarket chain Iceland, produced by Greenpeace, was banned by the UK advertising watchdog Clearcast. Iceland had committed to banning palm oil from its own-brand products by the end of 2018. Attalea maripa, another oil-producing palm Journal of Oil Palm Research Energy and the environment List of Arecaceae genera Social and environmental impact of palm oil