A sea serpent or sea dragon is a type of dragon described in various mythologies, most notably Greek, Mesopotamian and Norse. The "Drachenkampf" mytheme, the chief god in the role of the hero slaying a sea serpent, is widespread both in the Ancient Near East and in Indo-European mythology, e.g. Lotan and Hadad and Yahweh, Tiamat and Marduk and Tarhunt, Yammu and Baal in the Baal Cycle etc; the Hebrew Bible has less mythological descriptions of large sea creatures as part of creation under God's command, such as the Tannin mentioned in Book of Genesis 1:21 and the "great serpent" of Amos 9:3. In the Aeneid, a pair of sea serpents killed Laocoön and his sons when Laocoön argued against bringing the Trojan Horse into Troy. In antiquity and in the bible, dragons were imagined as huge serpentine monsters, which means that the image of a fire-breathing dragon with four/two legs and wings came much later—in the late Middle Ages. In Norse mythology, Jörmungandr, or "Midgarðsormr" was a sea serpent so long that it encircled the entire world, Midgard.
Some stories report of sailors mistaking its back for a chain of islands. Sea serpents appear in Scandinavian folklore in that of Norway. In 1028 AD, Saint Olaf is said to have killed a sea serpent in Valldal, throwing its body onto the mountain Syltefjellet. Marks on the mountain are associated with the legend. In Swedish ecclesiastic and writer Olaus Magnus's Carta marina, many marine monsters of varied form, including an immense sea serpent, appear. In his 1555 work History of the Northern Peoples, Magnus gives the following description of a Norwegian sea serpent: Those who sail up along the coast of Norway to trade or to fish, all tell the remarkable story of how a serpent of fearsome size, 200 feet long and 20 feet wide, resides in rifts and caves outside Bergen. On bright summer nights this serpent leaves the caves to eat calves and pigs, or it fares out to the sea and feeds on sea nettles and similar marine animals, it has ell-long hair flaming red eyes. It attacks vessels and swallows people, as it lifts itself up like a column from the water.
An apparent eye-witness account is found in Aristotle's Historia Animalium. Strabo makes reference to an eye witness account of a dead sea creature sighted by Poseidonius on the coast of the northern Levant, he reports the following: "As for the plains, the first, beginning at the sea, is called Macras, or Macra-Plain. Here, as reported by Poseidonius, was seen the fallen dragon, the corpse of, about a plethrum in length, so bulky that horsemen standing by it on either side could not see one another; the creature was seen by Poseidonius, a Philosopher, sometime between 130 and 51 BC. Hans Egede, the national saint of Greenland, gives an 18th-century description of a sea serpent. On July 6, 1734 his ship sailed past the coast of Greenland when those on board "saw a most terrible creature, resembling nothing they saw before; the monster lifted its head so high that it seemed to be higher than the crow's nest on the mainmast. The head was small and the body short and wrinkled; the unknown creature was using giant fins.
The sailors saw its tail as well. The monster was longer than our whole ship", wrote Egede. Bakunawa Chinese dragon Kraken Leviathan Lindworm Midgard Serpent Nāga Selma Stronsay Beast Sea snake Lyons, Sherrie Lynne. Species, Serpents and Skulls: Science at the Margins in the Victorian Age. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-2802-4. Video of the oarfish, a creature that inspired the sea serpent mythology
Fact or Faked: Paranormal Files
Fact or Faked: Paranormal Files is a paranormal investigation series produced by Base Productions that began airing July 15, 2010, on SyFy. The show follows a team of investigators, led by former FBI agent Ben Hansen, who review various photographs and viral videos of alleged paranormal activity. If a particular piece of evidence is deemed intriguing enough to warrant further investigation, they set out to recreate and explain the sighting. Beginning episode #207 in the first half of season two, the show began to feature a "You Decide" segment in the middle of the program where a video is shown of something strange and asks the viewing audience if they think the footage is fact or faked. After a commercial break the truth behind the video is revealed; as of January 2019, Syfy has not announced another season of Faked. As of fall 2014, reruns of Fact or Faked can be found on Syfy's sister channel Chiller; as of October 2016, episodes of "Fact or Faked" can be found on Destination America listed as new but are in fact reruns.
The show has been described as "Destination Truth mixed with MythBusters". A Variety magazine review says – "Now we know what Fox Mulder would have done after leaving "The X-Files" unit: Get his own reality-TV show!" Will Wade of Common Sense Media said the squad seemed like it was selected for the skill set rather than their readiness for TV. Skeptical researchers such as Karen Stollznow of the James Randi Educational Foundation have criticized the investigating competence of the Fact or Faked team, such as the Civil War cemetery ghost case from episode 6 in particular; the examined footage involves an alleged orb and mist captured on a few frames of video, when the FoF team fail to recreate it, they conclude it to be paranormal. Stollznow claimed that by slowing the video down frame-by-frame, something that the FoF team did not do, the orb and mist are revealed to be a spider on a web. In 2010, the JREF published a story stating that the producers of FoF attempted to get a group to alter a "paranormal video" they shot in order for it to be considered for the show.
The group, the Rocky Mountain Paranormal Research Society, are paranormal claims investigators who filmed a planchette of an ouija board moving around on its own. The video was deliberately faked using a hidden string and released to the internet as a demonstration of how such tricks can be done. FoF producers who saw the video contacted the group and asked that they re-shoot the video and make the pointer move more before they would make an offer to feature the video on the show. At the time when the claim that Rocky Mountain Paranormal Research Society was asked to change their video was made,they were trying to get their own TV show, Colorado X: Paranormal Files, picked up by a network, their show was similar to that of FoF. http://www.dailycamera.com/ci13136917 Official website Fact or Faked: Paranormal Files on IMDb Fact or Faked: Paranormal Files at TV.com
Destination Truth is a weekly American paranormal reality television series that premiered on June 6, 2007, on Syfy. Produced by Mandt Bros. Productions and Ping Pong Productions, the program follows paranormal researcher Josh Gates around the world to investigate claims of the supernatural in the field of cryptozoology; the third season concluded on April 21, 2010, holds the highest ratings for the series, which continued with a fourth season, beginning on Thursday, September 9, 2010, at 9:00 p.m. ET/PT; the fifth season began July 10, 2012. On March 27, 2014, Gates confirmed via his Facebook account that Destination Truth had ended its run and would not be returning for a sixth season. However, Travel Channel began airing reruns of the show in the spring of 2017; each episode runs for about 45 minutes and features two investigations of paranormal activity involving the search for cryptozoological creatures. Gates and his team venture out to various locations around the world where Gates interviews witnesses, reviews any physical evidence they might have, researches the local history.
Gates and his team go into the field after nightfall, in an attempt to capture firsthand evidence of the existence of these legendary creatures. Any evidence gathered is sent to independent experts laboratories or academics in the United States, for further analysis; the cases rely on field investigation. Gates' team members split up into two or more groups to survey an area using night vision and thermal imaging cameras, they commonly use electromagnetic field monitoring and detection equipment when cases contain claims of the supernatural. The team use walkie-talkies to relay findings to a base camp, but carry backpack mounted cameras, microphone rigs, hand held night vision systems to gather evidence, to replace a traditional camera and sound crew. Footage from the show is edited from an entertainment perspective that relies on "suspense building mechanisms" such as brief segments involving team members becoming agitated or startled, asserting they have seen or heard something of interest and followed by a sudden cut to a commercial break.
Conclusion of what happened is revealed after the break. At the end of each segment the show details the teams findings with a brief dialog in which Gates either states that the accounts on which the case was based are myth, or that they are supported by the team's findings; the season three premiere of Destination Truth hit a series high with 2.1 million viewers, the largest number of viewers for an episode of the series and the first episode to be watched by over two million viewers. The second episode of the season broke more ratings records, despite formidable competition, achieved 2.021 million viewers, the second episode of the series to have more than 2 million viewers, the second episode in a row to do so. The fourth episode broke the record set with 2.3 million viewers. When season 3 continued on March 17, 2010, the show received its best premiere rating, with 2.2 million viewers. A feature of Destination Truth is that along with Josh Gates, who heads up the investigations, members of his production crew directly participate in the cases and double as his research team rather than remaining behind the scenes and off camera.
Over the seasons, Gates has built a relationship with the TAPS team from SyFy's paranormal show, Ghost Hunters and brings his own ghost hunting evidence to them for review and comment. Gates has been on their programs hosting their Halloween specials and other live events. Official website by Syfy Official website by Mandt Bros. Productions Official website by Ping Pong Productions Destination Truth on IMDb Destination Truth at TV.com
Is It Real?
Is It Real? is an American television series that aired from April 25, 2005 to August 14, 2007 on the National Geographic Channel. The program examines popular or persistent mysteries to determine whether the featured cryptozoological creature or supernatural phenomenon is real or not; the show includes interviews with believers or proponents of the featured paranormal claims, with scientists and skeptics who attempt to find rational explanations for such phenomena using a scientific approach. On June 23, 2008, the Independent Investigations Group recognised Is It Real? as one of those rare shows in the media that encourage science and critical thinking. Cryptid Cryptozoology Official website Is It Real? on IMDb Is It Real? at TV.com
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch. It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments. Paleontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century BC; the science became established in the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuvier's work on comparative anatomy, developed in the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek παλαιός, palaios, "old, ancient", ὄν, on, "being, creature" and λόγος, logos, "speech, study". Paleontology lies on the border between biology and geology, but differs from archaeology in that it excludes the study of anatomically modern humans, it now uses techniques drawn from a wide range of sciences, including biochemistry and engineering. Use of all these techniques has enabled paleontologists to discover much of the evolutionary history of life all the way back to when Earth became capable of supporting life, about 3.8 billion years ago.
As knowledge has increased, paleontology has developed specialised sub-divisions, some of which focus on different types of fossil organisms while others study ecology and environmental history, such as ancient climates. Body fossils and trace fossils are the principal types of evidence about ancient life, geochemical evidence has helped to decipher the evolution of life before there were organisms large enough to leave body fossils. Estimating the dates of these remains is essential but difficult: sometimes adjacent rock layers allow radiometric dating, which provides absolute dates that are accurate to within 0.5%, but more paleontologists have to rely on relative dating by solving the "jigsaw puzzles" of biostratigraphy. Classifying ancient organisms is difficult, as many do not fit well into the Linnaean taxonomy classifying living organisms, paleontologists more use cladistics to draw up evolutionary "family trees"; the final quarter of the 20th century saw the development of molecular phylogenetics, which investigates how organisms are related by measuring the similarity of the DNA in their genomes.
Molecular phylogenetics has been used to estimate the dates when species diverged, but there is controversy about the reliability of the molecular clock on which such estimates depend. The simplest definition of paleontology is "the study of ancient life"; the field seeks information about several aspects of past organisms: "their identity and origin, their environment and evolution, what they can tell us about the Earth's organic and inorganic past". Paleontology is one of the historical sciences, along with archaeology, astronomy, cosmology and history itself: it aims to describe phenomena of the past and reconstruct their causes. Hence it has three main elements: description of past phenomena; when trying to explain the past and other historical scientists construct a set of hypotheses about the causes and look for a smoking gun, a piece of evidence that accords with one hypothesis over the others. Sometimes the smoking gun is discovered by a fortunate accident during other research. For example, the discovery by Luis and Walter Alvarez of iridium, a extra-terrestrial metal, in the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary layer made asteroid impact the most favored explanation for the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, although the contribution of volcanism continues to be debated.
The other main type of science is experimental science, said to work by conducting experiments to disprove hypotheses about the workings and causes of natural phenomena. This approach cannot prove a hypothesis, since some experiment may disprove it, but the accumulation of failures to disprove is compelling evidence in favor. However, when confronted with unexpected phenomena, such as the first evidence for invisible radiation, experimental scientists use the same approach as historical scientists: construct a set of hypotheses about the causes and look for a "smoking gun". Paleontology lies between biology and geology since it focuses on the record of past life, but its main source of evidence is fossils in rocks. For historical reasons, paleontology is part of the geology department at many universities: in the 19th and early 20th centuries, geology departments found fossil evidence important for dating rocks, while biology departments showed little interest. Paleontology has some overlap with archaeology, which works with objects made by humans and with human remains, while paleontologists are interested in the characteristics and evolution of humans as a species.
When dealing with evidence about humans and paleontologists may work together – for example paleontologists might identify animal or plant fossils around an archaeological site, to discover what the people who lived there ate. In addition, paleontology borrows techniques from other sciences, including biology, ecology, chemistry and mathematics. For example, geochemical signatures from rocks may help to discover when life first arose on Earth, analyses of carbon isotope ratios may help to identify climate changes and to explain major transitions such as the Permian–Triassic extinction event. A recent discipline, molecular phylogenetics, compares the DNA and RNA of modern organisms to re-construct the "family trees" of their
Lost Tapes is an American television horror series that aired on Animal Planet. Produced by Go Go Luckey Entertainment, the program presents fictional found footage depicting traumatic encounters with cryptozoological creatures, supernatural creatures, mythological creatures, extraterrestrials. Creatures featured include Bigfoot, the Chupacabra, Vampires and Reptilians; the pilot aired on Animal Planet October 30, 2008, for Halloween, but the series premiered on January 6, 2009. Animal Planet commissioned a second season, which premiered on September 29, 2009. Season 3 premiered on September 28, 2010, with episodes featuring creatures such as zombies and the Kraken; the show used to air on Planet Green. Lost Tapes depicts traumatic scenarios where people are attacked and/or killed by mysterious, deadly and ferocious paranormal wild cryptids; the series is shot in a mockumentary style. Most episodes begin with a quick introduction of facts, which include interviews with experts explaining scientific theories or facts and folklore behind the episode's titular creature.
In the second season, some episodes began with footage of a person being attacked and killed by the episode's creature, an introduction meant to set up the events of each episode. In the third season, every episode had such an introduction, though the events of every episode in all three seasons are accompanied by videos of scientists and folklorists giving their thoughts and opinions of the creatures, which are called Lost Tapes: Revelations. A common formula in Lost Tapes involves the human characters either a single person or a small group, ending up in a remote part of the world or otherwise in a place with few options of escape, such as enclosed areas like buildings or underground tunnels, they soon encounter the episode's creature in a series of stressful events, which sometimes result in the deaths of some or all of the featured characters. Many episodes end in cliffhangers which state that the creature which appeared in the episode was never found, may "live among us". With the exception of a brief injury in Thunderbird, no children have been physically harmed on-screen, though sometimes they become traumatized after the events of the episode, as in Chupacabra and Death Raptor.
In most episodes, the creatures are only revealed to the audience, in brief glimpses or otherwise only as silhouettes, shadows, or are obscured by darkness. To give the show a mysterious atmosphere, techniques such as those used in Jaws are employed, the creatures are never seen. Hellhound, the last episode of the first season, marked the first time that a creature was shown on camera, the second season revealed more creatures than the first: in Jersey Devil, for instance, the creature's legs and face are shown; the third season showed more creatures, many of them in full view of the camera. However, realism was better-maintained with human-like creatures, such as in Reptilian. Non-human-like animals were shown more though this led to some negative criticism among fans as many of the creatures in the third season were less convincing with low budget animatronics and CGI, such as in Kraken and Q: The Serpent God, or simply people in costumes, as in Devil Monkey and Yeti. While most episodes feature the titular cryptid as the antagonist, in some episodes they benefit the people that the story follows.
For example, in Bigfoot, the creature seems to be watching over and protecting the main character killing a poacher, trying to attack her. While there is no connection between episodes, the third season introduced the recurring Enigma Corporation, "a private security firm that specializes in the unexplained," though it is not clear what order each of the episodes featuring them is supposed to be in chronologically or if the characters Noel Connor and Elise Mooney remember their experiences in each episode, as no connection between each time besides the third agent being killed; the Enigma Corporation first appeared in the third season's premiere and reappeared in Strigoi Vampire and again in Q: The Serpent God. Lost Tapes has received mixed reviews from critics. In a review of the season one DVD, TV Squad writer John Scott Lewinski gave the series a unfavorable review, stating that in the case of this series, "Animal Planet could be accused of repacking a horror/sci-fi show as an animal documentary" and that much of the program is "outright bollocks."
He did, state that the show holds some appeal for audiences looking for a scare, or "incredibly gullible people." Emily Ashby of Common Sense Media gave the series three out of five stars, noting that while the acting was "subpar", the show overall was "simultaneously scintillating and bone-chilling." Found footage Cryptozoology Cryptid Monsters and Mysteries in America Official website Lost Tapes on IMDb
Darren Naish is a British vertebrate palaeontologist and science writer. He obtained a geology degree at the University of Southampton and studied vertebrate palaeontology under British palaeontologist David Martill at the University of Portsmouth, where he obtained both an M. Phil, and PhD. He is founder of the blog Tetrapod Zoology, created in 2006. Though beginning his research career in palaeontology with the intention of working on fossil marine reptiles, Naish is best known among palaeontologists for his doctoral work on the basal tyrannosauroid theropod Eotyrannus, a dinosaur that he, together with Steve Hutt and colleagues, named in 2001, he has published articles on the Wealden Supergroup theropods Thecocoelurus and Aristosuchus. With Martill and Dino Frey, he named a new illegally acquired Brazilian compsognathid theropod Mirischia. In 2004, Naish and Gareth Dyke reinterpreted the controversial Romanian fossil Heptasteornis. Suggested by other authors to be a giant owl, troodontid or dromaeosaurid, it was argued by Naish and Dyke to be an alvarezsaurid, as such is the first member of this group to be reported from Europe.
Other fragmentary European alvarezsaurid specimens have since been reported. Naish has published work on sauropod dinosaurs, fossil marine reptiles, marine mammals and other fossil vertebrates, he has produced articles on other aspects of zoology, he published a series of articles on poorly known cetaceans during the 1990s and in 2004 published a review article on the giant New Zealand gecko Hoplodactylus delcourti. In 2004 Naish and colleagues described a giant Isle of Wight sauropod dinosaur that appears related to the North American brachiosaurid Sauroposeidon, informally referred to as Angloposeidon. Prior to the 2006 description of Turiasaurus from Spain, this was the largest dinosaur reported from Europe. In 2005 he coauthored the description of the new Cretaceous turtle Araripemys arturi, in 2006 he and David Martill published a revision of the South American crested pterosaurs Tupuxuara and Thalassodromeus. During 2007 and 2008, Naish and Martill published a major revision of British dinosaurs.
The Galve fossils are significant in including istiodactylid pterosaurs, heterodontosaurids and spinosaurines. In 2007, Naish co-authored the description of the new sauropod Xenoposeidon with fellow Portsmouth-based palaeontologist Mike P. Taylor. In 2008 he published an evaluation of azhdarchid pterosaurs with Mark Witton, in which they argued that azhdarchids were stork- or ground hornbill-like generalists, foraging in diverse environments for small animals and carrion. Along with his colleagues Mike Taylor and Matt Wedel he published a paper on sauropod neck posture in 2008. In 2010 Naish published a paper on the theoretical flotation abilities of giraffes. In 2011 Hone and Cuthill published a paper on mutual selection in dinosaurs and pterosaurs In 2013, Naish described Vectidraco daisymorrisae, a small azhdarchoid pterosaur from the Isle of Wight. In 2013 Naish and Witton published a follow-up to their 2008 paper on terrestrial stalking in azhdarchid pterosaurs. 2015 Naish and colleagues published on a new, as yet unnamed, Transylvanian pterosaur taxon.
In 2017, a new species of pycnodont fish, Scalacurvichthys naishi, was named after Naish. Naish has published several popular books on prehistoric animals including Dinosaurs: How They Lived and Evolved co-authored with Paul Barrett Dinosaur Record Breakers, the Dorling Kindersley Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Life, the Palaeontological Association book Dinosaurs of the Isle of Wight and the acclaimed BBC Walking with Dinosaurs: The Evidence, produced to accompany the TV series Walking with Dinosaurs. In 2010, he published The Great Dinosaur Discoveries as sole author. In 2017 Naish published Evolution in Minutes a book answering fundamental questions on the topic of evolution through a collection of mini-essays. Naish has published several books on cryptozoology, including Hunting Monsters: Cryptozoology and the Reality Behind the Myths and Cryptozoologicon: Volume I with John Conway and C. M. Kosemen, his name is attached to several children's books on prehistoric animals. Naish is an associate editor for the journal Cretaceous Research and was on the editorial board of the journal The Cryptozoology Review.
He acts as a regular book reviewer for the Palaeontological Association. Naish, D. 2017. Evolution in Minutes. Quercus. London. Naish, D. 2017. Hunting Monsters: Cryptozoology and the Reality Behind the Myths. Sirius. Naish, D. Barrett, P. 2016. Dinosaurs: How They Lived and Evolved. Smithsonian Books. Naish, D. 2015. Jurassic Record Breakers, Carlton Kids. London. Conway, J. Kosemen, C. M. & Naish, D. 2013. Cryptozoologicon Volume I. Irregular Books. Conway, J. Kosemen, C. M. & Naish, D. 2012. All Yesterdays: Unique and Speculative Views of Dinosaurs and Other Prehistoric Animals. Irregular Books. Naish, D. 2011. Dinosaur Record Breakers. Carlton Books, London. Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology Book One. CFZ Press, Bideford. Moody, R. T. J. Buffetaut, E. Naish, D. & Martill, D. M. 2010. Dinosaurs and Other Extinct Saurians: A Historical Perspective. Geological Society, London. Naish, D. 2010. Dinosaurs Life Size. Barron's New York. Naish, D. 2009. The Great Dinosaur Discoveries. A & C Black, London. Martill, D. M. & Naish, D. 2001.
Dinosaurs of the Isle of Wight. The Palaeontological Association, London. Martill, D. M. & Naish, D. 2000. Walking With Dinosaurs: The Evidence. BBC Wo