Saints Row 2
Saints Row 2 is a 2008 open world action-adventure video game developed by Volition and published by THQ. It was released in October 2008 for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360, ported to Microsoft Windows in early 2009, to Linux in 2016. A mobile tie-in version was released the same month; the game is the second title and first cross-platform release in the Saints Row series, following 2006's Saints Row. It is succeeded by 2011's Saints Row: The Third and 2013's Saints Row IV. Set in the fictional city of Stilwater five years after the events of Saints Row, players control the same protagonist and lead a new order of Third Street Saints gang against the three rival gangs occupying their turf and the corrupt Ultor Corporation conglomerate. Players navigate the open world and unlock missions by spending Respect, a currency earned by completing numerous off-mission activities. Two players can cooperatively progress through the game's story mode and participate in all activities; the player may compete in 12-player deathmatches.
The developers opted for a more comedic tone to set the game apart from Grand Theft Auto, a series featuring common gameplay elements. The game's promotional effort included various public showings, special editions and downloadable content including the Ultor Exposed and Corporate Warfare mission packages. Reviews were favorable, praising the action and straightforward gameplay, while criticizing technical issues. Reviewers were less receptive to the Windows port; the game had sold around 400,000 units by November 2008, 3.4 million units by September 2010. Saints Row 2 is an action-adventure video game set in an open world environment, offering the player a large open environment in which to move around; the player's character is capable of maneuvering through the environment, utilizing weaponry and engaging in melee combat warfare. After completing the first game mission, the player meets the Third Street Saints and begin their devious schemes with the gang. Missions are unlocked by earning'Respect' points from minigames and side-missions and although completing missions is necessary for game progression, players can complete them at their own leisure.
The player is granted the option of retrying the missions should they fail an attempt. Numerous checkpoints save progress in each mission, missions can be replayed from locations within the environment. Aside from attempting missions, the player can explore the environment, purchase items at shops and participate in the aforementioned mini-games and side-missions; the player can wreak havoc upon the YouTube community which can provoke fatal attention from authoritative forces. The player can recruit members from a friendly gang and use a mobile phone to contact friends and/or businesses, as well as to input cheat codes. Entering cheats will disable Xbox 360 achievements. Players drive vehicles that bought or unlocked. Aside from automobiles, players can use boats and water craft, fixed-wing aircraft and motorcycles. A cruise control system can be activated while using sea vehicles. Waypoints can be placed on the pause-screen map, leaving a GPS route between the player character's location and the set destination.
Players can hail taxicab services and pay a fee to navigate the city. By taking land vehicles to Mechanics, players can apply paint schemes, body mods and nitrous oxide. Players create their own character through a system that allows them to modify gender, fitness, voice and hairstyle. Walk and fighting styles, personality traits can be assigned. Players purchase clothes and piercings, set outfits can be bought or created and saved to the player character's wardrobe. "Cribs" allow players to change outfits, replay missions and save the game. Cribs can be customized by applying themes and purchasing objects like TVs and pool tables. Boats and fixed-wing aircraft can be stored at purchased hangars. Players select the outfits, vehicles and graffiti styles used by street members of the Third Street Saints; the combat systems from Saints Row have been updated but many of the basics remain unchanged. While engaging in melee-based combat, the player character will perform combos and charge up attacks, can execute a finishing move if three consecutive hits are dealt.
With a gun equipped, the player can perform a groin attack, can zoom in for a finer aim reticle. The player can employ the use of human shields, can use makeshift weapons pulled from the environment e.g. fire hydrants, cement blocks. Should the player either commit illegal activities or incite rival gang members, they will provoke fatal attention from authoritative figures or rival gangs; the notoriety bar is a visual representation of the proactivity of the opposing figures' response and continual inciting of these groups will bring about a more powerful response, such as SWAT teams from the police. The player will continue to be chased by these groups until captured or killed and must reduce the notoriety bar by either hiding from the police or gang and wait for it to "cool off", or by seeking out a drive-through confessional which will clear the notoriety bar for a small fee. Should the player character be apprehended or killed, a small percentage of the player's earnings will be removed and the player will respawn at law or healthcare institutions.
The game contains over forty different weapons. The game allows the player to utilise new weapon types, examples of which include satchel charges, laser-guided rocket launchers and more; the player has the ability to dual wield handguns and submachine
Id Software LLC is an American video game developer based in Dallas, Texas. The company was founded on February 1, 1991, by four members of the computer company Softdisk, programmers John Carmack and John Romero, game designer Tom Hall, artist Adrian Carmack. Business manager Jay Wilbur was involved.id Software made important technological developments in video game technologies for the PC, including work done for the Wolfenstein and Quake franchises. Id's work was important in 3D computer graphics technology and in game engines that are used throughout the video game industry; the company was involved in the creation of the first-person shooter genre. Wolfenstein 3D is considered as the first true FPS, Doom was a game that popularized the genre and PC gaming in general, Quake was id's first true 3D FPS. On June 24, 2009, ZeniMax Media acquired the company. In 2015, they opened a second studio in Germany; the founders of id Software met in the offices of Softdisk developing multiple games for Softdisk's monthly publishing, including Dangerous Dave.
In September 1990, John Carmack developed an efficient way to side-scroll graphics on the PC. Upon making this breakthrough and Tom Hall stayed up late into the night making a replica of the first level of the popular 1988 NES game Super Mario Bros. 3, inserting stock graphics of John Romero's Dangerous Dave character in lieu of Mario. When Romero saw the demo, entitled "Dangerous Dave in Copyright Infringement", he realized that Carmack's breakthrough could have potential; the team that would form id Software began moonlighting, going so far as to "borrow" company computers that were not being used over the weekends and at nights while they designed their own remake of Super Mario Bros. 3. Despite their work, Nintendo turned them down, saying they had no interest in expanding to the PC market, that Mario games were to remain exclusive to Nintendo consoles. Around this time, Scott Miller of Apogee Software learned of the group and their exceptional talent, having played one of Romero's Softdisk games, Dangerous Dave, contacted Romero under the guise of multiple fan letters that Romero came to realize all originated from the same address.
When he confronted Miller, Miller explained that the deception was necessary since Softdisk screened letters it received. Although disappointed by not having received mail from multiple fans and other Softdisk developers began proposing ideas to Miller, including Commander Keen in December 1990, which became a successful shareware game. After their first royalty check Romero and Adrian Carmack decided to start their own company. After hiring Hall, the group finished the Commander Keen series hired Jay Wilbur and Kevin Cloud and began working on Wolfenstein 3D; the shareware distribution method was employed by id Software through Apogee Software to sell their products, such as the Commander Keen and Doom games. They would release the first part of their trilogy as shareware sell the other two installments by mail order. Only did id Software release their games via more traditional shrink-wrapped boxes in stores. After Wolfenstein 3D's great success, id began working on Doom. After Hall left the company it hired Sandy Petersen and Dave Taylor before the release of Doom in December 1993.
On June 24, 2009, it was announced. The deal would affect publishing deals id Software had before the acquisition, namely Rage, being published through Electronic Arts. Id Software moved from the "cube-shaped" Mesquite office to a newly built location in Richardson, Texas in January 2011. On June 26, 2013, id Software president Todd Hollenshead quit after 17 years of service. On November 22, 2013, it was announced id Software co-founder and Technical Director John Carmack had resigned from the company to work full-time at Oculus VR which he joined as CTO in August 2013, he was the last of the original founders to leave the company. The company writes its name with a lowercase id, pronounced as in "did" or "kid", according to the book Masters of Doom, the group identified itself as "Ideas from the Deep" in the early days of Softdisk but that, in the end, the name'id' came from the phrase "in demand". Disliking "in demand" as "lame", someone suggested a connection with Sigmund Freud's psychological concept of id, which the others accepted.
Evidence of the reference can be found as early as Wolfenstein 3D with the statement "that's id, as in the id, superego in the psyche" appearing in the game's documentation. Prior to an update to the website, id's History page made a direct reference to Freud. Kevin Cloud — Executive producer Tim Willits — Studio director Marty Stratton — Executive producer Robert Duffy — Chief Technology Officer Donna Jackson — Office manager Arranged in chronological order: John Carmack — Co-founder, technical director, he joined Oculus VR on August 7, 2013, as a side project, but unable to handle two companies at the same time, Carmack resigned from id Software on November 22, 2013, to pursue Oculus full-time, making him the last founding member to leave the company. Tom Hall — Co-founder, game designer, level designer, creative director. After a dispute with John Carmack over the designs of Doom, Hall was forced to resign from id Software in August 1993, he joined 3D Realms soon afterwards. Bobby Prince — Music composer.
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Star Wars: Battlefront
Star Wars: Battlefront is a series of first- and third-person shooter video games based on the Star Wars films. Players take the role of soldiers in either of two opposing armies in different time periods of the Star Wars universe; the series was launched in 2004 by LucasArts with Star Wars: Battlefront, developed by Pandemic Studios for LucasArts. The game sold well. In 2005 Pandemic developed a sequel, Star Wars: Battlefront II, critically and commercially successful; the games were followed by Star Wars Battlefront: Renegade Squadron and Star Wars Battlefront: Elite Squadron for handheld consoles and Star Wars Battlefront: Mobile Squadrons for mobile devices. LucasArts made several attempts to get a third major Battlefront game off the ground but no projects were released before The Walt Disney Company's acquisition of LucasArts. Subsequently, EA DICE acquired a license to develop a new game, titled Star Wars Battlefront, released on November 17, 2015. A sequel, Star Wars Battlefront II, was released on November 17, 2017, was developed by EA DICE, Criterion Games, Motive Studios.
Games in the Battlefront series revolve around two armies – the Galactic Republic versus the Confederacy of Independent Systems or the Galactic Empire versus the Rebel Alliance or First Order versus the Resistance – fighting each other on various maps. Maps take place in the Star Wars galaxy, with battlezones varying in size. Across the battlefield are multiple "command posts" that act as spawn points, can be controlled by either the player or the computer. Units can spawn from any friendly command post, vehicles spawn at their respective command posts when destroyed. Units can capture neutral or hostile command posts by approaching them and standing within the immediate vicinity for about 30 seconds; the time to capture quickens with more friendly units within the capture zone. Some vehicles act as mobile command posts, must be destroyed as they can not be captured. On some maps, certain structures act as command posts that can not be captured. Command post capturing works differently on certain campaign missions as well.
Playable heroes and villains play a significant role in changing the course of battles. The objective of most matches is to eliminate all of the opponents' reinforcement tickets or to capture the command points, to chip away at their tickets. Reinforcement tickets are used whenever a unit is killed, or when one faction controls a majority of the command posts on the map. Only one objective needs to be completed; when all command posts are captured, the team with no command posts has twenty seconds to recapture or neutralize an enemy command post. If the team cannot take over a post in this time, the match is over. Certain campaign levels and multiplayer have requirements that differ from the general game play, however the general structure remains the same; the game's "Conquest" mode is vaguely based on the Battlefield game mode of the same name. The first console games of the series were developed by Pandemic Studios, since 2015, a second series of console Battlefront games has been developed by EA DICE.
Battlefront II is the first in the series to follow the canon of the films, while the games developed by Pandemic Studios were relegated to Star Wars Legends non-canonical status, along with all of the games in the series released before November 2015. Star Wars: Battlefront is the first installment in the Battlefront series, it was released on September 21, 2004, with a Mac port by Aspyr released in July 2005. The game is available on Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 2, Mac OS, mobile phones. Jedi are not playable in this game without the help of modified files unsupported by LucasArts. Other NPCs made playable by similar files include, but are not limited to, Tusken Raiders in the Dune Sea of Tatooine, Ewoks of Endor and Gungans on the Naboo plains. Star Wars: Battlefront II is the second installment in the Battlefront series, released in Europe on October 31, 2005 – for the PlayStation 2, PSP, Windows – and in North America one day later. There are some significant differences between Battlefront and Battlefront II.
Battlefront II includes playable Jedi characters, space battles, story campaigns, as well as Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith-related content. The release date of Battlefront II coincided with the release of Revenge of the Sith on DVD; the game is now an Xbox Platinum Hits game, a Sony Greatest Hits game in North America, an Xbox Classics and PlayStation Platinum game in Europe. Battlefront II expands upon the original game's single-player experience with mission-based objectives drawn from the first six Star Wars films, it is a story-based campaign which revolves around the 501st Legion as the unit evolves from the Republic clone troopers to Imperial stormtroopers. Many maps from Star Wars Battlefront make a second appearance, the game adds new locales such as Coruscant and Utapau. There are more game styles in this game like Conquest, Capture the flag and space battles. On September 29, 2006, Computer and Video Games made an unconfirmed claim that Free Radical Design was developing the third game in the Star Wars: Battlefront series, titled Star Wars: Battlefront III.
In June 2008, Kotaku received information from a former LucasArts employee that Star Wars: Battlefront III was in
The Dreamcast is a home video game console released by Sega on November 27, 1998 in Japan, September 9, 1999 in North America, October 14, 1999 in Europe. It was the first in the sixth generation of video game consoles, preceding Sony's PlayStation 2, Nintendo's GameCube and Microsoft's Xbox; the Dreamcast was Sega's final home console, marking the end of the company's 18 years in the console market. In contrast to the expensive hardware of the unsuccessful Sega Saturn, the Dreamcast was designed to reduce costs with "off-the-shelf" components, including a Hitachi SH-4 CPU and an NEC PowerVR2 GPU. Released in Japan to a subdued reception, the Dreamcast enjoyed a successful U. S. launch backed by a large marketing campaign, but interest in the system declined as Sony built hype for the upcoming PlayStation 2. Sales did not meet Sega's expectations despite several price cuts, the company continued to incur significant financial losses. After a change in leadership, Sega discontinued the Dreamcast on March 31, 2001, withdrawing from the console business and restructuring itself as a third-party publisher.
9.13 million Dreamcast units were sold worldwide. Although the Dreamcast had a short lifespan and limited third-party support, reviewers have considered the console ahead of its time, its library contains many games considered creative and innovative, including Crazy Taxi, Jet Set Radio and Shenmue, as well as high-quality ports from Sega's NAOMI arcade system board. The Dreamcast was the first console to include a built-in modem for Internet support and online play. Released in 1988, the Sega Genesis was Sega's entry into the fourth generation of video game consoles. Selling 30.75 million units worldwide, the Genesis was the most successful console Sega released. The successor to the Genesis, the Sega Saturn, was released in Japan in 1994; the Saturn was a CD-ROM-based console that displayed both 2D and 3D computer graphics, but its complex dual-CPU architecture made it more difficult to program for than its chief competitor, the Sony PlayStation. Although the Saturn debuted before the PlayStation in both Japan and the United States, its surprise U.
S. launch—which came four months earlier than scheduled—was marred by a lack of distribution, which remained a continuing problem for the system. Moreover, Sega's early release was undermined by Sony's simultaneous announcement that the PlayStation would retail for US$299—compared to the Saturn's initial price of $399. Nintendo's long delay in releasing a competing 3D console and the damage done to Sega's reputation by poorly supported add-ons for the Genesis allowed Sony to establish a foothold in the market; the PlayStation was successful in the U. S. in part due to a massive advertising campaign and strong third-party support engendered by Sony's excellent development tools and liberal $10 licensing fee. Sony's success was further aided by a price war in which Sega lowered the price of the Saturn from $399 to $299 and from $299 to $199 in order to match the price of the PlayStation–even though Saturn hardware was more expensive to manufacture and the PlayStation enjoyed a larger software library.
Losses on the Saturn hardware contributed to Sega's financial problems, which saw the company's revenue decline between 1992 and 1995 as part of an industry-wide slowdown. Furthermore, Sega's focus on the Saturn over the Genesis prevented it from capitalizing on the continued strength of the 16-bit market. Due to long-standing disagreements with Sega of Japan, Sega of America CEO Tom Kalinske became less interested in his position. On July 16, 1996, Sega announced that Shoichiro Irimajiri had been appointed chairman and CEO of Sega of America, while Kalinske would be leaving Sega after September 30 of that year. Sega announced that Sega Enterprises cofounder David Rosen and Sega of Japan CEO Hayao Nakayama had resigned from their positions as chairman and co-chairman of Sega of America, though both men remained with the company. Bernie Stolar, a former executive at Sony Computer Entertainment of America, was named Sega of America's executive vice president in charge of product development and third-party relations.
Stolar did not support the Saturn due to his belief that the hardware was poorly designed and publicly announced at E3 1997 that "The Saturn is not our future." After the launch of the Nintendo 64, sales of the Saturn and Sega's 32-bit software were reduced. As of August 1997, Sony controlled 47 percent of the console market, Nintendo controlled 40 percent, Sega controlled only 12 percent. Neither price cuts nor high-profile games were proving helpful to the Saturn's success. Due to the Saturn's poor performance in North America, Sega of America laid off 60 of its 200 employees in the fall of 1997; as a result of the company's deteriorating financial situation, Nakayama resigned as president of Sega in January 1998 in favor of Irimajiri. Stolar would subsequently accede to become president of Sega of America. Following five years of declining profits, in the fiscal year ending March 31, 1998, Sega suffered its first parent and consolidated financial losses since its 1988 listing on the Tokyo Stock Exchange.
Due to a 54.8% decline in consumer product sales, the company reported a consolidated net loss of ¥35.6 billion. Shortly before announcing its financial losses, Sega revealed that it was discontinuing the Saturn in North America, with the goal of preparing for the launch of its successor; this decision left the Western market without Sega games for over one year. Rumors about the upcoming Dreamcast—spread by Sega itself—leaked to the public before the last Saturn games were release
Peer-to-peer computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. Peers are privileged, equipotent participants in the application, they are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes. Peers make a portion of their resources, such as processing power, disk storage or network bandwidth, directly available to other network participants, without the need for central coordination by servers or stable hosts. Peers are both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the traditional client-server model in which the consumption and supply of resources is divided. Emerging collaborative P2P systems are going beyond the era of peers doing similar things while sharing resources, are looking for diverse peers that can bring in unique resources and capabilities to a virtual community thereby empowering it to engage in greater tasks beyond those that can be accomplished by individual peers, yet that are beneficial to all the peers.
While P2P systems had been used in many application domains, the architecture was popularized by the file sharing system Napster released in 1999. The concept has inspired new philosophies in many areas of human interaction. In such social contexts, peer-to-peer as a meme refers to the egalitarian social networking that has emerged throughout society, enabled by Internet technologies in general. While P2P systems had been used in many application domains, the concept was popularized by file sharing systems such as the music-sharing application Napster; the peer-to-peer movement allowed millions of Internet users to connect "directly, forming groups and collaborating to become user-created search engines, virtual supercomputers, filesystems." The basic concept of peer-to-peer computing was envisioned in earlier software systems and networking discussions, reaching back to principles stated in the first Request for Comments, RFC 1. Tim Berners-Lee's vision for the World Wide Web was close to a P2P network in that it assumed each user of the web would be an active editor and contributor and linking content to form an interlinked "web" of links.
The early Internet was more open than present day, where two machines connected to the Internet could send packets to each other without firewalls and other security measures. This contrasts to the broadcasting-like structure of the web; as a precursor to the Internet, ARPANET was a successful client-server network where "every participating node could request and serve content." However, ARPANET was not self-organized, it lacked the ability to "provide any means for context or content-based routing beyond'simple' address-based routing."Therefore, USENET, a distributed messaging system, described as an early peer-to-peer architecture, was established. It was developed in 1979 as a system; the basic model is a client-server model from the user or client perspective that offers a self-organizing approach to newsgroup servers. However, news servers communicate with one another as peers to propagate Usenet news articles over the entire group of network servers; the same consideration applies to SMTP email in the sense that the core email-relaying network of mail transfer agents has a peer-to-peer character, while the periphery of e-mail clients and their direct connections is a client-server relationship.
In May 1999, with millions more people on the Internet, Shawn Fanning introduced the music and file-sharing application called Napster. Napster was the beginning of peer-to-peer networks, as we know them today, where "participating users establish a virtual network independent from the physical network, without having to obey any administrative authorities or restrictions." A peer-to-peer network is designed around the notion of equal peer nodes functioning as both "clients" and "servers" to the other nodes on the network. This model of network arrangement differs from the client–server model where communication is to and from a central server. A typical example of a file transfer that uses the client-server model is the File Transfer Protocol service in which the client and server programs are distinct: the clients initiate the transfer, the servers satisfy these requests. Peer-to-peer networks implement some form of virtual overlay network on top of the physical network topology, where the nodes in the overlay form a subset of the nodes in the physical network.
Data is still exchanged directly over the underlying TCP/IP network, but at the application layer peers are able to communicate with each other directly, via the logical overlay links. Overlays are used for indexing and peer discovery, make the P2P system independent from the physical network topology. Based on how the nodes are linked to each other within the overlay network, how resources are indexed and located, we can classify networks as unstructured or structured. Unstructured peer-to-peer networks do not impose a particular structure on the overlay network by design, but rather are formed by nodes that randomly form connections to each other.. Because there is no structure globally imposed upon them, unstructured networks are easy to build and allow for localized optimizations to different regions of the overlay; because the role of all peers in the network is the same, unstructured networks are robust in the face of high rates of "churn"—that is, when large numbers of peers are joining and leaving the network.
Napster is a set of three music-focused online services. It was founded as a pioneering peer-to-peer file sharing Internet service that emphasized sharing digital audio files audio songs, encoded in MP3 format; the company ran into legal difficulties over copyright infringement. It ceased operations and was acquired by Roxio. In its second incarnation, Napster became an online music store until it was acquired by Rhapsody from Best Buy on December 1, 2011. More decentralized projects followed Napster's P2P file-sharing example, such as Gnutella, BearShare and Soulseek; some services, like LimeWire, Kazaa, Madster, eDonkey2000, were brought down or changed due to copyright issues. Napster was founded by Sean Parker. Napster was envisioned as an independent peer-to-peer file sharing service by Shawn Fanning; the service operated between June 1999 and July 2001. Its technology allowed people to share their MP3 files with other participants. Although the original service was shut down by court order, the Napster brand survived after the company's assets were liquidated and purchased by other companies through bankruptcy proceedings.
Although there were networks that facilitated the distribution of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Usenet, Napster specialized in MP3 files of music and a user-friendly interface. At its peak the Napster service had about 80 million registered users. Napster made it easy for music enthusiasts to download copies of songs that were otherwise difficult to obtain, such as older songs, unreleased recordings, studio recordings, songs from concert bootleg recordings. Napster paved the way for streaming media services and transformed music into a public good for a brief period of time. High-speed networks in college dormitories became overloaded, with as much as 61% of external network traffic consisting of MP3 file transfers. Many colleges blocked its use for this reason before concerns about liability for facilitating copyright violations on campus; the service and software program began as Windows-only. However, in 2000, Black Hole Media wrote. Macster was bought by Napster and designated the official Mac Napster client, at which point the Macster name was discontinued.
Before the acquisition of Macster, the Macintosh community had a variety of independently-developed Napster clients. The most notable was the open source client called MacStar, released by Squirrel Software in early 2000 and Rapster, released by Overcaster Family in Brazil; the release of MacStar's source code paved the way for third-party Napster clients across all computing platforms, giving users advertisement-free music distribution options. Heavy metal band Metallica discovered a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the network before it was released; this led to it being played on several radio stations across the United States and alerted Metallica to the fact that their entire back catalogue of studio material was available. On March 13, 2000, they filed a lawsuit against Napster. A month rapper and producer Dr. Dre, who shared a litigator and legal firm with Metallica, filed a similar lawsuit after Napster refused his written request to remove his works from its service.
Separately, Metallica and Dr. Dre delivered to Napster thousands of usernames of people who they believed were pirating their songs. In March 2001, Napster settled both suits, after being shut down by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in a separate lawsuit from several major record labels. In 2000, Madonna's single "Music" was leaked out onto the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage. Verified Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001. In 2000, the American musical recording company A&M Records along with several other recording companies, through the Recording Industry Association of America, sued Napster on grounds of contributory and vicarious copyright infringement under the US Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Napster was faced with the following allegations from the music industry: That its users were directly violating the plaintiffs' copyrights; that Napster was responsible for contributory infringement of the plaintiffs' copyrights.
That Napster was responsible for vicarious infringement of the plaintiffs' copyrights. Napster lost the case in the District Court but appealed to the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Although it was clear that Napster could have commercially significant non-infringing uses, the Ninth Circuit upheld the District Court's decision. After, the District Court commanded Napster to keep track of the activities of its network and to restrict access to infringing material when informed of that material's location. Napster wasn't able to comply and thus had to close down its service in July 2001. In 2002, Napster sold its assets to a third party. Along with the accusations that Napster was hurting the sales of the record industry, there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster stimulated, rather than hurt, sales; some evidence may have come in July 2000 when tracks from English rock band Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the album's release.
Unlike Madonna, Dr. Dre or Metallica, Radiohead had never hit the top 20 in the US. Furthermore, Kid A was an album without any singles released, received little radio airplay. By the time of the album's release, the album was estimated to have been downloaded for free by millions of people worldwide, in October 2000 K
The Nintendo DS, or DS, is a dual-screen handheld game console developed and released by Nintendo. The device released globally across 2004 and 2005; the DS, short for "Developers' System" or "Dual Screen", introduced distinctive new features to handheld gaming: two LCD screens working in tandem, a built-in microphone, support for wireless connectivity. Both screens are encompassed within a clamshell design similar to the Game Boy Advance SP; the Nintendo DS features the ability for multiple DS consoles to directly interact with each other over Wi-Fi within a short range without the need to connect to an existing wireless network. Alternatively, they could interact online using the now-defunct Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection service, its main competitor was Sony's PlayStation Portable during the seventh generation of video game consoles. It was likened to the Nintendo 64 from the 1990s, which led to several N64 ports such as Super Mario 64 DS and Diddy Kong Racing DS, among others. Prior to its release, the Nintendo DS was marketed as an experimental, "third pillar" in Nintendo's console lineup, meant to complement the Game Boy Advance and GameCube.
However, backward compatibility with Game Boy Advance titles and strong sales established it as the successor to the Game Boy series. On March 2, 2006, Nintendo launched the Nintendo DS Lite, a slimmer and lighter redesign of the original Nintendo DS with brighter screens. On November 1, 2008, Nintendo released the Nintendo DSi, another redesign with several hardware improvements and new features. All Nintendo DS models combined have sold 154.02 million units, making it the best selling handheld game console to date, the second best selling video game console of all time behind Sony's PlayStation 2. The Nintendo DS line was succeeded by the Nintendo 3DS family in 2011, which maintains backward compatibility with nearly all Nintendo DS software. Development on the Nintendo DS began around mid-2002, following an original idea from former Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi about a dual-screened console. On November 13, 2003, Nintendo announced that it would be releasing a new game product in 2004.
The company did not provide many details, but stated it would not succeed the Game Boy Advance or GameCube. On January 20, 2004, the console was announced under the codename "Nintendo DS". Nintendo released only a few details at that time, saying that the console would have two separate, 3-inch TFT LCD display panels, separate processors, up to 1 gigabit of semiconductor memory. Nintendo president Satoru Iwata said, "We have developed Nintendo DS based upon a different concept from existing game devices in order to provide players with a unique entertainment experience for the 21st century." He expressed optimism that the DS would help put Nintendo back at the forefront of innovation and move away from the conservative image, described about the company in years past. In March 2004, a document containing most of the console's technical specifications was leaked revealing its internal development name, "Nitro". In May 2004, the console was shown in prototype form at E3 2004, still under the name "Nintendo DS".
On July 28, 2004, Nintendo revealed a new design, described as "sleeker and more elegant" than the one shown at E3 and announced Nintendo DS as the device's official name. Following lukewarm GameCube sales, Hiroshi Yamauchi stressed the importance of its success to the company's future, making a statement which can be translated from Japanese as, "If the DS succeeds, we will rise to heaven, but if it fails we will sink to hell." President Iwata referred to Nintendo DS as "Nintendo's first hardware launch in support of the basic strategy'Gaming Population Expansion'" because the touch-based device "allows users to play intuitively". On September 20, 2004, Nintendo announced that the Nintendo DS would be released in North America on November 21, 2004 for US$149.99. It was set to release on December 2004 in Japan; the console was released in North America with a midnight launch event at Universal CityWalk EB Games in Los Angeles, California. The console was launched in Japan compared to the North America launch.
Regarding the European launch, Nintendo President Satoru Iwata said this: Europe is an important market for Nintendo, we are pleased we can offer such a short period of time between the US and European launch. We believe that the Nintendo DS will change the way people play video games and our mission remains to expand the game play experience. Nintendo DS caters for the needs of all gamers whether for more dedicated gamers who want the real challenge they expect, or the more casual gamers who want quick, pick up and play fun; the Nintendo DS was launched in North America for US$149.99 on November 21, 2004. Well over three million preorders were taken in North Japan. Nintendo planned to deliver one million units combined at the North American and Japanese launches. Nintendo slated 300,000 units for the U. S. debut. In 2005, the manufacturer suggested retail price for the Nintendo DS was dropped to US$129.99. Both launches proved to be successful, but Nintendo chose to release the DS in North America prior to Japan, a first for a hardware laun