Richard W. Bavetta is an American retired professional basketball referee for the National Basketball Association. Since starting in 1975, he had never missed an assigned game and holds the league record for most officiated games, his game on April 12, 2013 in Washington was his 2,600th consecutive game as an NBA official. Bavetta was born in the Park Slope neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York on December 10, 1939, his father was an officer for the New York Police Department, his mother was a homemaker. Bavetta attended Power Memorial Academy in New York City and is a 1962 graduate of St. Francis College in New York and played on the schools' basketball teams, he began officiating after his brother, who officiated for the American Basketball Association, convinced him that it would be an interesting career. A Wall Street broker for Salomon Brothers with an MBA in finance from the New York Institute of Finance, Bavetta began officiating games between fellow brokers in the Wall Street League, played at New York's Downtown Athletic Club, worked high school games.
For ten years, he officiated Public and Catholic High School leagues in New York and nine years in the Eastern Professional Basketball League, which became the Continental Basketball Association. In mid-1960s, he began to attend regional referee tryouts in the hopes of becoming an NBA referee. Bavetta was hired by the NBA in 1975 following the retirement of Mendy Rudolph, he debuted December 2, 1975 at Madison Square Garden in an NBA game between the New York Knicks and the Boston Celtics. His first ten years in the league were tough as he was ranked bottom among NBA referees in performance evaluations and led the league in technical fouls and ejections called. To improve his officiating, Bavetta refereed games for the New Jersey pro league and Rucker League in Harlem during the off-seasons and studied NBA rulebooks. In 1983, he became the first referee to undergo rigorous physical training, he took three-hour naps every day. His effort paid off. In the 1980s, he was named chief referee, who has the power to approve or overrule calls made by other officials.
He was assigned to officiate his first playoff game in 1986. Bavetta's most memorable game occurred during a 1980s nationally televised contest between the Philadelphia 76ers and Boston Celtics when he was forced to officiate an NBA game by himself after his partner, Jack Madden, broke his leg in a collision with Celtics guard Dennis Johnson. At one point in the game, Celtics forward Larry Bird and 76ers guard Julius Erving began to strangle each other and were ejected by Bavetta. Bavetta believed that this game assisted in the progression of his career in the NBA. From 1990 to 2000, Bavetta refereed playoff games and was ranked at the top among referees in terms of performance evaluation. In 2000, he was one of the highest-paid referees in the NBA, earning over $200,000 a year. Among those playoff games included Game 6 of the 1998 NBA Finals, in which Bavetta ruled that a three-point basket made by Howard Eisley of the Utah Jazz was released after the shot clock buzzer sounded and thus would not count.
However, television replays on NBC showed otherwise. Bavetta's career was threatened when he was accidentally hit in the nose by Pacers forward Jalen Rose, trying to punch Knicks center Patrick Ewing during a 1999 game between the Indiana Pacers and the New York Knicks. Bavetta did not leave the game opting to wait until in the day to have surgery, he returned the next day to officiate a New Jersey Nets game. On February 8, 2006, Bavetta officiated his 2,135th NBA game, setting a league record for most games officiated, held by Jake O'Donnell. Bavetta said the secret to his longevity was "wearing five pairs of socks", which he claims helped keep his feet in good shape. Contributing to his good health, Bavetta says. For his longevity in the league, he has received the nickname "the Cal Ripken, Jr. of referees". During the 2006–07 season, Bavetta officiated a December 16, 2006 game between the New York Knicks and Denver Nuggets; the game involved a brawl where all ten players on the court were ejected by Bavetta and his officiating crew.
The league suspended seven players for a total of 47 games and fined both teams $500,000. After 39 years of officiating in the NBA, Bavetta retired on August 19, 2014. Bavetta is actively involved in charitable works, he has established and financed the Lady Bavetta Scholarships since 1986 in honor of his daughters, awarded to high school minority children based on their needs. He has volunteered since 1992 with Double H-Hole in the Woods Ranch working with children with cancer and HIV, he works with the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation and serves as the Upstate New York Regional Director for the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation. During the 2007 NBA All-Star Weekend, Bavetta raced Turner Network Television studio analyst and former NBA player Charles Barkley for a $75,000 charitable donation to the Las Vegas Boys & Girls Clubs of America, but lost by a narrow margin; the distance of the race was one half full lengths of the court. Bavetta lost the race despite a last-second dive and Barkley running the last portion of the race backwards.
The dive resulted in an abrasion injury to Bavetta's right knee. According to Darryl Dawkins' autobiography, Bavetta was officiating an NBA game during the mid-1970s between the Philadelphia 76ers and New J
Scotty Maurice Pippen spelled Scottie Pippen, is an American former professional basketball player. He played 17 seasons in the National Basketball Association, winning six NBA championships with the Chicago Bulls. Pippen, along with Michael Jordan, played an important role in transforming the Bulls into a championship team and for popularizing the NBA around the world during the 1990s. Considered one of the best small forwards of all time, Pippen was named to the NBA All-Defensive First Team eight consecutive times and the All-NBA First Team three times, he was a seven-time NBA All-Star and was the NBA All-Star Game MVP in 1994. He was named one of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History during the 1996–97 season, is one of four players to have his jersey retired by the Chicago Bulls, he played a main role on both the 1992 Chicago Bulls Championship team and the 1996 Chicago Bulls Championship team which were selected as two of the Top 10 Teams in NBA History. His biography on the Naismith Basketball Hall of Fame's website states, "The multidimensional Pippen ran the court like a point guard, attacked the boards like a power forward, swished the nets like a shooting guard."
During his 17-year career, he played 12 seasons with the Bulls, one with the Houston Rockets and four with the Portland Trail Blazers, making the postseason sixteen straight times. Pippen is the only NBA player to have won an NBA title and Olympic gold medal in the same year twice, he was a part of the 1992 U. S. Olympic "Dream Team" which beat its opponents by an average of 44 points. Pippen was a key figure in the 1996 Olympic team, alongside former Dream Team members Karl Malone, John Stockton, Charles Barkley as well as newer faces such as Anfernee "Penny" Hardaway and Grant Hill, he wore number 8 during both years. Pippen is a two-time inductee into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, being inducted for both on August 13, 2010. On December 8, 2005, the Chicago Bulls retired his number #33, while his college, University of Central Arkansas, retired his number #33 on January 21, 2010, as well. Scottie Pippen was born on September 25, 1965, in Hamburg, the youngest of 12 children born to Ethel and Preston Pippen.
Pippen's mother was 6 feet tall and his father was 6'1". His parents could not afford to send their other children to college, his father worked in a paper mill until a stroke that paralyzed his right side prevented him from walking and affected his speech. Pippen attended Hamburg High School. Playing point guard, he led his team to the state playoffs and earned all-conference honors as a senior, he was not offered any college scholarships. Pippen began his college playing career at the University of Central Arkansas in Conway after being discovered by then-UCA Head coach Don Dyer as a 6'1" walk-on, he did not receive much recognition in college because the school played in the NAIA. He had a growth spurt to 6'8", his per game averages of 23.6 points, 10 rebounds, 4.3 assists and near 60 percent field goal shooting earned the Central Arkansas senior Consensus NAIA All-American honors in 1987 and made him a dominant player in the Arkansas Intercollegiate Conference, drawing the attention of NBA scouts.
He was selected fifth overall in the 1987 NBA draft by the Seattle SuperSonics and traded to the Chicago Bulls for Olden Polynice and future draft pick options. Pippen became part of Chicago's young forward tandem with 6'10" power forward Horace Grant, although both came off the bench to back up Brad Sellers and Charles Oakley during their rookie seasons. Scottie made his NBA debut on November 7, 1987, when the Chicago Bulls faced the Philadelphia 76ers as their first game of the season, he finished the game with 2 steals, 4 assists and 1 rebound in 23 minutes of play. The Bulls won their season-opening game 104–94. With fellow Bull Michael Jordan as a motivational and instructional mentor, Pippen refined his skills and developed many new ones over his career. Jordan and Pippen played one-on-one outside of team practices to hone each other's skills on offense and defense. Pippen claimed the starting small forward position during the 1988 NBA Playoffs, helping the Jordan-led Bulls to reach the conference semifinals for the first time in over a decade.
Pippen emerged as one of the league's premier young forwards at the turn of the decade, recording then-career highs in points and field goal shooting as well as being the NBA's number three leader in steals. These feats earned Pippen his debut NBA All-Star selection in 1990. Pippen continued to improve as the Bulls reached the Eastern Conference Finals in 1989 and 1990, but were eliminated both times by the Detroit Pistons. In the 1990 final, Pippen suffered a severe migraine headache at the start of Game 7 that impacted his gameplay, he made only one of his ten field goal attempts as the Bulls lost 93–74. In the 1990–91 NBA season, Pippen emerged as the Bulls' primary defensive stopper and a versatile scoring threat in Phil Jackson's'triangle offense'. Alongside the help of Michael Jordan, Scottie continued to improve his game, he had his first triple-double on November 23 when the Bulls faced the Los Angeles Clippers as he had 13 points, 12 assists and 13 rebounds in 30 minutes in a 105–97 win.
He had his second triple-double against the Indiana Pacers on December 22 as the Bulls defeated the Pacers 128–118. Pippen finished the game with 18 points, 11 assists and 10 rebounds in 41 minutes of play, in addition to 1
Robert Quinlan Costas is an award-winning American sportscaster, employed by MLB Network, where he does play-by-play and hosts an interview show called Studio 42 with Bob Costas. He is known for his long on the air tenure with NBC Sports from 1980 through 2018, many Emmy awards, he was the prime-time host of 11 Olympic Games from 1992 until 2016. Costas was born in Queens, New York City, grew up in Commack, New York, he is the son of Jayne, of Irish descent, John George Costas, an electrical engineer of Greek descent. His father's ancestry can be traced back to the island of Kalymnos in the Aegean Sea in Greece; as Costas stated on Ken Burns' Baseball, he had a poor relationship with his father. Costas graduated from Commack High School South and attended Syracuse University in Syracuse, New York, he graduated with a communications degree in 1974 from their S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications. In 1973, Costas began his professional career at WSYR TV and radio in Syracuse, while still completing his communications degree at the S.
I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, his sportscasting career began while attending Syracuse University, serving as an announcer for the Syracuse Blazers minor-league hockey team playing in the Eastern Hockey League and North American Hockey League. After graduating in 1974 at the age of 22, Costas went to KMOX radio in St. Louis, calling play-by-play for the Spirits of St. Louis of the American Basketball Association in 1974, he was a prominent contributor to the ABA book Loose Balls: The Short, Wild Life of the American Basketball Association. He is extensively quoted on many topics; the book includes his reflections of ABA life during his tenure as radio voice of the Spirits of St. Louis. Costas would call Missouri Tigers basketball and co-host KMOX's Open Line call-in program, he did play-by-play for Chicago Bulls broadcasts on WGN-TV during the 1979–1980 NBA season. He was employed by CBS Sports as a regional CBS NFL and CBS NBA announcer from 1976 to 1979, after which he moved to NBC.
When Costas was hired by NBC, Don Ohlmeyer, who at the time ran the network's sports division, told the 28-year-old Costas that he looked like a 14-year-old. Costas would recite this anecdote during an appearance on Late Night with Conan O'Brien. Ohlmeyer based his reaction on boyish, baby-faced appearance. For many years, Costas hosted NBC's National Football League NBA coverage, he did play-by-play for National Basketball Association and Major League Baseball coverage. With the introduction of the NBC Sports Network, Costas became the host of the new monthly interview program Costas Tonight. On March 30, 2015, it was announced that Costas would join forces with Marv Albert and Al Michaels on the April 11, 2015, edition of NBC's primetime PBC on NBC boxing series. Costas was added to serve as a special contributor for the event from Barclays Center in Brooklyn, he would write a feature on the storied history of boxing in New York City. Costas has hosted NBC's coverage of the U. S. Open golf tournament from 2003-2014.
For baseball telecasts, Costas teamed with Sal Bando, Tony Kubek, Joe Morgan and Bob Uecker. One of his most memorable broadcasts occurred on June 23, 1984. Costas, along with Tony Kubek, was calling the Saturday baseball Game of the Week from Chicago's Wrigley Field; the game between the Chicago Cubs and St. Louis Cardinals in particular was cited for putting Ryne Sandberg "on the map". In the ninth inning, the Cubs, trailing 9–8, faced the premier relief pitcher of the time, Bruce Sutter. Sandberg not known for his power, slugged a home run to left field against the Cardinals' ace closer. Despite this dramatic act, the Cardinals scored two runs in the top of the tenth. Sandberg came up again in the tenth inning. Sandberg shocked the national audience by hitting a second home run farther into the left field bleachers, to tie the game again; the Cubs went on to win in the 11th inning. When Sandberg hit that second home run, Costas said, "Do you believe it?!" The Cardinals' Willie McGee hit for the cycle in the same game.
While hosting Game 4 of the 1988 World Series between the Los Angeles Dodgers and Oakland Athletics on NBC, Costas angered many members of the Dodgers by commenting before the start of the game that the Dodgers quite were about to put up the weakest-hitting lineup in World Series history. That comment fired up the Dodgers' competitive spirit. After the Dodgers had won Game 4, Lasorda sarcastically suggested the MVP of the 1988 World Series should be Bob Costas. Besides calling the 1989 American League Championship Series for NBC, Costas filled in for a ill Vin Scully, who had come down with laryngitis, for Game 2 of the 1989 National League Championship Series alongside Tom Seaver. Game 2 of the NLCS took place on Thursday, October 5, an off day for the ALCS. NBC decided to fly Costas from Toronto to Chicago to substitute for Scully on Thursday night. Afterward, Costas flew back to Toronto. Costas anchored NBC's pre- and post-game shows for NFL broadcasts and the pre and post-game shows for numerous World Series and Major League Baseball All-Star Games during the 1980s.
Karl Anthony Malone is an American retired professional basketball player. Nicknamed "The Mailman", Malone played the power forward position and spent his first 18 seasons in the National Basketball Association with the Utah Jazz and formed a formidable duo with his teammate John Stockton. Malone played one season for the Los Angeles Lakers. Malone was a two-time NBA Most Valuable Player, a 14-time NBA All-Star, an 11-time member of the All-NBA first team, his 36,928 career points scored rank second all-time in NBA history, he holds the records for most free throws attempted and made, in addition to co-holding the record for the second-most first team All-NBA selections in history. He is considered one of the greatest power forwards in NBA history. Malone played college basketball at Louisiana Tech University. In his three seasons with Louisiana Tech, he helped the Bulldogs basketball team to its first-ever NCAA tournament in 1984 and to first place in the Southland Conference in 1985; the Utah Jazz drafted Malone in 1985 with the 13th overall pick in the first round.
Malone appeared in the playoffs every season in his career, including the NBA Finals in 1997 and 1998 with the Jazz. He played his final season with the Los Angeles Lakers, with whom he played his third Finals in 2004. Malone has the most career postseason losses of any NBA player with 95. Malone competed with the United States national team in the Summer Olympic Games of 1992 and 1996. After retiring from the NBA, Malone joined the staff of the Louisiana Tech Bulldogs basketball team in 2007 and was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 2010. Born in Summerfield, Malone was the youngest of nine children and during his childhood lived on a farm with his single mother, Shirley, his father, Shedrick Hay, was raising a family with another woman he married and committed suicide when Karl Malone was 3. As a child, Malone worked at the farm and chopped trees and fished, he attended Summerfield High School and led his basketball team to three consecutive Louisiana Class C titles from 1979 to his senior season in 1981.
Although recruited by University of Arkansas basketball coach Eddie Sutton, Malone enrolled at Louisiana Tech University, closer to home. He joined the Louisiana Tech Bulldogs basketball team in his second year because his grades were too low for freshman eligibility. In his second season with Louisiana Tech, Malone averaged 9.3 rebounds per game. Louisiana Tech finished the 1984–85 season 29–3, at the top of the Southland Conference, advanced to the NCAA tournament for the first time in school history. In each of his three seasons with the Louisiana Tech Bulldogs, Malone was an All-Southland selection. In the 1985 NBA draft, the Utah Jazz selected Karl Malone with the 13th overall pick. According to Malone's official NBA biography: "If professional scouts had predicted the impact Karl Malone would have on the NBA, Malone would have been picked much higher than 13th in the 1985 NBA Draft." In fact, Malone was so convinced the Dallas Mavericks were going to select him with the eighth choice that he had rented an apartment in Dallas.
Instead, the Mavericks selected Detlef Schrempf. Under head coach Frank Layden, Malone averaged 14.9 points and 8.9 rebounds in his first season and made the 1986 NBA All-Rookie Team after coming in third for Rookie of the Year votes. On January 14, 1986, the Jazz beat the Houston Rockets 105–102 to snap the Rockets' 20-game winning streak at home. Malone scored 29 points in that game, including four free throws followed by a three-pointer by Pace Mannion to rally from a 96–89 deficit with 5 minutes and 36 seconds remaining to a 96–96 tie. For the third consecutive season, the Jazz made the postseason but lost the first round of the 1986 playoffs to the Dallas Mavericks. In the four playoff games, Malone improved in his scoring with a 20 points per game average but was still subpar in shooting and rebounds. After his second season, Malone became the Jazz's leader in rebounding. By the 1987–88 season, Malone was the foundation of the offense and John Stockton was the floor general. Malone made his first All-Star Game in 1988 on the strength of 27.1 points per game, made his first All-NBA team at the end of the season.
This was the first of 14 consecutive All-Star appearances for Malone. In the 1988 NBA All-Star Game, Malone led the Western Conference All-Star team with 22 points; the Jazz finished 47–35, third place in the Midwest Division, defeated the Portland Trail Blazers in the first round. In the next round, the defending champions Los Angeles Lakers, led by perennial All-Stars Magic Johnson, James Worthy, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, defeated the Jazz in seven games. In the seventh game of the series, Malone scored 31 points and had 15 rebounds, but the Lakers beat the Jazz 109–98 and won the 1988 NBA Finals. In 11 playoff games in 1988, Malone averaged 11.8 rebounds. Malone signed a 10-year contract during the 1988 offseason worth $18 million. In December 1988, Jerry Sloan succeeded Layden as head coach. Malone averaged 29.1 points in 1988–89, good for second in the NBA behind Michael Jordan, 10.7 rebounds, fifth in the league. This s
Dennis Keith Rodman is an American retired professional basketball player who played for the Detroit Pistons, San Antonio Spurs, Chicago Bulls, Los Angeles Lakers, Dallas Mavericks in the National Basketball Association. He is famous for his fierce defensive and rebounding abilities. Rodman played at the small forward position in his early years before becoming a power forward, he earned NBA All-Defensive First Team honors seven times and won the NBA Defensive Player of the Year Award twice. He led the NBA in rebounds per game for a record seven consecutive years and won five NBA championships, his biography at NBA.com states that he is "arguably the best rebounding forward in NBA history". On April 1, 2011, the Pistons retired Rodman's No. 10 jersey, he was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame that year. Rodman was shy and introverted in his early years. After aborting a suicide attempt in 1993, he reinvented himself as a "bad boy" and became notorious for numerous controversial antics.
He dyed his hair in artificial colors, had many piercings and tattoos, disrupted games by clashing with opposing players and officials. He famously wore. Rodman pursued a high-profile affair with singer Madonna and was married to actress Carmen Electra. Rodman attracted international attention for his visits to North Korea and his subsequent befriending of North Korean leader Kim Jong-un in 2013. In addition to being a retired professional basketball player, Rodman is a retired part-time professional wrestler and actor, he fought alongside Hulk Hogan at two Bash at the Beach events. In professional wrestling, Rodman was the first winner of the Celebrity Championship Wrestling tournament, he had his own TV show, The Rodman World Tour, had lead roles in the action films Double Team and Simon Sez. Both films were critically panned, with the former earning Rodman a triple Razzie Award, he appeared in several reality TV series and was the winner of the $222,000 main prize of the 2004 edition of Celebrity Mole.
Rodman was born in Trenton, New Jersey, the son of Shirley and Philander Rodman, Jr. an Air Force enlisted member, who fought in the Vietnam War. When he was young, his father left his family settling in the Philippines. Rodman has many brothers and sisters: according to his father, he has either 26 or 28 siblings on his father's side. However, Rodman himself has stated. After his father left, Shirley took many odd jobs to support the family, up to four at the same time. In his 1997 biography Bad As I Wanna Be, he expresses his feelings for his father: "I haven't seen my father in more than 30 years, so what's there to miss... I just look at it like this: Some man brought me into this world; that doesn't mean I have a father". Rodman and his two sisters and Kim, grew up in the Oak Cliff section of Dallas, at the time one of the most impoverished areas of the city. Rodman was so attached to his mother that he refused to move when she sent him to a nursery when he was four years old. According to Rodman, his mom was more interested in his two sisters, who were both considered more talented than he was in basketball, made him a laughing stock whenever he tagged along with them.
He felt "overwhelmed" by the all-female household. Debra and Kim would go on to become All-Americans at Louisiana Tech and Stephen F. Austin, respectively. Debra won two national titles with the Lady Techsters. While attending South Oak Cliff High School, Rodman was a gym class student of future Texas A&M basketball coach Gary Blair. Blair coached Rodman's sisters Kim, winning three state championships. However, Rodman was not considered an athletic standout. According to Rodman, he was "unable to hit a layup" and was listed in the high school basketball teams, but was either benched or cut from the squads. Measuring only 5 ft 6 in as a freshman in high school, he failed to make the football teams and was "totally devastated". After finishing school, Rodman worked as an overnight janitor at Dallas Fort Worth International Airport, he experienced a sudden growth spurt and decided to try basketball again despite becoming more withdrawn because he felt odd in his own body. A family friend tipped off the head coach of Cooke County College in Texas.
In his single semester there, he averaged 17.6 points and 13.3 rebounds, before flunking out due to poor academic performance. After his short stint in Gainesville, he transferred to Southeastern Oklahoma State University, an NAIA school. There, Rodman was a three-time NAIA All-American and led the NAIA in rebounding twice. In three seasons there, he averaged 25.7 points and 15.7 rebounds, led the NAIA in rebounding twice and registered a.637 field goal percentage. At the Portsmouth Invitational Tournament, a pre-draft camp for NBA hopefuls, he won Most Valuable Player honors and caught the attention of the Detroit Pistons. During college Rodman worked at a summer youth basketball camp, where he befriended camper Bryne Rich, shy and withdrawn due to a hunting accident in which he mistakenly shot and killed his best friend; the two became inseparable and formed a close bond. Rich invited Rodman to his rural Oklahoma home, but the Riches were so grateful to him for bringing their son out of his shell that they were able to set aside their prejudices.
Although Rodman had severe family a
In basketball, the basketball court is the playing surface, consisting of a rectangular floor with baskets at either end. In professional or organized basketball when played indoors, it is made out of a wood maple, polished and completed with a 10 foot rim. Outdoor surfaces are made from standard paving materials such as concrete or asphalt. Basketball courts come in different sizes. In the National Basketball Association, the court is 94 by 50 feet. Under International Basketball Federation rules, the court is smaller, measuring 28 by 15 meters. In amateur basketball, court sizes vary widely; the baskets are always 10 feet above the floor. Basketball courts have a three-point arc at both baskets. A basket made from behind this arc is worth three points; the free-throw line, where one stands while taking a foul shot, is located within the three-point arc at 15 feet from the basket. A foul shot is worth 1 point, but if a shot is made from the foul line while in play it is still worth 2 points. * The NBA three-point line is 3 ft from the sideline in a zone starting at the baseline and ending when it crosses the 23.75 ft arc.
The 22 ft distance exists only at the points on the three-point line that are directly to the left and right of the basket center. † The FIBA three-point line is 2.95 ft from the sideline in a zone starting at the baseline and ending when it crosses the 22.1 ft arc. The 21.65 ft distance exists only at the points on the three-point line that are directly to the left and right of the basket center. The only two players permitted to enter this area prior to the tipoff are the players contesting the jump ball. Both players jump when the referee throws the ball in the air, each attempting to tap the ball into the hands of a player of their own team; the three-point line is the line. If the shooting player steps on the line, it is counted as two points. Any foul made in the act of shooting beyond the three-point line would give the player three free throws if the shot does not go in, one if it does; the distance to the three-point line from the center of the basket varies depending on the level or league, has changed several times.
These are the current distances, with the league or level using each distance: 19.75 ft: High School 20.75 ft: NCAA 21.65 ft to 22.15 ft: WNBA and FIBA 22 ft to 23.75 ft: NBAThe NBA adopted the three-point line at the start of the 1979–80 season. This is of variable distance, ranging from 22 feet in the corners to 23.75 feet behind the top of the key. During the 1994–95, 1995–96 and 1996–97 seasons, the NBA attempted to address decreased scoring by shortening the overall distance of the line to a uniform 22 feet around the basket, it was moved back to its original distance after the 1996–97 season. FIBA and the NCAA both adopted the three-point line in 1985. In most high school associations in the United States, the distance is 19.75 feet. This was the distance for college basketball as well. On May 26, 2007, the NCAA playing rules committee agreed to move the three-point line back one foot to 20.75 feet for the men. This rule went into effect for the 2008–2009 season; the three-point line for women moved back one foot to 20.75 feet at the start of the 2011–2012 season.
The international distance, used in most countries outside the United States and in FIBA and WNBA competition, is 6.6 m to 6.75 m. The perimeter is defined inside the three-point line. Shots converted from this area are called "perimeter shots" or "medium-range shots." If a player's foot is on the three-point line, the shot is considered a perimeter shot. The low post is defined as the areas that are closest to the basket but outside of the free throw lane; this area is fundamental to strategy in basketball. Skilled low post players can score many points per game without taking a jump shot; the key, free throw lane or shaded lane refers to the painted area beneath the basket. At the top of the rectangle is the free throw line, behind which players shoot uncontested shots when they're fouled. A circle is drawn around the free-throw line with a 6 feet radius. Two 6-inch hash lines, 3 ft from the free throw lane line and 5 ft 8 in from the free throw line, show the lower defensive box linked to the restricted area.
For FIBA tournaments, since October 2010 the key has been a rectangle 4.9 m 5.8 m long. It was a trapezoid 3.7 meters wide at the free-throw line and 6 meters at the end line. The key is used to prevent players from staying beneath the basket of the opponents' team for long periods; the no charge zone arc is a semi-circular arc drawn around the area directly underneath the basket. With some exceptions, members of the defending team cannot draw charging fouls in this area; the no charge zone arc in all North American rule sets above high school level has a radius 4 feet from below the center of the basket. The no charge zone arc rule first appeared a
Michael Jeffrey Jordan known by his initials, MJ, is an American former professional basketball player, the principal owner and chairman of the Charlotte Hornets of the National Basketball Association. He played 15 seasons in the NBA for the Chicago Bulls and Washington Wizards, his biography on the official NBA website states: "By acclamation, Michael Jordan is the greatest basketball player of all time." He was one of the most marketed athletes of his generation and was considered instrumental in popularizing the NBA around the world in the 1980s and 1990s. Jordan played three seasons for coach Dean Smith at the University of North Carolina; as a freshman, he was a member of the Tar Heels' national championship team in 1982. Jordan joined the Bulls in 1984 as the third overall draft pick, he emerged as a league star and entertained crowds with his prolific scoring. His leaping ability, demonstrated by performing slam dunks from the free throw line in Slam Dunk Contests, earned him the nicknames Air Jordan and His Airness.
He gained a reputation for being one of the best defensive players in basketball. In 1991, he won his first NBA championship with the Bulls, followed that achievement with titles in 1992 and 1993, securing a "three-peat". Although Jordan abruptly retired from basketball before the beginning of the 1993–94 NBA season, started a new career in Minor League Baseball, he returned to the Bulls in March 1995 and led them to three additional championships in 1996, 1997, 1998, as well as a then-record 72 regular-season wins in the 1995–96 NBA season. Jordan retired for a second time in January 1999, but returned for two more NBA seasons from 2001 to 2003 as a member of the Wizards. Jordan's individual accolades and accomplishments include six NBA Finals Most Valuable Player Awards, ten scoring titles, five MVP Awards, ten All-NBA First Team designations, nine All-Defensive First Team honors, fourteen NBA All-Star Game selections, three All-Star Game MVP Awards, three steals titles, the 1988 NBA Defensive Player of the Year Award.
He holds the NBA records for highest career regular season scoring average and highest career playoff scoring average. In 1999, he was named the greatest North American athlete of the 20th century by ESPN, was second to Babe Ruth on the Associated Press' list of athletes of the century. Jordan is a two-time inductee into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, having been enshrined in 2009 for his individual career, again in 2010 as part of the group induction of the 1992 United States men's Olympic basketball team, he became a member of the FIBA Hall of Fame in 2015. Jordan is known for his product endorsements, he fueled the success of Nike's Air Jordan sneakers, which were introduced in 1984 and remain popular today. Jordan starred as himself in the 1996 film Space Jam. In 2006, he became part-owner and head of basketball operations for the Charlotte Bobcats, bought a controlling interest in 2010. In 2014, Jordan became the first billionaire player in NBA history, he is the third-richest African-American, behind Robert F. Oprah Winfrey.
Jordan was born in Brooklyn, New York, to Deloris, who worked in banking, James R. Jordan Sr. an equipment supervisor. His family moved to Wilmington, North Carolina. Jordan is the fourth of five children, he has two older brothers, Larry Jordan and James R. Jordan, Jr. one older sister and one younger sister, Roslyn. Jordan's brother James retired in 2006 as the Command Sergeant Major of the 35th Signal Brigade of the XVIII Airborne Corps in the U. S. Army. Jordan attended Emsley A. Laney High School in Wilmington, where he highlighted his athletic career by playing basketball and football, he tried out for the varsity basketball team during his sophomore year, but at 5'11", he was deemed too short to play at that level. His taller friend, Harvest Leroy Smith, was the only sophomore to make the team. Motivated to prove his worth, Jordan became the star of Laney's junior varsity team, tallied several 40-point games; the following summer, he trained rigorously. Upon earning a spot on the varsity roster, Jordan averaged more than 25 points per game over his final two seasons of high school play.
As a senior, he was selected to play in the 1981 McDonald's All-American Game and scored 30 points, after averaging 27 points, 12 rebounds and 6 assists per game for the season. Jordan was recruited by numerous college basketball programs, including Duke, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. In 1981, Jordan accepted a basketball scholarship to North Carolina, where he majored in cultural geography; as a freshman in coach Dean Smith's team-oriented system, he was named ACC Freshman of the Year after he averaged 13.4 ppg on 53.4% shooting. He made the game-winning jump shot in the 1982 NCAA Championship game against Georgetown, led by future NBA rival Patrick Ewing. Jordan described this shot as the major turning point in his basketball career. During his three seasons at North Carolina, he averaged 17.7 ppg on 54.0% shooting, added 5.0 rpg. He was selected by consensus to the NCAA All-American First Team in both his sophomore and junior seasons. After winning the Naismith and the Wooden College Player of the Year awards in 1984, Jordan left North Carolina one year before his scheduled graduation to enter the 1984 NBA draft.
The Chicago Bulls selected Jordan after Hakeem Olajuwon and Sam Bowie. One of the primary reasons why Jordan was not drafted