A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
Turn-based tactics, or tactical turn-based, is a computer and video game genre of strategy video games that through stop-action simulates the considerations and circumstances of operational warfare and military tactics in small-scale confrontations as opposed to more strategic considerations of turn-based strategy games. Turn-based tactical gameplay is characterized by the expectation of players to complete their tasks using only the combat forces provided to them, by the provision of a realistic representation of military tactics and operations; the gameplay of turn-based tactics game is the stop-action counterpart to that found in the real-time tactics genre, as such contrasts with other current wargame genres. For instance, in large-scale turn-based strategy games battles are abstracted and the gameplay close to that of related board games, real-time strategy games de-emphasize realism and focus on the collection and conversion of resources into production capacities which manufacture combat units thereafter used in highly stylised confrontations.
In contrast, turn-based tactics games' military tactical and realistic focus, emphasis on executing intricate and well thought through plans and comparatively short risk/reward cycle provide a distinctly more immediate, intense and meticulous experience of battlefield tactics and mêlée than strategy games of other genres. As suggested by the genre's name fundamental to turn-based tactics is turn-based gameplay; the genre has its roots in tactical and miniature wargaming, the recreation of battle scenarios using miniatures or simple paper chits using intricate rules. Compared to other strategy games, games of the turn-based tactics genre have distinctly detailed and complex environments due to the tactical implications of elevation, hard cover and line of sight. Further, in most turn-based tactics games a player's force is maintained between battles; this allows units to become more proficient as they gain more battle experience and coupled with the small and specialised squads used, can encourage an affinity between the player and his or her troops, breaking down the stereotypical anonymity of the expendable, mass-produced units found in strategic games.
During the 1980s, as microcomputers and personal computers became more powerful and more common, game developers turned their attention to designing tactical wargames for them. Some early tactical wargames for the computer included Gary Grigsby's series of games for the Commodore 64 and Apple II: Panzer Strike, Typhoon of Steel. Battle Isle is a series of games developed starting in 1991 by Blue Byte. Set on a fictional planet and inspired by the Japanese game Nectaris, the games feature futuristic tactical battles played on a hexagonal grid. Players control combat units, ranging from infantry and tanks to helicopters and bombers. Battle Isle spawned a man-to-man wargame, Incubation: Time Is Running Out, an earlier strategy title to use 3D graphics and support hardware acceleration on the 3dfx Voodoo. Steel Panthers was released in 1995 by SSI much resembling a board wargame translated to the computer. Two sequels followed. Rights to the game and source code were acquired by Matrix Games who developed and released as freeware an improved remake based on the Steel Panthers III engine.
Another group, SP-Camo and released Steel Panthers: World War II, Steel Panthers: Main Battle Tank was released in June 2005. The SP-Camo games were based on the Steel Panthers II engine. Both the Matrix Games and SP-Camo versions had many fans and resulted in several releases with enhanced graphics, program code changes, new unit types. Another game scheduled to be a computerized Squad Leader/ASL was Combat Mission. While not the first 3-D tactical warfare game, it set an industry standard for realism, thanks to minutely detailed armor penetration modelling. There was no first-person element to the game, which placed a realistic burden of command on the player, unlike earlier games like M-1 Tank Platoon or Muzzle Velocity, human intervention wasn't necessary to ensure that one's troops were capable of fighting with the same skill as the computer enemy. Combat Mission: Beyond Overlord received critical acclaim upon release in 2000. Two follow up games were released in 2002 and 2004, which improved the infantry game with better suppression and automatic fire modelling.
The game featured a "WEGO" system, where orders were entered sequentially, the turn was executed with a "Tactical AI" carrying out both sets of orders. This type of system had been what the original board wargame designers of Firefight et al. had dreamed of, but were restricted to creating manually. Tactical wargames are a type of wargames that models military conflict at a tactical level, i.e. units range from individual vehicles and squads to platoons or companies. These units are rated based on ranges of individual weaponry; this subgenre is principally used to refer to RPG-derived games as an alternative to the traditional turn-based system. In such titles, the system has been tailored to incorporate role-playing game characteristics; the term "tactical"
Wargame (video games)
Wargames are a subgenre of strategy video games that emphasize strategic or tactical warfare on a map, as well as historical accuracy. The genre of wargame video games is derived from earlier forms of wargames; the games thematically represent the wargame hobby, although they tend to be less realistic in order to increase accessibility for more casual players. The amount of realism varies between games as game designers balance an accurate simulation with playability; the wargaming community saw the possibilities of computer gaming early and made attempts to break into the market, notably Avalon Hill's Microcomputer Games line, which began in 1980 and covered a variety of topics, including adaptations of some of their wargames. In February 1980 Strategic Simulations, Inc. was the first to sell a serious, professionally packaged computer wargame, Computer Bismarck, a turn-based game based on the last battle of the battleship Bismarck. It and Strategic Studies Group were computer game companies that continued the genre by specializing in games that borrowed from board and miniature wargames.
The companies enjoyed a certain popularity into the 1990s. TalonSoft started in 1995 with a similar focus, until purchased and closed down by Take-Two Interactive in 2002; the primary gameplay mode in a wargame is tactical: fighting battles. Wargames sometimes have a strategic mode where players may plan their battle or choose an area to conquer, but players spend much less time in this mode and more time fighting; because it is difficult to provide an intelligent way to delegate tasks to a subordinate, war games keep the number of units down to hundreds rather than hundreds of thousands. Units are scaled to be disproportionately large compared to the landscape, in order to promote effective gameplay; these games use a much faster time line than reality, thus wargames do not model night time or sleep periods, though some games apply them, they can be time-consuming. Many contemporary computer strategy games can be considered wargames, in the sense that they are a simulation of warfare on some level.
The mechanics and language have little in common with board and miniature games, but the general subject matter is popular and provides a thematic link. Tabletop wargames are categorized according to the scale of the confrontation; the qualifiers "real-time" and "turn-based" are not taken into account as all tabletop wargames are, by necessity, turn-based. However, sometimes video wargames are described according to the scale of conflict. While it has been argued that computer wargame video games lack the realism of traditional games, they may include features that are impractical for tangible games. One such approach is using fog of war, whereby players are unable to see the landscape beyond the simulating viewing distance of their units; this is made practical in digital games by the fundamental difference of competing against artificial intelligence or remote competitors with their own view of the playing field. Computer Bismarck - - credited as the first "serious" computer war-game. Eastern Front - - Called "the first war game that competed with pencil-and-paper games" and one of the best selling programs on the Atari 8-bit family.
Introduced scrolling maps, pondering AI, supply considerations and many other advanced features that were common in games. Chris Crawford's first major success. Panzer General - - recognizably a traditional wargame next to Close Combat, it spawned several sequels. Steel Panthers - - a tactical wargame on the same scale as Squad Leader, which led to two sequels, a series of titles by Camo Workshop/Shrapnel Games and Matrix Games, for free release. Close Combat - - not the first wargame to break out from hexes, still presented in a 2-dimensional format, Close Combat addressed factors such as individual morale and reluctance to carry out orders; the original title led to five successful sequels for the general public, as well as being developed into a training tool for military use only. Close Combat stemmed from an early attempt to translate the Squad Leader boardgame to the computer. Combat Mission: Beyond Overlord - Chronology of grand strategy video games List of video games
Game Boy Color
The Game Boy Color is a handheld game console manufactured by Nintendo, released on October 21, 1998, in Japan, released in November of the same year to international markets. It continued in the Game Boy family; the GBC features a color screen rather than monochrome. It is thicker and taller and features a smaller screen than the Game Boy Pocket, its immediate predecessor in the Game Boy line; as with the original Game Boy, it has a custom 8-bit processor made by Sharp, considered a hybrid between the Intel 8080 and the Zilog Z80. The spelling of the system's name, Game Boy Color, remains consistent throughout the world, with its American English spelling of "color"; the Game Boy Color was part of the fifth generation of home consoles. The GBC's primary competitors in Japan were the grayscale 16-bit handhelds, Neo Geo Pocket and the WonderSwan, though the Game Boy Color outsold these by a wide margin. SNK and Bandai countered with the Neo Geo Pocket Color and the Wonderswan Color but this did little to change Nintendo's sales dominance.
With Sega discontinuing the Game Gear in 1997, the Game Boy Color's only competitor in the United States was its predecessor, the Game Boy, until the short-lived Neo Geo Pocket Color was released in August 1999. The Game Boy and the Game Boy Color combined have sold 118.69 million units worldwide making it the 3rd best-selling system of all time, a metric that includes Game Boy units. It was discontinued in 2003, shortly after the release of the Game Boy Advance SP, so competed with the Game Boy Advance, released in 2001, its best-selling game was Pokémon Gold and Silver, which shipped 14.51 million combined in Japan and the US. The Game Boy Color was a response to pressure from game developers for a more sophisticated handheld platform, as they felt that the Game Boy in its latest incarnation, the Game Boy Pocket, was insufficient; the resultant product was backward compatible, a first for a handheld system, leveraged the large library of games and installed base of the predecessor system.
This became a major feature of the Game Boy line, since it allowed each new launch to begin with a larger library than any of its competitors. On March 23, 2003, the Game Boy Color was discontinued. Tetris DX Wario Land II Pocket Bomberman The technical specifications for the console are as follows: Main processor: Sharp Corporation LR35902 Processor speed: 1.0485 or 2.097 MHz Resolution: 160 × 144 pixels Palette colors available: 32,768 Colors on screen: Supports 10, 32 or 56 Maximum sprites: 40 total, 10 per line, 4 colors per sprite Sprite size: 8×8 or 8×16 Tiles on screen: 512 Audio: 2 square wave channels, 1 wave channel, 1 noise channel, mono speaker, stereo headphone jack RAM: 32 kB VRAM: 16 kB Power: internal: 2 AA batteries, up to 10 hours of gameplay external: 3V DC 0.6W indicator: Red LED Input: 8-way Control Pad 4 buttons Volume potentiometer Power switch Serial I/O: 512 kbit/s with up to 4 connections in serial Infra-red I/O: Less than 2 m distance at 45° Cartridge I/O Dimensions: Metric: 133.5 × 78 × 27.4 mm Imperial: 5.25 × 3.07 × 1.07 in Weight: 138 gGame Paks manufactured by Nintendo have the following specifications: ROM: 8 MB maximum Cartridge RAM: 128 kBThe processor, a Zilog Z80 workalike made by Sharp with a few extra instructions, has a clock speed of 8 MHz, twice as fast as that of the original Game Boy.
The Game Boy Color has three times as much memory as the original. The screen resolution was the same as the original Game Boy, 160×144 pixels; the Game Boy Color featured an infrared communications port for wireless linking. The feature was only supported in a small number of games, so the infrared port was dropped from the Game Boy Advance line, to be reintroduced with the Nintendo 3DS, though wireless linking would return in the Nintendo DS line; the console was capable of showing up to 56 different colors on screen from its palette of 32,768, could add basic four-, seven- or ten-color shading to games, developed for the original 4-shades-of-grey Game Boy. In the 7-color modes, the sprites and backgrounds were given separate color schemes, in the 10-color modes the sprites were further split into two differently-colored groups; this method of upgrading the color count resulted in graphic artifacts in certain games. Manipulation of palette registers during display allowed for a used "high color mode", capable of displaying more than 2,000 colors on the screen simultaneously.
For dozens of popular Game Boy titles, the Game Boy Color has an enhanced palette built in featuring up to 16 colors - four colors for each of the Game Boy's four layers. If the system does not have a palette stored for a game, it defaults to a palette of green, salmon and white. However, when the user turns on the system, they may choose one of 12 built in color palettes by pressing certain button combinations (namely a direction key and optionally A or
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Nintendo Entertainment System
The Nintendo Entertainment System is an 8-bit home video game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. It is a remodeled export version of the company's Family Computer platform in Japan known as the Famicom for short, which launched on July 15, 1983; the NES was launched through test markets in New York City and Los Angeles in 1985, before being given a wide release in the rest of North America and parts of Europe in 1986, followed by Australia and other European countries in 1987. Brazil saw only unlicensed clones until the official local release in 1993. In South Korea, it was packaged as the Hyundai Comboy and distributed by SK Hynix, known as Hyundai Electronics; the best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the North American video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform.
It was succeeded by the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he believed that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools; because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
The code name for the project was "GameCom", but Masayuki Uemura's wife proposed the name "Famicom", arguing that "In Japan,'pasokon' is used to mean a personal computer, but it is neither a home or personal computer. We could say it is a family computer." Meanwhile, Hiroshi Yamauchi decided that the console should use a red and white theme after seeing a billboard for DX Antenna which used those colors. During the creation of the Famicom, the ColecoVision, a video game console made by Coleco to compete against Atari's Atari 2600 Game system in The United States, was a huge influence. Takao Sawano, chief manager of the project, brought a ColecoVision home to his family, who were impressed by the system's capability to produce smooth graphics at the time, which contrasted with the flickering and slowdown seen on Atari 2600 games. Uemura, head of Famicom development, stated that the ColecoVision set the bar that influenced how he would approach the creation of the Famicom. Original plans called for the Famicom's cartridges to be the size of a cassette tape, but they ended up being twice as big.
Careful design attention was paid to the cartridge connectors since loose and faulty connections plagued arcade machines. As it necessitated taking 60 connection lines for the memory and expansion, Nintendo decided to produce their own connectors in-house rather than use ones from an outside supplier; the controllers were hard-wired to the console with no connectors for cost reasons. The game pad controllers were more-or-less copied directly from the Game & Watch machines, although the Famicom design team wanted to use arcade-style joysticks taking apart ones from American game consoles to see how they worked. There were concerns regarding the durability of the joystick design and that children might step on joysticks left on the floor. Katsuyah Nakawaka attached a Game & Watch D-pad to the Famicom prototype and found that it was easy to use and caused no discomfort. Though, they installed a 15-pin expansion port on the front of the console so that an optional arcade-style joystick could be used.
Uemura added an eject lever to the cartridge slot, not necessary, but he believed that children could be entertained by pressing it. He added a microphone to the second controller with the idea that it could be used to make players' voices sound through the TV speaker; the console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom's popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984. Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari's name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System; the deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game.
This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, Nintendo decided to market its sys
Hudson Soft Co. Ltd was a Japanese video game company that released numerous games for video game consoles, home computers and mobile phones from the 1980s to the 2000s, it was headquartered in the Midtown Tower in Tokyo Midtown, Minato, Japan, with an additional office in the Hudson Building in Sapporo. Hudson Soft was founded on May 18, 1973, it dealt with personal computer products, but expanded to the development and publishing of video games, mobile content, video game peripherals and music recording. A video game publisher, it internally developed many of the video games it published, as well as a few published by other companies, it is known for series such as Bomberman, Adventure Island, Bloody Roar, Bonk. Hudson Soft made the TurboGrafx-16 in association with NEC, to compete against Nintendo, SNK, while continuing making games on other platforms, as a second-party developer. Hudson Soft ceased to exist as a company on March 1, 2012, merged with Konami Digital Entertainment, the surviving entity.
Products and services will continue to be provided under the Hudson brand through Konami. Hudson Soft Ltd. was founded in Toyohira-ku, Japan on May 18, 1973 by brothers Yuji and Hiroshi Kudo. The founders grew up admiring trains, named the business after their favourite, the Hudson locomotives. Hudson began as an amateur radio shop called CQ Hudson, selling radio telecommunications devices and art photographs. Yuji Kudo had planned to start a coffee shop, but there was one in the same building, thus the decision to change to a wireless radio shop at the eleventh hour. Although both Kudos had university education, neither had studied in business management; that factor combined with the difficulty to find trustworthy people to accompany the Kudos in their venture, meant that Hudson Soft was always in the red each month during its era as a radio shop. In September 1975, Hudson Soft began selling personal computer-related products and in March 1978 started developing and selling video game packages.
At that time, many amateur radio shops were switching to the sales of personal computers because they deal with the same electronic equipment. CQ Hudson would continue to operate for decades in Sapporo until Hudson Soft closed the shop in May 2001. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Hudson Soft favoured a quantity over quality approach for the marketing of video games. At one point, the company released up to 30 different computer software titles per month. Things changed in late 1983. Hudson became Nintendo's first third-party software vendor for the Family Computer and its title for this console, Lode Runner, sold 1.2 million units after its 1984 release. The business continued developing video games on the Famicom and computer platforms, was reorganised as Hudson Soft Co. Ltd. in July 1985. A caravan was held at sixty venues throughout a first for the video game industry. Bomberman was released in December of this year on the Famicom and was considered a "big hit" by Hudson Soft. In July 1987, Hudson developed the "C62 System" and collaborated with NEC to develop the PC Engine video game console.
It achieved a second-best success to Famicom in Japan, but its release as the TurboGrafx-16 in North America had less market share than Nintendo's new Super NES, Sega's new Genesis, or SNK's Neo Geo AES. In 1990, Hudson Soft published video games for an array of systems. In 1994, the 32-bit semiconductor chip "HuC62" was independently developed by Hudson and used in NEC's PC-FX video game console. In 2004, Hudson started a joint venture with Flying Tiger Entertainment for 25 titles. Hudson Soft's head office was transferred to Tokyo in 2005; the Sapporo headquarters remained in operation as a secondary office. Hudson Soft lost several key people starting in the mid-2000s. Co-founder Hiroshi Kudo left the company in November 2004 following financial losses. Shinichi Nakamoto, with the company since 1978 and creator of the Bomberman series, followed suit in 2006. Veteran Takahashi Meijin resigned in May 2011. Around 2010-2011, many employees migrated to Nintendo's restructured Nd Cube studio, headed by Hidetoshi Endo, himself a former Hudson Soft President.
The relation between Hudson Soft and Konami can be traced at least as early as 1985, when Hudson ported Konami's arcade game Pooyan to the MSX and Famicom. But the acquisition process of Hudson Soft by Konami would only begin in 2001. Hudson Soft was hit by the collapse of its main bank Hokkaido Takushoku. Seeking new financing alternatives, Hudson Soft entered the stock market for the first time in December 2000, listing on the NASDAQ Japan Exchange; this led to Konami purchasing a stock allocation of 5.6 million shares in August 2001, becoming the company's largest shareholder. Within the terms of this purchase, Hudson acquired the Sapporo division of Konami Computer Entertainment Studio, renaming it Hudson Studio. In April 2005, capital was increased via an allocation of 3 million shares from a third party. Konami Corporation, holding 53.99% of all Hudson stock, became Hudson's majority shareholder and parent company. Hudson Soft continued to be a video game publisher, but working with Konami who became Hudson's distributor in Japan.
In April 2011, Hudson Soft turned a wholly owned subsidiary of Konami. The subsidiary in California, Hudson Entertainment, was liquidated in the process. On March 1, 2012, Hudson Soft ceased to exist as it merged with Konami Digital Entertainment, with