Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food, the meat of those animals. The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world. Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport; the term game arises in medieval hunting terminology by the late 13th century and is particular to English, the word derived from the generic Old English gamen "joy, sport, merriment". Quarry in the generic meaning is early modern, in the more specific sense "bird targeted in falconry" late 14th and 15th centuries as quirre "entrails of deer placed on the hide and given to the hunting-dogs as a reward", from Old French cuiriee "spoil, quarry", but influenced by corée "viscera, entrails". Wild game meat is considered to be superior in nutrient density, has lower fat content, than meat procured through contemporary farming methods, while the cost in time and money to procure wild game is much higher. Small game includes small animals, such as rabbits, geese or ducks. Large game includes animals like deer and bear.
Big game is a term sometimes used interchangeably with large game although in other contexts it refers to large African, mammals which are hunted for trophies. The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world; this is influenced by climate, animal diversity, local taste and locally accepted views about what can or cannot be legitimately hunted. Sometimes a distinction is made between varieties and species of a particular animal, such as wild turkey and domestic turkey. Fish caught for sport are referred to as game fish; the flesh of the animal, when butchered for consumption is described as having a "gamey" flavour. This difference in taste can be attributed to the wild diet of the animal, which results in a lower fat content compared to domestic farm raised animals. In some countries, game is classified, including legal classification with respect to licences required, as either "small game" or "large game". A single small game licence may be subject to yearly bag limits.
Large game are subject to individual licensing where a separate licence is required for each individual animal taken. In some parts of Africa, wild animals hunted for their meat are called bushmeat. Animals hunted for bushmeat include, but are not limited to: Various species of antelope, including duikers Various species of primates like mandrills or gorillas Rodents like porcupines or cane ratsSome of these animals are endangered or otherwise protected, thus it is illegal to hunt them. In Africa, animals hunted for their pelts or ivory are sometimes referred to as the big game. See the legal definition of game in Swaziland. South Africa is a famous destination for game hunting, with its large biodiversity and therefore rather impressive variety of game species. Many creatures have returned to former areas from which they were once taken from as a result of being killed for big-game hunting. Species of creatures hunted include: South Africa has 62 species of gamebirds, including guineafowl, partridge, sandgrouse, geese, snipe and korhaan.
Some of these species are no longer hunted, of the 44 indigenous gamebirds that can be utilised in South Africa, only three, namely the yellow-throated sandgrouse, Delegorgue's pigeon and the African pygmy goose warrant special protection. Of the remaining 41 species, 24 have shown an increase in numbers and distribution range in the last 25 years or so; the status of 14 species appears unchanged, with insufficient information being available for the remaining three species. The gamebirds of South Africa where the population status in 2005 was secure or growing are listed below: In Australia, game includes: Game in New Zealand includes: Chamois Deer, multiple species Pig Tahr Duck, multiple species In the U. S. and Canada, white-tailed deer are the most hunted big game. Other game species include: In the PRC there is a special cuisine category called ye wei, which includes animals in the wild. In the UK game is defined in law by the Game Act 1831, it is illegal to shoot game at night. Other that are hunted for food in the UK are specified under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981.
UK law defines game as including: Black grouse Red grouse Brown hare Ptarmigan Grey partridge and red-legged partridge Common pheasantDeer are not included in the definition, but similar controls provided to those in the Game Act apply to deer. Deer hunted in the UK are: Red deer Roe deer Fallow deer Sika deer Muntjac deer Chinese water deer and hybrids of these deerOther animals which are hunted in the UK include: Duck, including mallard, tufted duck, teal and pochard Goose, including greylag goose, Canada goose, pink-footed goose and in England and Wales white-fronted goose Woodpigeon Woodcock Snipe Rabbit Golden ploverCapercaillie are not hunted in the UK because of a recent decline in numbers and conservation projects towards their recovery; the ban is considered voluntary on private lands, few birds live away from RSPB or Forestry Commission land allegedly. In Iceland game includes: Reindeer Ptarmigan, a popular Christmas dish in Iceland Puffin Auk Goos
Fisheries management is the activity of protecting fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible, drawing on fisheries science, including the precautionary principle. Modern fisheries management is referred to as a governmental system of appropriate management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which are put in place by a system of monitoring control and surveillance. A popular approach is the ecosystem approach to fisheries management. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, there are "no clear and accepted definitions of fisheries management". However, the working definition used by the FAO and much cited elsewhere is: The integrated process of information gathering, planning, decision-making, allocation of resources and formulation and implementation, with enforcement as necessary, of regulations or rules which govern fisheries activities in order to ensure the continued productivity of the resources and the accomplishment of other fisheries objectives.
Fisheries have been explicitly managed in some places for hundreds of years. More than 80 percent of the world's commercial exploitation of fish and shellfish are harvested from natural occurring populations in the oceans and freshwater areas. For example, the Māori people, New Zealand residents for about 700 years, had prohibitions against taking more than what could be eaten and about giving back the first fish caught as an offering to sea god Tangaroa. Starting in the 18th century attempts were made to regulate fishing in the North Norwegian fishery; this resulted in the enactment of a law in 1816 on the Lofoten fishery, which established in some measure what has come to be known as territorial use rights. "The fishing banks were divided into areas belonging to the nearest fishing base on land and further subdivided into fields where the boats were allowed to fish. The allocation of the fishing fields was in the hands of local governing committees headed by the owner of the onshore facilities which the fishermen had to rent for accommodation and for drying the fish."
Governmental resource protection-based fisheries management is a new idea, first developed for North European fisheries after the first Overfishing Conference held in London in 1936. In 1957 British fisheries researchers Ray Beverton and Sidney Holt published a seminal work on North Sea commercial fisheries dynamics. In the 1960s the work became the theoretical platform for North European management schemes. After some years away from the field of fisheries management, Beverton criticized his earlier work in a paper given at the first World Fisheries Congress in Athens in 1992. "The Dynamics of Exploited Fish Populations" expressed his concerns, including the way his and Sidney Holt's work had been misinterpreted and misused by fishery biologists and managers during the previous 30 years. The institutional foundation for modern fishery management had been laid. In 1996, the Marine Stewardship Council was founded to set standards for sustainable fishing. In 2010, the Aquaculture Stewardship Council was created to do the same for aquaculture.
A report by Prince Charles' International Sustainability Unit, the New York-based Environmental Defense Fund and 50in10 published in July 2014 estimated global fisheries were adding $270 billion a year to global GDP, but by full implementation of sustainable fishing, that figure could rise by an extra amount of as much as $50 billion. According to the FAO, fisheries management should be based explicitly on political objectives, ideally with transparent priorities. Typical political objectives when exploiting a fish resource are to: maximize sustainable biomass yield maximize sustainable economic yield secure and increase employment secure protein production and food supplies increase export incomeSuch political goals can be a weak part of fisheries management, since the objectives can conflict with each other. Fisheries objectives need to be expressed in concrete management rules. In most countries fisheries management rules should be based on the internationally agreed, though non-binding, Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, agreed at a meeting of the U.
N.'s Food and Agriculture Organization FAO session in 1995. The precautionary approach it prescribes is implemented in concrete management rules as minimum spawning biomass, maximum fishing mortality rates, etc. In 2005 the UBC Fisheries Centre at the University of British Columbia comprehensively reviewed the performance of the world's major fishing nations against the Code. International agreements are required in order to regulate fisheries in international waters; the desire for agreement on this and other maritime issues led to three conferences on the Law of the Sea, to the treaty known as the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Concepts such as exclusive economic zones allocate certain sovereign rights and responsibilities for resource management to individual countries. Other situations need additional intergovernmental coordination. For example, in the Mediterranean Sea and other narrow bodies of water, EEZ of 200 nautical miles are irrelevant. International waters beyond 12-nautical-mile from shore require explicit agreements.
Straddling fish stocks, which migrate through more than one EEZ present challenges. Here sovereign responsibility must be agreed with neighbouring coastal states and fishing entities; this is done through the medium of a regional organisation set up for the purpose of coordinating the management of that stock. UNCLOS does not prescribe how fisheries confined only to international waters should b
The term ‘wild law’ was first coined by Cormac Cullinan, to refer to human laws that are consistent with Earth jurisprudence. A wild law is a law made by people to regulate human behaviour that privileges maintaining the integrity and functioning of the whole Earth community in the long term, over the interests of any species at a particular time. Wild laws are designed to regulate human participation within this wider community, they seek to balance the rights and responsibilities of humans against those of other members of the community of beings within the natural environment that constitutes Earth in order to safe-guard the rights of all the members of the Earth community. Wild laws may be distinguished from laws based on the understanding that Earth is a conglomeration of objects which human beings are entitled to exploit for their exclusive benefit; the development of wild laws is motivated by the belief that it is desirable, essential to the survival of many species, for us to change our relationship with the natural world from one of exploitation to a more ‘democratic’ participation in a community of other beings.
This requires laws that firstly, recognise that other members of the Earth community have rights, secondly, restrain humans from unjustifiably infringing those rights. As a field, wild law cannot be categorised within traditional legal categories, it is better understood as an approach to human governance, rather than as a branch of law or a collection of laws. A conference based on the concept of wild law was held in November 2005 at the University of Brighton, UK; the conference was chaired by former Environment Minister Michael Meacher MP and speakers included Jacqueline McGlade, head of the European Environment Agency and Lynda Warren of the Environment Agency. In November 2006, a conference based on the book Wild Law by Cormac Cullinan was held at the University of Brighton, UK, organised jointly by UKELA and ELF.'A Walk on the Wild Side: Changing Environmental Law' and was chaired by John Elkington with guest speakers, Cormac Cullinan, Norman Baker MP, Satish Kumar and Begonia Filgueira.
"A ‘Wild Law’ Response to Climate Change" workshop was held in September 2007 to develop a practical approach for applying Wild Law principles which are helping shift legal processes in the US and South Africa. Organised by UKELA, with support from ELF and the Gaia Foundation and sponsored by The Body Shop. Held at a conference centre in Derbyshire in the UK, with internationally renowned speakers Cormac Cullinan, author of Wild Law, Professor Brian Goodwin, visiting scholar and teacher on MSc in Holistic Science, at the Schumacher College, International Centre for Ecological Studies, Andrew Kimbrell, executive director of The Center for Food Safety in USA and founder of the International Center for Technology Assessment, Peter Roderick, director of the Climate Justice Programme and was Friends of the Earth's lawyer in London from 1996; the "’Wild Law’ - Ideas into Action" residential workshop is to be held in September 2008, to launch the first phase of international research by the UKELA and the Gaia Foundation to identify Wild Law in practice and provide a Wild Law toolkit for decision makers and practitioners.
Held at a conference centre in Derbyshire, UK, workshop leaders include: Mellese Damtie, Ethiopian lawyer and biologist, former Dean of the Legal Department at Ethiopia's Civil Service College, Andrew Kimbrell, public interest attorney and author, executive director of the Centre for Food Safety in USA and founder of the International Centre for Technology Assessment. Participating, research paper coordinators, Begonia Filgueira, of Gaia Law Ltd and ERIC Ltd, Ian Mason, practising barrister and Director of the Earth Jurisprudence Resource Centre; this event is facilitated by Elizabeth Rivers, former commercial lawyer and professional facilitator, Vicki Elcoate, Executive Director of UKELA. Cormac Cullinan, Wild Law: A Manifesto for Earth Justice, Green Books, Devon, 2003 ISBN 1903998352. F. Schumacher Society Siber Ink, the original publisher of Wild Law
United States Department of Agriculture
The United States Department of Agriculture known as the Agriculture Department, is the U. S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and internationally. 80% of the USDA's $141 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, the cornerstone of USDA's nutrition assistance; the current Secretary of Agriculture is Sonny Perdue. Many of the programs concerned with the distribution of food and nutrition to people of America and providing nourishment as well as nutrition education to those in need are run and operated under the USDA Food and Nutrition Service. Activities in this program include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which provides healthy food to over 40 million low-income and homeless people each month.
USDA is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, where it is committed to working with other agencies to ensure these mainstream benefits are accessed by those experiencing homelessness. The USDA is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers with the sale of crops and food on both the domestic and world markets, it plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, international bodies such as World Food Program, or approved nonprofits; the Agricultural Act of 1949, section 416 and Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 known as Food for Peace, provides the legal basis of such actions. The USDA is a partner of the World Cocoa Foundation. Early in its history, the economy of the United States was agrarian. Officials in the federal government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds and animals for import into the United States. In 1837 Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, a Yale-educated attorney interested in improving agriculture, became Commissioner of Patents, a position within the Department of State.
He began collecting and distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress and agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress established the Agricultural Division within the Patent Office and allotted $1,000 for "the collection of agricultural statistics and other agricultural purposes." Ellsworth's interest in aiding agriculture was evident in his annual reports that called for a public depository to preserve and distribute the new seeds and plants, a clerk to collect agricultural statistics, statewide reports about crops in different regions, the application of chemistry to agriculture. Ellsworth was called the "Father of the Department of Agriculture."In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior. In the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau of agriculture within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring. On May 15, 1862, Abraham Lincoln established the independent Department of Agriculture to be headed by a commissioner without Cabinet status, the agriculturalist Isaac Newton was appointed to be the first such commissioner.
Lincoln called it the "people's department." In 1868, the Department moved into the new Department of Agriculture Building in Washington, D. C. designed by famed DC architect Adolf Cluss. Located on Reservation No.2 on the National Mall between 12th Street and 14th SW, the Department had offices for its staff and the entire width of the Mall up to B Street NW to plant and experiment with plants. In the 1880s, varied advocacy groups were lobbying for Cabinet representation. Business interests sought a Department of Commerce and Industry, farmers tried to raise the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet rank. In 1887, the House of Representatives and Senate passed bills giving Cabinet status to the Department of Agriculture and Labor, but the bill was defeated in conference committee after farm interests objected to the addition of labor. On February 9, 1889, President Grover Cleveland signed a bill into law elevating the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet level. In 1887, the Hatch Act provided for the federal funding of agricultural experiment stations in each state.
The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 funded cooperative extension services in each state to teach agriculture, home economics, other subjects to the public. With these and similar provisions, the USDA reached out to every county of every state. During the Great Depression, farming remained a common way of life for millions of Americans; the Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Home Economics, established in 1923, published shopping advice and recipes to stretch family budgets and make food go farther. USDA helped ensure that food continued to be produced and distributed to those who needed it, assisted with loans for small landowners, contributed to the education of the rural youth, it was revealed on August 27th, 2018 that the U. S. Department of Agriculture would be providing U. S. farmers with a farm aid package, which will total $4.7 billion in direct payments to American farmers. This package is meant to offset the losses farmers are expected to incur from retaliatory tariffs placed on American exports during the Trump tariffs.
The Department of Agriculture was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $139.7 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows: Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service Animal Damage Control (
Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems. Deserts, rain forests, plains and other areas including the most developed urban areas, all have distinct forms of wildlife. While the term in popular culture refers to animals that are untouched by human factors, most scientists agree that much wildlife is affected by human activities. Humans have tended to separate civilization from wildlife in a number of ways including the legal and moral sense; some animals, have adapted to suburban environments. This includes such animals as domesticated cats, dogs and gerbils; some religions declare certain animals to be sacred, in modern times concern for the natural environment has provoked activists to protest against the exploitation of wildlife for human benefit or entertainment. The global wildlife population decreased by 52 percent between 1970 and 2014, according to a report by the World Wildlife Fund.
Stone Age people and hunter-gatherers relied on both plants and animals, for their food. In fact, some species may have been hunted to extinction by early human hunters. Today, hunting and gathering wildlife is still a significant food source in some parts of the world. In other areas and non-commercial fishing are seen as a sport or recreation. Meat sourced from wildlife, not traditionally regarded as game is known as bush meat; the increasing demand for wildlife as a source of traditional food in East Asia is decimating populations of sharks, primates and other animals, which they believe have aphrodisiac properties. In November 2008 900 plucked and "oven-ready" owls and other protected wildlife species were confiscated by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks in Malaysia, according to TRAFFIC; the animals were believed to be sold in wild meat restaurants. Most are listed in CITES which restricts such trade. A November 2008 report from biologist and author Sally Kneidel, PhD, documented numerous wildlife species for sale in informal markets along the Amazon River, including wild-caught marmosets sold for as little as $1.60.
Many Amazon species, including peccaries, turtles, turtle eggs, armadillos are sold as food. Others in these informal markets, such as monkeys and parrots, are destined for the pet trade smuggled into the United States. Still other Amazon species are popular ingredients in traditional medicines sold in local markets; the medicinal value of animal parts is based on superstition. Many animal species have spiritual significance in different cultures around the world, they and their products may be used as sacred objects in religious rituals. For example, eagles and their feathers have great cultural and spiritual value to Native Americans as religious objects. In Hinduism the cow is regarded sacred. Muslims conduct sacrifices on Eid al-Adha, to commemorate the sacrificial spirit of Ibrāhīm in love of God. Camels, sheep and cows may be offered as sacrifice during the three days of Eid. Many nations have established their tourism sector around their natural wildlife. South Africa has, for example, many opportunities for tourists to see the country's wildlife in its national parks, such as the Kruger Park.
In South India, the Periar Wildlife Sanctuary, Bandipur National Park and Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary are situated around and in forests. India is home to many national parks and wildlife sanctuaries showing the diversity of its wildlife, much of its unique fauna, excels in the range. There are 89 national parks, 13 bio reserves and more than 400 wildlife sanctuaries across India which are the best places to go to see Bengal tigers, Asiatic lions, Indian elephants, Indian rhinoceroses and other wildlife which reflect the importance that the country places on nature and wildlife conservation; this subsection focuses on anthropogenic forms of wildlife destruction. The loss of animals from ecological communities is known as defaunation. Exploitation of wild populations has been a characteristic of modern man since our exodus from Africa 130,000 – 70,000 years ago; the rate of extinctions of entire species of plants and animals across the planet has been so high in the last few hundred years it is believed that we are in the sixth great extinction event on this planet.
Destruction of wildlife does not always lead to an extinction of the species in question, the dramatic loss of entire species across Earth dominates any review of wildlife destruction as extinction is the level of damage to a wild population from which there is no return. The four most general reasons that lead to destruction of wildlife include overkill, habitat destruction and fragmentation, impact of introduced species and chains of extinction. Overkill happens whenever hunting occurs at rates greater than the reproductive capacity of the population is being exploited; the effects of this are noticed much more in slow growing populations such as many larger species of fish. When a portion of a wild population is hunted, an increased availability of resources is experienced increasing growth and reproduction as density dependent inhibition is lowered. Hunting, fishing and so on, has lowered the competition between members of a population. However, if this hunting continues at rate greater than the rate at which new members of the population can reach breeding age and produ
An endangered species is a species, categorized as likely to become extinct. Endangered, as categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, is the second most severe conservation status for wild populations in the IUCN's schema after Critically Endangered. In 2012, the IUCN Red List featured 3,079 animal and 2,655 plant species as endangered worldwide; the figures for 1998 were 1,102 and 1,197. Many nations have laws that protect conservation-reliant species: for example, forbidding hunting, restricting land development or creating preserves. Population numbers and species' conservation status can be found at the lists of organisms by population; the conservation status of a species indicates the likelihood. Many factors are considered; the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the best-known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. Over 50% of the world's species are estimated to be at risk of extinction. Internationally, 199 countries have signed an accord to create Biodiversity Action Plans that will protect endangered and other threatened species.
In the United States, such plans are called Species Recovery Plans. Though labelled a list, the IUCN Red List is a system of assessing the global conservation status of species that includes "Data Deficient" species – species for which more data and assessment is required before their status may be determined – as well species comprehensively assessed by the IUCN's species assessment process; those species of "Near Threatened" and "Least Concern" status have been assessed and found to have robust and healthy populations, though these may be in decline. Unlike their more general use elsewhere, the List uses the terms "endangered species" and "threatened species" with particular meanings: "Endangered" species lie between "Vulnerable" and "Critically Endangered" species, while "Threatened" species are those species determined to be Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered; the IUCN categories, with examples of animals classified by them, include: Extinct no remaining individuals of the species Extinct in the wild Captive individuals survive, but there is no free-living, natural population.
Critically endangered Faces an high risk of extinction in the immediate future. Endangered Faces a high risk of extinction in the near future. Vulnerable Faces a high risk of endangerment in the medium term. Near-threatened May be considered threatened in the near future. Least concern No immediate threat to species' survival. A) Reduction in population size based on any of the following: An observed, inferred or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 70% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the causes of the reduction are reversible AND understood AND ceased, based on any of the following: direct observation an index of abundance appropriate for the taxon a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence or quality of habitat actual or potential levels of exploitation the effects of introduced taxa, pathogens, competitors or parasites. An observed, inferred or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 50% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on any of to under A1.
A population size reduction of ≥ 50%, projected or suspected to be met within the next 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, based on any of to under A1. An observed, inferred, projected or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 50% over any 10 year or three generation period, whichever is longer, where the time period must include both the past and the future, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on any of to under A1. B) Geographic range in the form of either B1 OR B2 OR both: Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 5,000 km², estimates indicating at least two of a-c: Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations. Continuing decline, observed or projected, in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy area, extent or quality of habitat number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Area of occupancy estimated to be less than 500 km², estimates indicating at least two of a-c: Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations.
Continuing decline, observed or projected, in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy area, extent or quality of habitat number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individualsC) Population estimated to number fewer than 2,500 mature individuals and either: An estimated continuing decline of at least 20% within five years or two generations, whichever is longer, OR A continuing decline, projected
Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government. Government agency action can include rule making, adjudication, or the enforcement of a specific regulatory agenda. Administrative law is considered a branch of public law; as a body of law, administrative law deals with the decision-making of the administrative units of government that are part of a national regulatory scheme in such areas as police law, international trade, the environment, broadcasting and transport. Administrative law expanded during the twentieth century, as legislative bodies worldwide created more government agencies to regulate the social and political spheres of human interaction. Civil law countries have specialized courts, administrative courts, that review these decisions. Unlike most common-law jurisdictions, the majority of civil law jurisdictions have specialized courts or sections to deal with administrative cases which, as a rule, will apply procedural rules designed for such cases and different from that applied in private-law proceedings, such as contract or tort claims.
In Brazil, unlike most Civil-law jurisdictions, there is no specialized court or section to deal with administrative cases. In 1998, a constitutional reform, led by the government of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, introduced regulatory agencies as a part of the executive branch. Since 1988, Brazilian administrative law has been influenced by the judicial interpretations of the constitutional principles of public administration: legality, publicity of administrative acts and efficiency; the President of the Republic exercises the administrative function, in collaboration with several Ministries or other authorities with ministerial rank. Each Ministry has one or more under-secretary that performs through public services the actual satisfaction of public needs. There is not a single specialized court to deal with actions against the Administrative entities, but instead there are several specialized courts and procedures of review. In France, most claims against the national or local governments as well as claims against private bodies providing public services are handled by administrative courts, which use the Conseil d'État as a court of last resort for both ordinary and special courts.
The main administrative courts are the tribunaux administratifs and appeal courts are the cours administratives d'appel. Special administrative courts include the National Court of Asylum Right as well as military and judicial disciplinary bodies; the French body of administrative law is called "droit administratif". Over the course of their history, France's administrative courts have developed an extensive and coherent case law and legal doctrine before similar concepts were enshrined in constitutional and legal texts; these principes include: Right to fair trial, including for internal disciplinary bodies Right to challenge any administrative decision before an administrative court Equal treatment of public service users Equal access to government employment without regard for political opinions Freedom of association Right to Entrepreneurship Right to Legal certainty French administrative law, the founder of Continental administrative law, has a strong influence on administrative laws in several other countries such as Belgium, Greece and Tunisia.
Administrative law in Germany, called "Verwaltungsrecht" de:Verwaltungsrecht rules the relationship between authorities and the citizens and therefore, it establishes citizens' rights and obligations against the authorities. It is a part of the public law, which deals with the organization, the tasks and the acting of the public administration, it contains rules, regulations and decisions created by and related to administrative agencies, such as federal agencies, federal state authorities, urban administrations, but admission offices and fiscal authorities etc. Administrative law in Germany follows three basic principles. Principle of the legality of the authority, which means that there is no acting against the law and no acting without a law. Principle of legal security, which includes a principle of legal certainty and the principle of nonretroactivity Principle of proportionality, which says that an act of an authority has to be suitable and appropriateAdministrative law in Germany can be divided into general administrative law and special administrative law.
The general administration law is ruled in the administrative procedures law. Other legal sources are the Rules of the Administrative Courts, the social security code and the general fiscal law; the Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetz, enacted in 1977, regulates the main administrative procedures of the federal government. It serves the purpose to ensure a treatment in accordance with the rule of law by the public authority. Furthermore, it contains the regulations for mass processes and expands the legal protection against the authorities; the VwVfG applies for the entire public administrative activities of federal agencies as well as federal state authorities, in case of m