Java is an island of Indonesia, bordered by the Indian Ocean on the south and the Java Sea on the north. With a population of over 141 million or 145 million, Java is the home to 56.7 percent of the Indonesian population and is the world's most populous island. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on its northwestern coast. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java, it was the center of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Java was the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s. Java dominates Indonesia politically and culturally. Four of Indonesia's eight UNESCO world heritage sites are located in Java: Ujung Kulon National Park, Borobudur Temple, Prambanan Temple, Sangiran Early Man Site. Formed as the result of volcanic eruptions from geologic subduction between Sunda Plate and Australian Plate, Java is the 13th largest island in the world and the fifth largest in Indonesia by landmass at about 138,800 square kilometres.
A chain of volcanic mountains forms an east–west spine along the island. Three main languages are spoken on the island: Javanese and Madurese, where Javanese is the most spoken. Furthermore, most residents are bilingual, speaking Indonesian as their second language. While the majority of the people of Java are Muslim, Java's population comprises people of diverse religious beliefs and cultures. Java is divided into four administrative provinces, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Banten, two special regions and Yogyakarta; the origins of the name "Java" are not clear. One possibility is that the island was named after the jáwa-wut plant, said to be common in the island during the time, that prior to Indianization the island had different names. There are other possible sources: the word jaú and its variations mean "beyond" or "distant". And, in Sanskrit yava means barley, a plant for which the island was famous. "Yavadvipa" is mentioned in the Ramayana. Sugriva, the chief of Rama's army dispatched his men to Yavadvipa, the island of Java, in search of Sita.
It was hence referred to in India by the Sanskrit name "yāvaka dvīpa". Java is mentioned in the ancient Tamil text Manimekalai by Chithalai Chathanar that states that Java had a kingdom with a capital called Nagapuram. Another source states that the "Java" word is derived from a Proto-Austronesian root word, Iawa that meaning "home"; the great island of Iabadiu or Jabadiu was mentioned in Ptolemy's Geographia composed around 150 CE in the Roman Empire. Iabadiu is said to mean "barley island", to be rich in gold, have a silver town called Argyra at the west end; the name indicates Java, seems to be derived from the Sanskrit name Java-dvipa. The annual news of Songshu and Liangshu referred Java as She-po, He-ling called it She-po again until the Yuan dynasty, where they began mentioning Zhao-Wa. According to Ma Huan's book, the Chinese call Java as Chao-Wa, the island was called She-pó in the past; when John of Marignolli returned from China to Avignon, he stayed at the Kingdom of Saba for a few months, which he said had many elephants and led by a queen.
Java lies between Sumatra to Bali to the east. Borneo lies to the north and Christmas Island is to the south, it is the world's 13th largest island. Java is surrounded by the Java Sea to the north, Sunda Strait to the west, the Indian Ocean to the south and Bali Strait and Madura Strait in the east. Java is entirely of volcanic origin; the highest volcano in Java is Mount Semeru. The most active volcano in Java and in Indonesia is Mount Merapi. In total, Java boast more than 150 mountains. More mountains and highlands help to split the interior into a series of isolated regions suitable for wet-rice cultivation. Java was the first place where Indonesian coffee was grown, starting in 1699. Today, Coffea arabica is grown on the Ijen Plateau by larger plantations; the area of Java is 150,000 square kilometres. It is up to 210 km wide; the island's longest river is the 600 km long Solo River. The river rises from its source in central Java at the Lawu volcano flows north and eastward to its mouth in the Java Sea near the city of Surabaya.
Other major rivers are Brantas, Citarum and Serayu. The average temperature ranges from 22 °C to 29 °C; the northern coastal plains are hotter, averaging 34 °C during the day in the dry season. The south coast is cooler than the north, highland areas inland are cooler; the wet season ends in April. During that rain falls in the afternoons and intermittently during other parts of the year; the wettest months are February. West Java is wetter than East mountainous regions receive much higher rainfall; the Parahyangan highlands of West Java receive over 4,000 millimetres annually, while the north coast of East Java receives 900 millimetres annually. The natural environment of Jav
Kraton or Keraton is the Javanese word for a royal palace. Its name is derived from ka-ratu-an. Ratu is the traditional honorific title to refer the "ruler". In Java, the palace of a prince is called dalem; the general word to designate a palace is istana, as in Malay. Kraton that function as the residence of a royal family include: Yogyakarta region Kraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat. Puro Pakualaman. Surakarta region Kraton Surakarta Hadiningrat. Puro Mangkunegaran. Cirebon area Kraton Kasepuhan. Kraton Kanoman. Kraton Kacirebonan; the locations of former kraton have been determined by archaeological efforts. Former kraton include: Kraton Ratu Boko, east of Yogyakarta in the Prambanan area; the structure dates from 9th century and is thought to belong to the Sailendra or Mataram Kingdom, however local inhabitants named this site after King Boko, the legendary king in Loro Jongrang folklore. Kraton of Majapahit in Trowulan, the capital of the former Majapahit. Sites such as Pendopo Agung Majapahit are thought to be remnants of the Kraton of Majapahit.
In Banten region there are remnants of the Sultanate of Banten's palaces: Kraton Surosowan, former royal palace of Sultanate of Banten. Kraton Kaibon, the former palace of queen mother. In Surakarta and Yogyakarta region, there is the remnants of Sultanate of Mataram palaces: Kota Gede remains of a palace from the 16th century. Karta and Plered, there are remains of palaces from the 17th century. Kraton Kartasura on the outskirt of Surakarta, remains of palace and city wall dated from 17th century; the term kraton'palace' is used as a way to refer to the court which it houses. This is the case for native Indonesian states where the succession is disputed, giving issue to two or more branches of the dynasty, or rivaling dynasties, each setting up an alternative court, while competing for the same state, but only controlling part of it. An example is the West-Javan state of Cirebon, founded in 1478 and since 1662 was ruled from three Kraton: Kraton Kasepuhan, using as the ruler's style Sultan Kraton Kanoman, style Sultan Kraton Kacirebonan, style Sultan List of palaces Istana Cirebon Yogyakarta Surakarta Crown jewels for current palaces outside of Java but in Indonesia List of Indonesian monarchies Palaces Miksic, John, et al.
Karaton Surakarta. A look into the court of Surakarta Hadiningrat, central Java Marshall Cavendish Editions Singapore ISBN 981-261-226-2 WorldSatesmen - Indonesia - Princely States
The Shahada is an Islamic creed, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, declaring belief in the oneness of God and the acceptance of Muhammad as God's prophet. The declaration, in its shortest form, reads: لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا ٱلله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ ٱلله lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh muḥammadun rasūlu llāh IPA: There is no god but God. Muhammad is the messenger of God. Audio audio In the English translation—"There is no god but God. Muhammad is the messenger of God."—the first, lower-case occurrence of "god" is a translation of the Arabic word ilah, while the capitalized second and third occurrences of "God" are translations of the Arabic word Allah. The noun šahāda, from the verbal root šahida meaning "to observe, testify", translates as "testimony" in both the everyday and the legal senses; the Islamic creed is called, in the dual form, šahādatān. The expression al-šahāda is used in Quran as one of the "titles of God". In Sunni Islam, the Shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first Shahada and the second Shahada.
The first statement of the Shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the Shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God". In the Quran, the first statement of the Shahadah takes the form la ilaha illa'llah twice, allahu la ilaha illa hu much more often, it appears in the shorter form la ilaha illa Hu in many places. It appears in these forms about 30 times in the Quran, never attached with the other parts of the Shahadah in Sunni or Shia Islam or "in conjunction with another name". Islam's monotheistic nature is reflected in the first sentence of the Shahada, which declares belief in the oneness of God and that he is the only entity worthy of worship; the second sentence of the Shahada indicates the means by which God has offered guidance to human beings. The verse reminds Muslims that they accept not only the prophecy of Muhammad but the long line of prophets who preceded him.
While the first part is seen as a cosmic truth, the second is specific to Islam, as it is understood that members of the older Abrahamic religions do not view Muhammad as one of their prophets. The Shahada is a statement of both worship. In a well-known hadith, Muhammad defines Islam as witnessing that there is no god but God and that Muhammad is God's messenger, giving of alms, performing the ritual prayer, fasting during the month of Ramadan, making a pilgrimage to the Kaaba: the Five Pillars of Islam are inherent in this declaration of faith. Recitation of the Shahādah is the most common statement of faith for Muslims. In Sunni Islam, it is counted as the first of the Five Pillars of Islam, while the Shi'i Twelvers and Isma'ilis have the Shahada as among their pillars of faith, it is whispered by the father into the ear of a newborn child, it is whispered into the ear of a dying person. The five canonical daily prayers each include a recitation of the Shahada. Recitation of the Shahada in front of witnesses is the first and only formal step in conversion to Islam.
This occasion attracts more than the two required witnesses and sometimes includes a celebration to welcome the convert into their new faith. In accordance with the central importance played by the notion of intention in Islamic doctrine, the recitation of the Shahada must reflect understanding of its import and heartfelt sincerity. Intention is what differentiates acts of devotion from mundane acts and a simple reading of the Shahada from invoking it as a ritual activity. Though the two statements of the Shahada are both present in the Quran, they are not found there side by side as in the Shahada formula. Versions of both phrases began to appear in coins and monumental architecture in the late seventh century, which suggests that it had not been established as a ritual statement of faith until then. An inscription in the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem reads: "There is no god but God alone. Another variant appears in coins minted after the reign of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, the fifth Umayyad caliph: "Muhammad is the servant of God and His messenger".
Although it is not clear when the Shahada first came into common use among Muslims, it is clear that the sentiments it expresses were part of the Quran and Islamic doctrine from the earliest period. The Shahada has been traditionally recited in the Sufi ceremony of dhikr, a ritual that resembles mantras found in many other religious traditions. During the ceremony, the Shahada may be repeated thousands of times, sometimes in the shortened form of the first phrase where the word Allah is replaced by huwa; the chanting of the Shahada sometimes provides a rhythmic background for singing. The Shahada appears as an architectural element in Islamic buildings around the world, such as those in Jerusalem and Istanbul. Late-medieval and Renaissance European art displays a fascination with Middle Eastern motifs in general and the Arabic script in particular, as indicated by its use, without concern f
Rabīʿ al-Awwal is the third month in the Islamic calendar. During this month, many Muslims celebrate Mawlid - the birthday of Muhammad. Although the exact date is unknown, Sunni Muslims believe the date of birth of Muhammad to have been on the twelfth of this month, whereas Shi'a Muslims believe him to have been born on the dawn of the seventeenth day. Muhammad himself never celebrated the mawlid, instead encouraged Muslims to fast on Mondays of every week due to his birthday being “on a Monday”; the name Rabī‘ al-awwal means the first or beginning of spring, referring to its position in the pre-Islamic Arabian calendar. The word "Rabi" means "spring" and Al-awwal means "the first" in Arabic language, so "Rabi' al-awwal" means "The first spring" in Arabic language; the names seems to have to do with the celebration events in the month as "spring" is the end to winter and the start of happiness. The Arabic calendar being lunar calendar, the month is rotating over years and Rabī‘ al-awwal can be in spring or any other season every now and so the meaning can not be related to the actual season.
Although historians and scholars disagree on the exact date of Muhammad's birth, it is celebrated on 12th or 17th of Rabi' al-awwal. The celebration of the Mawlid is done differently depending on the country. In some areas celebrations begin as early as the first of the month and can continue till the end of the month. Muslims put coloured lights on roads and their homes and put green flags as well to celebrate. In many countries a procession is conducted on 12th or 17th of Rabi' al-awwal night and day. On these occasions sweets and drinks are distributed from home to home and to the general public. In some areas Muslims exchange gifts, it is the month of blessings. The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, months begin when the first crescent of a new moon is sighted. Since the Islamic lunar calendar year is 11 to 12 days shorter than the solar year, Rabī‘ al-Awwal migrates throughout the seasons; the estimated start and end dates for Rabī‘ al-Awwal are as follows: 01 Rabī‘ al-Awwal 897 AH, the fall of the Emirate of Granada, the final Muslim kingdom of al-Andalus 08 Rabī‘ al-Awwal, death of Imam Hassan Al-Askari Twelver Imām, Hasan al-‘Askarī 09 Rabī‘ al-Awwal, Eid e shuja 12 Rabī‘ al-Awwal, Sunni Muslims observe Mawlid in commemoration of Muhammad's birthday 13 Rabi al-Awwal, Death of Bibi Rubab 17 Rabī‘ al-Awwal, Muslims celebrate the birthday of the Imām Ja‘far al-Sādiq.
18 Rabī‘ al-Awwal, birth of Umm Kulthum bint Ali 26 Rabī‘ al-Awwal, death of Abu Talib ibn Abdul Muttalib 26 Rabī‘ al-Awwal 1333 AH, death of Khwaja Sirajuddin Naqshbandi, a Naqshbandi Sufi shaykhOther events: The Hijra took place in this month Eid-e-Zahra, a celebration of Shi‘ah Muslims Marriage of Muhammad to Khadijah bint Khuwaylid Building of the Quba Mosque The week including 12th and 17th is called Islamic Unity Week in Iran to address both Sunni and Shia views on the birth date of Mohammad. In Islamic eschatology: Abu Hurairah said. There will'isabah in Shawwal. There will be fighting in Dhu al-Qi'dah; the pilgrim will be robbed in Dhu al-Hijjah. The prohibitions will be violated in al-Muharram. There will be sound in Safar the tribes will conflict with each other in the two months of Rabi' al-awwal & Rabi' al-thani; the most amazing thing will happen between Jumada and Rajab. A well-fed she-camel will be better than a fortress sheltering a thousand. Rabi Ul Awal Naats Islamic-Western Calendar Converter
Mawlid or Mawlid al-Nabi al-Sharif is the observance of the birthday of Islamic prophet Muhammad, commemorated in Rabi' al-awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar. 12th Rabi' al-awwal is the accepted date among most of the Sunni scholars, while Shi'a scholars regard 17th Rabi' al-awwal as the accepted date. The history of this celebration goes back to the early days of Islam when some of the Tabi‘un began to hold sessions in which poetry and songs composed to honour Muhammad were recited and sung to the crowds; the Ottomans declared it an official holiday in 1588. The term Mawlid is used in some parts of the world, such as Egypt, as a generic term for the birthday celebrations of other historical religious figures such as Sufi saints. Most denominations of Islam approve of the commemoration of Muhammad's birthday. Mawlid is recognized as a national holiday in most of the Muslim-majority countries of the world except Saudi Arabia and Qatar which are Wahhabi/Salafi. Mawlid is derived from the Arabic root word, meaning to give birth, bear a child, descendant.
In contemporary usage, Mawlid refers to the observance of the birthday of Muhammad. Along with being referred to as the celebration of the birth of Muhammad, the term Mawlid refers to the'text composed for and recited at Muhammad's nativity celebration' or "a text recited or sung on that day"; the date of Muhammad's birth is a matter of contention since the exact date is unknown and is not definitively recorded in the Islamic traditions. The issue of the correct date of the Mawlid is recorded by Ibn Khallikan as constituting the first proven disagreement concerning the celebration. Among the most recognisable dates, Sunni Muslims believe the date to have been on the twelfth of Rabi' al-awwal, whereas Shi'a Muslims believe the date to have been on the seventeenth. Since the Islamic calendar came into existence after Muhammad migrated from Mecca to Yathrib the date of death is known but the date of birth is not known. In early days of Islam, observation of Muhammad's birth as a holy day was arranged and was an increased number of visitors to the Mawlid house, open for the whole day for this celebration.
This celebration was introduced into the city Sabta by Abu'l'Abbas al-Azafi as a way of strengthening the Muslim community and to counteract Christian festivals. The early celebrations, included elements of Sufic influence, with animal sacrifices and torchlight processions along with public sermons and a feast; the celebrations occurred during the day, in contrast to modern day observances, with the ruler playing a key role in the ceremonies. Emphasis was given to the Ahl al-Bayt with presentation of recitations of the Qur ` an. According to the hypothesis of Nico Kaptein of Leiden University, the Mawlid was initiated by the Fatimids, with Marion Holmes Katz adding "The idea that the celebration of the mawlid originated with the Fatimid dynasty has today been universally accepted among both religious polemicists and secular scholars." This Shia origin is noted by those Sunnis who oppose Mawlid. Among Sunnis, the Mawlid celebration emerged in the 12th century, the first detailed description of a Sunni Mawlid celebration was of one sponsored by emir Gökböri.
Among Muslim scholars, the legality of Mawlid "has been the subject of intense debate" and has been described as "perhaps one of the most polemical discussions in Islamic law". Traditionally, most Sunni and nearly all of the Shia scholars have approved of the celebration of Mawlid, while Wahhabi and Ahmadiyya scholars oppose the celebration. Examples of historic Sunni scholars who permitted the Mawlid include the Shafi'i scholar Al-Suyuti who stated that:My answer is that the legal status of the observance of the Mawlid – as long as it just consists of a meeting together by the people, a recitation of apposite parts of the Qur'an, the recounting of transmitted accounts of the beginning of the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace – and the wonders that took place during his birth, all of, followed by a banquet, served to them and from which they eat-is a good innovation, for which one is rewarded because of the esteem shown for the position of the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace –, implicit in it, because of the expression of joy and happiness on his – may God bless him and grant him peace – noble birth.
The Shafi'i scholar Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani too approved of the Mawlid and states that:As for what is performed on the day of the Mawlid, one should limit oneself to what expresses thanks to God, such as the things that have been mentioned: recitation, serving food, alms-giving, recitation of praise about the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace – and asceticism which motivate people to perform good deeds and act in view of the next world. The Damascene Shafi'i scholar Abu Shama supports the celebration of the Mawlid as does the Maliki scholar Ibn al-Hajj who spoke positively of the observance of the Mawlid in his book al-Madhkal; the Shafi'i Egyptian scholar Ibn Hajar al-Haytami was an avid supporter of the Mawlid and wro
Gamelan Munggang are considered among the most ancient gamelans of the kraton of central Java. The ensemble of instruments consists of gong ageng, kempul and horizontal gong chimes tuned to three pitches. Low in absolute pitch, each ensemble consists of two types: pelog and slendro. There is a repertory of several repetitive pieces, the best known permutation being high-middle-high-low, it is theorized. The origin of the munggang ensembles themselves are described in Javanese myths, however the first one may have been imported to Indonesia in the first century CE, with the first ensemble constructed by the Javanese made in the 4th century
Gamelan gong kebyar
Gamelan gong kebyar is a style or genre of Balinese gamelan music. Kebyar means "to flare up or burst open", refers to the explosive changes in tempo and dynamics characteristic of the style, it is the most popular form of gamelan in Bali, its best known musical export. Gong kebyar music is based on a five-tone scale called pelog selisir, is characterized by brilliant sounds, syncopations and gradual changes in sound colour, dynamics and articulation, complex, complementary interlocking melodic and rhythmic patterns called kotekan. Gamelan gong kebyar was first documented to exist in North Bali in the early 1900s; the first public performance was in December 1915 at a gamelan gong competition in Jagaraga, North Bali. Ten years I Mario of Tabanan is said to have created kebyar dance to accompany the music. Following their invasion of the island, Dutch occupiers responded to international criticism by building cultural institutions, they sponsored these competitions until Japanese forces ended their rule in World War II.
In addition to island-wide arts competitions, gamelan gong kebyar has become an essential part of modern Bali Hindu ceremonies. They are required for annual birthday ceremonies for temples, odalan, as well as major holidays as accompaniment for sacred dances, they are appropriate for the class of rituals centered around human life, Putra Manusia, such as weddings. Instruments in gamelan gong kebyar offer a wide range of pitches and timbres, ranging five octaves from the deepest gongs to the highest key on a gangsa; the high end can be described as "piercing", the low end "booming and sustained," while the drums as "crisp". Kebyar instruments are most grouped in pairs, or "gendered." Each pair consists of a male and female instrument, the female being larger and lower in pitch. See tuning in this article to learn why this is. Most instruments in kebyar are keyed metallophones, with bronze keys resting on suspended chords, over bamboo resonators; the instruments have ornately carved wooden frames.
The gangsa section in gamelan gong kebyar is the largest section, consisting of 13-14 players. Gangsa instruments are played with a mallet, called a panggul gangsa; the mallet differs in hardness depending on its range. The keys are arranged from low to high, left to right; the key is struck with the hammer in one hand, dampened with the finger and second knuckle of the other hand. The keys can be played in one of three ways: Strike the key, let resonate until sound fades. Strike the key, dampen prior to, or simultaneous with, the striking of the next note in the melody; this is good for interlocking parts. Strike while dampening; this gets a pitched click. The gangsa instruments play elaborate ornamentations on the underlying melody of a piece of music; the explosive feeling of the gong kebyar style derives from the dynamic range of these instruments, whose bright, sharp tones can sound anywhere from soft and sweet to loud and aggressive. Each gendered male/female pair of gangsa is divided into two interlocking melodic parts and the sangsih during kotekan, which permits rapid and complex patterns to be played.
There are four kantilan in two male and two female. See gendered instruments within this article; these instruments are the highest sounding in the kebyar ensemble, with its highest note being around C7. It has ten keys, a range of two octaves, is played with a wooden hammer. Players sit on the floor to play this instrument. There are four pemadé in kebyar, two male and two female; these instruments have ten keys, a range of two octaves, are played with a wooden mallet, but are one octave lower than kantilan. Players sit on the floor to play this instrument. There is only one ugal in the kebyar ensemble, it is female, it is played by one of the leaders of the ensemble. A second, male ugal is sometimes used; the ugal is taller than the other gangsa, the player sits on a short stool, so as to allow the player to cue the ensemble visually with ease. The instrument has 10 keys, with a range of two octaves, is played with a hard wooden mallet larger than the other gangsa panguls and with additional ornamentations so the leader's sometimes theatrical cues catch the light.
Its notes are an octave lower than those of the gangsa pemadé. The ugals play a combination of gangsa parts and cues, melodic solos, the underlying melody with flourishes; the first, front ugal cues and plays elements of the polos interlocking gangsa part, if there is a second ugal, it plays elements of the sangsih part. There are two jegogan in one male and one female; these instruments have a range of one octave, are one octave below calung. The keys are larger than those of other gangsa, are played with a large, cloth-coated, rubber-padded spherical mallet; the jegogan plays the deepest tuned notes in the ensemble playing key notes in the underlying melody of a piece of music instead of every note of that melody. Higher in pitch than the jegog is the calung; this instrument, like jegog requires long resonating bamboo tubes so is played while sitting on a small stool, consists of one female/male pair. These instruments have a range of one octave, in between ugal; some have five keys but seven key jublag are commonly found in Bali (