Cue sports known as billiard sports, are a wide variety of games of skill played with a cue stick, used to strike billiard balls and thereby cause them to move around a cloth-covered billiards table bounded by elastic bumpers known as cushions. The umbrella term was billiards. While that familiar name is still employed by some as a generic label for all such games, the word's usage has splintered into more exclusive competing meanings in various parts of the world. For example, in British and Australian English, "billiards" refers to the game of English billiards, while in American and Canadian English it is sometimes used to refer to a particular game or class of games, or to all cue games in general, depending upon dialect and context. In colloquial usage, the term "billiards" may be used colloquially to refer to pocket billiards games, such as pool, snooker, or Russian pyramid. There are 3 major subdivisions of games within cue sports: Carom billiards, referring to games played on tables without pockets 10 feet in length, including balkline and straight rail, cushion caroms, three-cushion billiards, artistic billiards and four-ball Pool, covering numerous pocket billiards games played on six-pocket tables of 7-, 8-, or 9-foot length, including among others eight-ball, nine-ball, ten-ball, straight pool, one-pocket, bank pool Snooker, English billiards and Russian pyramid, games played on a billiards table with six pockets called a snooker table, all of which are classified separately from pool based on a separate historical development, as well as a separate culture and terminology that characterize their play.
There are other variants that make use of obstacles and targets, table-top games played with disks instead of balls. Billiards has a long and rich history stretching from its inception in the 15th century, to the wrapping of the body of Mary, Queen of Scots, in her billiard table cover in 1586, through its many mentions in the works of Shakespeare, including the famous line "let's to billiards" in Antony and Cleopatra, through the many famous enthusiasts of the sport such as: Mozart, Louis XIV of France, Marie Antoinette, Immanuel Kant, Abraham Lincoln, Mark Twain, George Washington, French president Jules Grévy, Charles Dickens, George Armstrong Custer, Theodore Roosevelt, Lewis Carroll, W. C. Fields, Babe Ruth, Bob Hope, Jackie Gleason. All cue sports are regarded to have evolved into indoor games from outdoor stick-and-ball lawn games, as such to be related to the historical games jeu de mail and palle-malle, modern trucco and golf, more distantly to the stickless bocce and bowls; the word "billiard" may have evolved from the French word billart or billette, meaning "stick", in reference to the mace, an implement similar to a golf club, the forerunner to the modern cue.
The modern term "cue sports" can be used to encompass the ancestral mace games, the modern cueless variants, such as finger billiards, for historical reasons. "Cue" itself came from the French word for a tail. This refers to the early practice of using the tail of the mace to strike the ball when it lay against a rail cushion. A recognizable form of billiards was played outdoors in the 1340s, was reminiscent of croquet. King Louis XI of France had the first known indoor billiard table. Louis XIV further refined and popularized the game, it swiftly spread among the French nobility. While the game had long been played on the ground, this version appears to have died out in the 17th century, in favor of croquet and bowling games, while table billiards had grown in popularity as an indoor activity. Mary, Queen of Scots, claimed that her "table de billiard" had been taken away by those who became her executioners. Billiards grew to the extent that by 1727, it was being played in every Paris café. In England, the game was developing into a popular activity for members of the gentry.
By 1670, the thin butt end of the mace began to be used not only for shots under the cushion, but players preferred it for other shots as well. The cue as it is known today was developed by about 1800; the mace was used to push the balls, rather than strike them. The newly developed striking cue provided a new challenge. Cushions began to be stuffed with substances to allow the balls to rebound, in order to enhance the appeal of the game. After a transitional period where only the better players would use cues, the cue came to be the first choice of equipment; the demand for tables and other equipment was met in Europe by John Thurston and other furniture makers of the era. The early balls were made from wood and clay. Early billiard games involved various pieces of additional equipment, including the "arch", "port" and "king" in the 1770s, but other game variants, relying on the cushions, were being formed that would go on to play fundamental roles in the development of modern billiards; the early croquet-like games led to the development of the carom or carambole billiards category – what most non-Commonwealth and non-US speakers mean by the word "billiards".
Practical shooting known as dynamic shooting or action shooting, is a set of shooting sports where the competitors are trying to unite the three principles of precision and speed, by using a firearm of a certain minimum power factor to score as many points as possible during the shortest amount of time. While scoring systems vary between organizations, each measures the time of which the course is completed, with penalties for inaccurate shooting; the courses are called "stages", are shot individually by the shooters. The shooter must move and shoot from several positions, fire under or over obstacles and in other unfamiliar positions. There are no standard exercises or set arrangement of the targets, the courses are designed so that the shooter must be inventive, therefore the solutions of exercises sometimes varies between shooters. There are several international sanctioning bodies: The International Practical Shooting Confederation is the oldest and largest sanctioning body within practical shooting.
IPSC Open Division is sometimes considered the "Formula One" of shooting sports, is shot with handguns and shotguns. The United States Practical Shooting Association is the U. S. regional affiliate of IPSC. Many of USPSA's rules differ from those used internationally; the Steel Challenge Shooting Association, founded as a separate discipline, was purchased and integrated by USPSA in 2007. In Steel Challenge matches, competitors shoot five strings of fire at a series of five steel plates of varying sizes at varied distances in an attempt to achieve the fastest time possible for knocking down the plates; the order of fire is dictated by a plate designated as the stop plate. The longest time is dropped and the remaining four times are averaged for a composite stage time; the International Defensive Pistol Association has a strong emphasis on concealed shooting and defensive scenarios. Many aspects of the stage engagement are dictated to competitors, penalties are given to competitors whom the Safety Officer determines attempted to gain a competitive advantage or engaged in a forbidden action with a "guilty mind" - that he knowingly failed to do right.
Cowboy Action Shooting is quite similar with an Old West theme. There are multiple international sanctioning bodies, with Single Action Shooting Society being the oldest and largest. Firearms must be either original or reproduction "cowboy guns", such as Colt single-action pistols and Winchester rifles; the competitors must choose and go by a cowboy nickname, are required to look the part by using cowboy and cowgirl garments in late 19th century period dress. Multigun called 2-Gun or 3-Gun, are shooting events shot with a combination of rifles and shotguns. While multigun has a lot in common with ordinary IPSC/USPSA matches, the biggest difference is that each stage requires the use of several different firearms and that the shooter has to transition between them. Among the largest annual multigun events in the USA are the USPSA Multigun Championship, the Rocky Mountain 3-Gun, the DPMS Tri-Gun Challenge, the Superstition Mountain Mystery 3-Gun, the Larue Tactical Multigun Championship. Glock Sport Shooting Foundation is a competition sponsored by Glock and limited to participants using Glock pistols.
Practical shooting evolved from experimentation with handguns used for self-defense. The researchers were an international group of private individuals, law enforcement officers, military people operating independently of each other, challenging the then-accepted standards of technique, training practices, equipment; the work was, for the most part, conducted for their own purposes without official sanction. So, what they learned has had a great impact on police and military training forever. Competition had begun with the leather slap quick draw events of the 1950s, which had grown out of America's love affair with the TV westerns of that era. However, many wished for a forum that would more directly test the results of the experimentation in modern technique, going on at the Bear Valley Gunslingers at Big Bear Lake and other places. Competitions were set up to test what had been learned, they soon grew into a distinct sport, requiring competitors to deal with changing scenarios; the first IPSC World Shoot was held in 1975 in Zurich, about two years before IPSC was formally founded.
Some consider the previous Olympic event 100 meter running deer as the first practical rifle shooting competition, which originated in Wimbledon, London in 1862. Other notable rifle speed shooting events are Stang shooting, arranged since 1912, Nordic field rapid shooting, a part of the Nordic Fullbore Rifle Championship since 1953. Finland pioneered IPSC Rifle in Scandinavia in the beginning of the 1980's, the discipline soon spread to Norway where the first competitions were held in Stavanger February 1984. In 1987 the first official Norwegian Rifle Championship was held, the championship has been held annually since. South Africa has held IPSC Rifle and Shotgun matches since 1983, IPSC multigun matches since 1984. One of the first 3-Gun matches to be held in the United States was the Soldier of Fortune matches held in 1979 in Missouri, but these matches were neither associated with USPSA nor IPSC; the first USPSA Multigun Championship was held in 1990 at Pike-Adams Sportsmen's Alliance in Barry, but USPSA did not take on multigun full time until around 2000.
In Finland multigun matches have been held since around 1
A field goal is a means of scoring in American football and Canadian football. To score a field goal, the team in possession of the ball must place kick, or drop kick, the ball through the goal, i.e. between the uprights and over the crossbar. American football requires that a field goal must only come during a play from scrimmage, while Canadian football retains open field kicks and thus field goals may be scored at any time from anywhere on the field and by any player; the vast majority of field goals, in both codes, are place kicked. Drop kicked field goals were common in the early days of Gridiron football but are never done in modern times. In most leagues, a successful field goal awards three points. A field goal may be scored through a fair catch kick, but this is rare. Since a field goal is worth only three points, as opposed to a touchdown, worth six points, it is only attempted in specific situations; the goal structure consists of a horizontal crossbar suspended 10 feet above the ground, with two vertical goalposts 18 feet 6 inches apart extending vertically from each end of the crossbar.
In American football, the goals are centered on each end line. As a field goal is worth only three points, while a touchdown scores at least six, teams will attempt a field goal only in the following situations: It is fourth down if the offense is more than a yard or two from a new first down, within about 45 yards of the goal posts. In the first half, there is enough time remaining to execute only one more play. In the second half, there is enough time remaining to execute only one more play, the team on offense needs three points to win or tie. Except in desperate situations, a team will attempt field goals only when keeping a drive alive is unlikely, its kicker has a significant chance of success, as a missed field goal results in a turnover at the spot of the kick or at the line of scrimmage. In American high school rules and Canadian football, where a missed field goal is treated the same as a punt, most teams still opt not to attempt field goals from long range since field goal formations are not conducive to covering kick returns.
Under ideal conditions, the best professional kickers had difficulty making kicks longer than 50 yards consistently. If a team chooses not to attempt a field goal on their last down, they can punt to the other team. A punt cannot score any points in American football unless the receiving team touches the ball first and the kicking team recovers it, but it may push the other team back toward its own end; the longest field goal kick in NFL history is 64 yards, a record set by Matt Prater on December 8, 2013. The previous record was 63 set by Tom Dempsey and matched by Jason Elam, Sebastian Janikowski, David Akers, Graham Gano. High school and most professional football leagues offer only a three-point field goal. NFL Europe encouraged long field goals of 50 yards or more by making those worth four points instead of three, a rule since adopted by the Stars Football League; the sport of arena football sought to repopularize the drop kick by making that worth four points. The overall field goal percentage during the 2010 NFL season was 82.3.
In comparison, Jan Stenerud, one of only two pure kickers in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, had a career field goal percentage of 66.8 from 1967 to 1985. When a team decides to attempt a field goal, it will line up in a tight formation, with all but two players lined up along or near the line of scrimmage: the placekicker and the holder; the holder is the team's punter or backup quarterback. Instead of the regular center, a team may have a dedicated long snapper trained to snap the ball on placekick attempts and punts; the holder lines up seven to eight yards behind the line of scrimmage, with the kicker a few yards behind him. Upon receiving the snap, the holder holds the ball against the ground vertically, with the stitches away from the kicker; the kicker begins his approach during the snap, so the snapper and holder have little margin for error. A split-second mistake can disrupt the entire attempt; the measurement of a field goal's distance is from the goalpost to the point where the ball was positioned for the kick by the holder.
In American football, where the goalpost is located at the back of the end zone, the ten yards of the end zone are added to the yard line distance at the spot of the hold. Until the 1960s, placekickers approached the ball straight on, with the toe making first contact with the ball; the technique of kicking the ball "soccer-style", by approaching the ball at an a
Snooker is a cue sport which originated among British Army officers stationed in India in the half of the 19th century. It is played on a rectangular table covered with a green cloth, or baize, with pockets at each of the four corners and in the middle of each long side. Using a cue and 22 coloured balls, players must strike the white ball to pot the remaining balls in the correct sequence, accumulating points for each pot. An individual game, or frame, is won by the player scoring the most points. A match is won. Snooker gained its own identity in 1884 when army officer Sir Neville Chamberlain, while stationed in Ooty, devised a set of rules that combined pyramid and life pool; the word "snooker" was a long-used military term used to describe inexperienced or first-year personnel. The game grew in popularity in the United Kingdom, the Billiards Association and Control Club was formed in 1919, it is now governed by the World Professional Billiards and Snooker Association. The World Snooker Championship has taken place since 1927, with Joe Davis becoming a key figure in the early growth of the sport winning the championship fifteen times from 1927 to 1946.
The "modern era" began in 1969 after the BBC commissioned the snooker television show Pot Black and began to air the World Championship in 1978, leading to the sport's new peak in popularity. Ray Reardon dominated the game in the 1970s, Steve Davis in the 1980s, Stephen Hendry in the 1990s. Since 2000, Ronnie O'Sullivan has won the most world titles, with 5. Top professional players now compete around the world and earn millions of pounds; the sport has become popular in China. The origin of snooker dates back to the latter half of the 19th century. In the 1870s, billiards was a popular activity amongst British Army officers stationed in India and several variations of the game were devised during this time. One such variation originated at the officers' mess of the 11th Devonshire Regiment in 1875, which combined the rules of two pocket billiards games and life pool; the former was played with fifteen red balls and one black positioned in a triangle, while the latter involved the potting of designated coloured balls.
The game developed its own identity in 1884 when its first set of rules was finalised by Sir Neville Chamberlain, an English officer who helped develop and popularise the game at Stone House in Ooty on a table built by Burroughes & Watts, brought over by boat. The word "snooker" was a slang term for first-year cadets and inexperienced military personnel, but Chamberlain would use it to describe the inept performance of one of his fellow officers at the table. In 1887, snooker was given its first definite reference in England in a copy of Sporting Life which caused a growth in popularity. Chamberlain came out as the game's inventor in a letter to The Field published on 19 March 1938, 63 years after the fact. Snooker grew in popularity across the Indian colonies and the United Kingdom, but it remained a game for the gentry, many gentlemen's clubs that had a billiards table would not allow non-members inside to play. To accommodate the growing interest and more open snooker-specific clubs were formed.
In 1919, the Billiards Association and the Billiards Control Board merged to form the Billiards Association and Control Club and a new, standard set of rules for snooker first became official. The game of Snooker grew in the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century, by 1927 the first World Snooker Championship had been organised by Joe Davis who, as a professional English billiards and snooker player, moved the game from a pastime activity into a more professional sphere. Davis won every world championship until 1946; the game went into a decline through the 1950s and 1960s with little interest generated outside of those who played. In 1959, Davis introduced a variation of the game known as "Snooker Plus" to try to improve the game's popularity by adding two extra colours, but it never caught on. A major advance occurred in 1969, when David Attenborough commissioned the snooker television series Pot Black to demonstrate the potential of colour television with the green table and multi-coloured balls being ideal for showing off the advantages of colour broadcasting.
The series was for a time the second-most popular show on BBC Two. Interest in the game increased and the 1978 World Snooker Championship was the first to be televised; the game became a mainstream game in the UK, Ireland and much of the Commonwealth and has enjoyed much success since the late 1970s, with most of the ranking tournaments being televised. In 1985 a total of 18.5 million viewers watched the concluding frame of the world championship final between Dennis Taylor and Steve Davis known as the "black ball final". The loss of tobacco sponsorship during the 2000s led to a decrease in the number of professional tournaments, although some new sponsors were sourced. By 2007, the BBC dedicated 400 hours to snooker coverage compared to just 14 minutes forty years earlier. In 2010, promoter Barry Hearn gained a controlling interest in World Snooker Ltd. the professional sport's commercial arm, pledging to revitalise the "moribund" professional game. Under his direction, the number of professional tournaments has increased, certain tournament formats have been changed in an attempt to increase their appeal, and, by 2013, total prize money had more than doubled from £3 million to more than £7 million for the tour.
The objective of
An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century. Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, for regional and local government; this process is used in many other private and business organizations, from clubs to voluntary associations and corporations. The universal use of elections as a tool for selecting representatives in modern representative democracies is in contrast with the practice in the democratic archetype, ancient Athens, where the Elections were not used were considered an oligarchic institution and most political offices were filled using sortition known as allotment, by which officeholders were chosen by lot. Electoral reform describes the process of introducing fair electoral systems where they are not in place, or improving the fairness or effectiveness of existing systems.
Psephology is the study of other statistics relating to elections. To elect means "to choose or make a decision", so sometimes other forms of ballot such as referendums are referred to as elections in the United States. Elections were used as early in history as ancient Greece and ancient Rome, throughout the Medieval period to select rulers such as the Holy Roman Emperor and the pope. In Vedic period of India, the Raja of a gana was elected by the gana; the Raja belonged to the noble Kshatriya varna, was a son of the previous Raja. However, the gana members had the final say in his elections. During the Sangam Period people elected their representatives by casting their votes and the ballot boxes were tied by rope and sealed. After the election the votes were counted; the Pala King Gopala in early medieval Bengal was elected by a group of feudal chieftains. Such elections were quite common in contemporary societies of the region. In the Chola Empire, around 920 CE, in Uthiramerur, palm leaves were used for selecting the village committee members.
The leaves, with candidate names written on them, were put inside a mud pot. To select the committee members, a young boy was asked to take out as many leaves as the number of positions available; this was known as the Kudavolai system. The modern "election", which consists of public elections of government officials, didn't emerge until the beginning of the 17th century when the idea of representative government took hold in North America and Europe. Questions of suffrage suffrage for minority groups, have dominated the history of elections. Males, the dominant cultural group in North America and Europe dominated the electorate and continue to do so in many countries. Early elections in countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States were dominated by landed or ruling class males. However, by 1920 all Western European and North American democracies had universal adult male suffrage and many countries began to consider women's suffrage. Despite mandated universal suffrage for adult males, political barriers were sometimes erected to prevent fair access to elections.
The question of who may vote is a central issue in elections. The electorate does not include the entire population. In Australia, Aboriginal people were not given the right to vote until 1962 and in 2010 the federal government removed the rights of prisoners serving for 3 years or more to vote. Suffrage is only for citizens of the country, though further limits may be imposed. However, in the European Union, one can vote in municipal elections if one lives in the municipality and is an EU citizen. In some countries, voting is required by law. In Western Australia, the penalty for a first time offender failing to vote is a $20.00 fine, which increases to $50.00 if the offender refused to vote prior. A representative democracy requires a procedure to govern nomination for political office. In many cases, nomination for office is mediated through preselection processes in organized political parties. Non-partisan systems tend to differ from partisan systems as concerns nominations. In a direct democracy, one type of non-partisan democracy, any eligible person can be nominated.
Although elections were used in ancient Athens, in Rome, in the selection of popes and Holy Roman emperors, the origins of elections in the contemporary world lie in the gradual emergence of representative government in Europe and North America beginning in the 17th century. In some systems no nominations take place at all, with voters free to choose any person at the time of voting—with some possible exceptions such as through a minimum age requirement—in the jurisdiction. In such cases, it is not required that the members of the electorate be familiar with all of the eligible persons, though such systems may involve indirect elections at larger geographic levels to ensure that some first-hand familiarity among potential electees can exist at these levels; as far as partisan systems, in some countries, only members of a particular party can be no
Infield fly rule
The infield fly rule is a rule of baseball that treats certain fly balls as though caught, before the ball is caught if the infielder fails to catch it or drops it on purpose. The umpire's declaration of an infield fly means that the batter is out regardless of whether the ball is caught; the rule exists to prevent the defense from executing a double play or triple play by deliberately failing to catch a ball that an infielder could catch with ordinary effort. A ball batted into the air subjects baserunners to a dilemma. If the ball is caught, they must return to their original base. Baserunners study the fielder and advance only far enough from the base to ensure that they can return safely. If a presumed catch becomes a non-catch, forced runners must run forward instead of back; this creates an advantage for the defense in intentionally failing to execute an easy catch, which the infield fly rule exists to remove. The infield fly rule is explained in the Official Baseball Rules in two places: Definitions of terms: Infield Fly Rule 5.09 The rule applies only when there are fewer than two outs, there is a force play at third base.
In these situations, if a fair fly ball is in play, in the umpire's judgment is catchable by an infielder with ordinary effort, the umpire shall call "infield fly" and the batter will be out regardless of whether the ball is caught. Umpires raise the right arm straight up, index finger pointing up, to signal the rule is in effect. If "infield fly" is called and the fly ball is caught, it is treated as an ordinary caught fly ball. On the other hand, if "infield fly" is called and the ball lands fair without being caught, the batter is still out, there is still no force, but the runners are not required to tag up. In either case, the ball is live, the runners may advance on the play, at their own peril. An infield fly may be declared by any umpire on the field; the infield fly rule is a judgment call, as the rule states that "The judgment of the umpire must govern". The rule directs the umpire to declare an infield fly on determining that the play meets the criteria described above based on the umpire's discretion.
Since different umpires may have different definitions of what constitutes "ordinary effort," the rule may be applied differently depending on the umpire and game conditions. Any fair fly ball that could be caught by an infielder with ordinary effort is covered by the rule, whether or not it is in the infield, whether or not an infielder catches it, or attempts to catch it. For example, if an infielder retreats to the outfield in an effort to catch a fly ball, the infield fly rule may be invoked because the ball could have been caught by the infielder. Infield fly may be called if an outfielder runs into the infield to catch a fly ball, if it could have been caught by an infielder with ordinary effort, it may be helpful to think of it as the "infielder fly rule". The rule states an infield fly call should be determined by "whether the ball could ordinarily have been handled by an infielder, not by some arbitrary limitation such as the grass, or the base lines; the umpire must rule that a ball is an infield fly if handled by an outfielder, if, in the umpire's judgment, the ball could have been as handled by an infielder."
The term "ordinary effort" considers all circumstances, including weather, positioning of the defense, the abilities of the players involved in the play. A fly ball catchable with ordinary effort in Major League Baseball might not be in a junior high school game, due to the ability of the players involved. If the fly ball is near the foul lines, the umpire is to declare "infield fly, if fair". If the ball is not caught and ends up foul, the infield fly call is canceled, the play is treated as an ordinary foul ball. In contrast, if the ball lands foul and rolls fair before passing first or third base without being touched, the infield fly takes effect and the batter is out. Declarations of the infield fly rule are not included in the statistical summary of a baseball game and are not a separate category in player statistics. A fielder who misplays an infield fly is not charged with an error because the batter is out through the infield fly rule. In fact, the fielder who should have caught an infield fly earns a putout.
But a fielder who fails to touch an infield fly that rolls foul may be charged with an error for letting the ball roll foul. The rule was introduced in 1895 by the National League in response to infielders intentionally dropping pop-ups to get multiple outs by forcing out the runners on base, who were pinned near their bases while the ball was in the air. At that time, the rule only applied with one man out; the current rule came into effect in 1901. It was amended in 1904 to exclude line drives, in 1920 to exclude bunts. In the fifth game of the 2008 World Series between the Tampa Bay Rays and Philadelphia Phillies at Citizens Bank Park in Philadelphia, Pedro Feliz of the Phillies hit a pop-up to the right side of the infield with runners on first and second and one out, in strong rain and swirling winds, the infield fly rule was not invoked. Umpiring crew chief Tim Tschida explained that "The infield fly rule requires the um
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds. Several aspects of ornithology differ from related disciplines, due to the high visibility and the aesthetic appeal of birds; the science of ornithology has a long history and studies on birds have helped develop several key concepts in evolution and ecology such as the definition of species, the process of speciation, learning, ecological niches, island biogeography and conservation. While early ornithology was principally concerned with descriptions and distributions of species, ornithologists today seek answers to specific questions using birds as models to test hypotheses or predictions based on theories. Most modern biological theories apply across taxonomic groups, the number of professional scientists who identify themselves as "ornithologists" has therefore declined. A wide range of tools and techniques is used in ornithology, both inside the laboratory and out in the field, innovations are made; the word "ornithology" comes from the late 16th-century Latin ornithologia meaning "bird science" from the Greek ὄρνις ornis and λόγος logos.
The history of ornithology reflects the trends in the history of biology, as well as many other scientific disciplines, including ecology, physiology and more molecular biology. Trends include the move from mere descriptions to the identification of patterns, thus towards elucidating the processes that produce these patterns. Humans have had an observational relationship with birds since prehistory, with some stone-age drawings being amongst the oldest indications of an interest in birds. Birds were important as food sources, bones of as many as 80 species have been found in excavations of early Stone Age settlements. Waterbird and seabird remains have been found in shell mounds on the island of Oronsay off the coast of Scotland. Cultures around the world have rich vocabularies related to birds. Traditional bird names are based on detailed knowledge of the behaviour, with many names being onomatopoeic, still in use. Traditional knowledge may involve the use of birds in folk medicine and knowledge of these practices are passed on through oral traditions.
Hunting of wild birds as well as their domestication would have required considerable knowledge of their habits. Poultry farming and falconry were practised from early times in many parts of the world. Artificial incubation of poultry was practised in China around 246 BC and around at least 400 BC in Egypt; the Egyptians made use of birds in their hieroglyphic scripts, many of which, though stylized, are still identifiable to species. Early written records provide valuable information on the past distributions of species. For instance, Xenophon records the abundance of the ostrich in Assyria. Other old writings such as the Vedas demonstrate the careful observation of avian life histories and include the earliest reference to the habit of brood parasitism by the Asian koel. Like writing, the early art of China, Japan and India demonstrate knowledge, with examples of scientifically accurate bird illustrations. Aristotle in 350 BC in his Historia Animalium noted the habit of bird migration, egg laying, lifespans, as well as compiling a list of 170 different bird species.
However, he introduced and propagated several myths, such as the idea that swallows hibernated in winter, although he noted that cranes migrated from the steppes of Scythia to the marshes at the headwaters of the Nile. The idea of swallow hibernation became so well established that as late as in 1878, Elliott Coues could list as many as 182 contemporary publications dealing with the hibernation of swallows and little published evidence to contradict the theory. Similar misconceptions existed regarding the breeding of barnacle geese, their nests had not been seen, they were believed to grow by transformations of goose barnacles, an idea that became prevalent from around the 11th century and noted by Bishop Giraldus Cambrensis in Topographia Hiberniae. Around 77 AD, Pliny the Elder described birds, in his Historia Naturalis; the earliest record of falconry comes from the reign of Sargon II in Assyria. Falconry is thought to have made its entry to Europe only after AD 400, brought in from the east after invasions by the Huns and Alans.
Starting from the eighth century, numerous Arabic works on the subject and general ornithology were written, as well as translations of the works of ancient writers from Greek and Syriac. In the 12th and 13th centuries and conquest had subjugated Islamic territories in southern Italy, central Spain, the Levant under European rule, for the first time translations into Latin of the great works of Arabic and Greek scholars were made with the help of Jewish and Muslim scholars in Toledo, which had fallen into Christian hands in 1085 and whose libraries had escaped destruction. Michael Scotus from Scotland made a Latin translation of Aristotle's work on animals from Arabic here around 1215, disseminated and was the first time in a millennium that this foundational text on zoology became available to Europeans. Falconry was popular in the Norman court in Sicily, a number of works on the subject were written in Palermo. Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen learned about an falconry during his youth in Sicily and built up a menagerie and sponsored translations of Arabic texts, among which the popular Arab