Australian English is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia. Although English has no status in the Constitution, Australian English is the countrys de facto official language and is the first language of the majority of the population. Australian English began to diverge from British English after the founding of the Colony of New South Wales in 1788 and was recognised as being different from British English by 1820. It arose from the intermingling of early settlers from a variety of mutually intelligible dialectal regions of the British Isles. Australian English differs from other varieties of English in vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar, the earliest form of Australian English was first spoken by the children of the colonists born into the colony of New South Wales. This first generation of children created a new dialect that was to become the language of the nation, the Australian-born children in the new colony were exposed to a wide range of dialects from all over the British Isles, in particular from Ireland and South East England.
The native-born children of the created the new dialect from the speech they heard around them. Even when new settlers arrived, this new dialect was strong enough to blunt other patterns of speech, a quarter of the convicts were Irish. Many had been arrested in Ireland, and some in Great Britain, many, if not most, of the Irish spoke Irish and either no English at all, or spoke it poorly and rarely. There were other significant populations of convicts from non-English speaking part of Britain, such as the Scottish Highlands, anthony Burgess writes that Australian English may be thought of as a kind of fossilised Cockney of the Dickensian era. According to linguist Bruce Moore, the input of the various sounds that went into constructing the Australian accent was from south-east England. Some elements of Aboriginal languages have adopted by Australian English—mainly as names for places and fauna. Many such are localised, and do not form part of general Australian use, while others, such as kangaroo, budgerigar, other examples are cooee and hard yakka.
The former is used as a call, for attracting attention. Cooee is a distance, if hes within cooee. Hard yakka means hard work and is derived from yakka, from the Jagera/Yagara language once spoken in the Brisbane region, of Aboriginal origin is the word bung, from the Sydney pidgin English, meaning dead, with some extension to broken or useless. Many towns or suburbs of Australia have influenced or named after Aboriginal words. The best-known example is the capital, named after a local word meaning meeting place
Front vowels are sometimes called bright vowels because they are perceived as sounding brighter than the back vowels. Near-front vowels are essentially a type of front vowels, no language is known to contrast front and near-front vowels based on frontness alone, rounded front vowels are typically centralized, that is, near-front in their articulation. This is one reason they are written to the right of unrounded front vowels in the IPA vowel chart, in articulation, front vowels contrast with raised vowels and retracted vowels. In this conception, front vowels are a broader category than those listed in the IPA chart, raised or retracted vowels may be fronted by certain consonants, such as palatals and in some languages pharyngeals. For example, /a/ may be fronted to next to /j/ or /ħ/ and this change can be allophonic variation, or it can have become phonemic. English follows the French pattern, but without as much regularity, for native or early borrowed words affected by palatalization, English has generally altered the spelling after the pronunciation Back vowel List of phonetics topics
Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae. Initially it comprised a group of plant species native to Africa and Australia, controversy erupted in the early 2000s when it became evident that the genus as it stood was not monophyletic, and that several divergent lineages needed to be placed in separate genera. It turned out that one lineage comprising over 900 species mainly native to Australia was not closely related to the mainly African lineage that contained A. nilotica—the first and this meant that the Australian lineage would need to be renamed. Botanist Les Pedley named this group Racosperma, which was inconsistently adopted and this was officially adopted, but many botanists from Africa and elsewhere disagreed that this was necessary. A number of species have been introduced to parts of the world. The heterogeneous group varies considerably in habit, from mat-like subshrubs to canopy trees in forest, the genus was first described from Africa by C. F. P.
von Martius in 1829. Several hundred combinations in Acacia were published by Pedley in 2003, the genus of 981 species, Acacia s. l. in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae is monophyletic. All but 10 of its species are native to Australia, where it constitutes the largest plant genus, following a controversial decision to choose a new type for Acacia in 2005, the Australian component of Acacia s. l. now retains the name Acacia. At the 2011 International Botanical Congress held in Melbourne, the decision to use the name Acacia, other Acacia s. l. taxa continue to be called Acacia by those who choose to consider the entire group as one genus. Australian species of the genus Paraserianthes s. l. are deemed its closest relatives, the origin of wattle may be an Old Teutonic word meaning to weave. From around 700 A. D. watul was used in Old English to refer to the branches and sticks which formed fences, walls. Since about 1810 it refers to the Australian legumes that provide these branches, acacias in Australia probably evolved their fire resistance about 20 million years ago when fossilised charcoal deposits show a large increase, indicating that fire was a factor even then.
With no major mountain ranges or rivers to prevent their spread and they began to form dry, open forests with species of the genera Casuarina and Callitris. The southernmost species in the genus are Acacia dealbata, Acacia longifolia, Acacia mearnsii and they are present in all terrestrial habitats, including alpine settings, woodlands, coastal dunes and deserts. In drier woodlands or forest they are an important component of the understory, elsewhere they may be dominant, as in the Brigalow Belt, Myall woodlands and the eremaean Mulga woodlands. Several of its species bear vertically oriented phyllodes, which are green, broadened leaf petioles that function like leaf blades, some phyllodinous species have a colourful aril on the seed. A few species have rather than leaves. Aborigines of Australia have traditionally harvested the seeds of species, to be ground into flour
The brolga, formerly known as the native companion, is a bird in the crane family. It has given the name Australian crane, a term coined in 1865 by well-known ornithological artist John Gould in his Birds of Australia. The brolga is a common, gregarious bird species of tropical and south-eastern Australia. It is a tall, upright bird with a head, long beak, slender neck. The plumage is grey, with black wing tips. It is well known for its intricate mating dance, the nest is built of sticks on an island in marshland and usually two eggs are laid. Incubation takes 32 days and the hatched young are precocial. The adult diet is plant matter, but invertebrates and small vertebrates are eaten. It is the bird emblem of the state of Queensland. The brolga is a bird with a large beak, long slender neck. The sexes are indistinguishable in appearance though the females are usually a little smaller, the adult has a grey-green, skin-covered crown, and the face and throat pouch are featherless and are coral red.
Other parts of the head are green and clothed in dark bristles. The gular pouch, which is pendulous in adult males, is covered with such dense bristles as to make it appear black. The beak is greyish-green and slender, and the iris is yellowish-orange, the ear coverts appear as a grey patch of small feathers surrounded by red naked skin and the body plumage is silvery-grey. The feathers on the back and the wing coverts have pale margins, the primary wing feathers are black and the secondaries grey. The legs and feet are greyish-black, juveniles lack the red band and have fully feathered heads with dark irises. A fully-grown brolga can reach a height of 0.7 to 1.3 metres and has a wingspan of 1.7 to 2.4 metres, adult males average slightly less than 7 kilograms with females averaging a little under 6 kilograms. The weight can range from 3.7 to 8.7 kilograms, the brolga can easily be confused with the sarus crane, however the latters red head colouring extends partly down the neck while the brolgas is confined to the head
Collarenebri is a town in north western New South Wales, Australia. The town in the Walgett Shire local government area and on the Barwon River approximately 75 kilometres northeast of Walgett and it is 16 km from Pokataroo which was the nearest railway town prior to closure of the rail service there. The town is 150 metres above sea level, in the 2011 census, Collarenebri had a population of 767. Collarenebri is a word of the Gamilaraay galariinbaraay, meaning place of flowers or eucalyptus blossoms. Originally spelt Collarindabri, Collarenebri is located near a rocky ford on the Barwon River. In 1860 William Earl settled near the Collarenebri crossing and established The Squatters Arms to capitalise on the traffic through the area. Earl and his pub became famous for having held up by bushranger Captain Thunderbolt. Earl is credited with having established present day Collarenebri, with a prominent street, a number of his descendants still reside in the town. The town of Collarenebri was gazetted on 12 July 1867, by 1890 Collarenebri had become a growing town with a hospital, police station, school and a number of businesses.
The cemetery at Collarenebri dates back to 1906, Collarenebri has long been recorded as a significant site for Aboriginal people living in the area. There are many artifacts and significant sites along the Barwon River, on Collymongle Station there are some very old aboriginal carved trees. There is a well maintained Aboriginal cemetery just outside the town which is unique to the area, with graves covered in crushed and melted glass, many of the buildings in Collarenebri today date back to c.1910. Collarenebri was among the last places in Australia to be converted from a switchboard to an automatic telephone exchange. Volunteers run Collarenebris live, local radio station YAAMA-FM95.9 specialising in indigenous programming, industries in the area include cotton and wheat farming and beef cattle breeding. Other activities include fossicking for gemstones such as topaz, Collarenebri continues to be a significant community for Aboriginal people. The Barwon River area is regarded as one of the best inland fishing locations in Australia, Walgett Shire Council, Plains of Colour, Robert Brown, Carina, QLD,1989 Media related to Collarenebri, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons Collarenebri - Walgett Shire Council
The Liverpool Range is a mountain range and a lava-field province in New South Wales, Australia. The eastern peaks of the range were the traditional territory of the Wonnarua people, the Liverpool Range starts from the volcanic plateau known as the Barrington Tops and runs for about 100 kilometres westwards, forming the northern boundary of the Hunter Region. Parts of the Liverpool Range form the watershed between the coastal and inland drainage of New South Wales and thus form a component of the Great Dividing Range, the western end of the Liverpool Range merges into the Warrumbungle Range. The Liverpool Range has a reputation as a ground for severe summer thunderstorms. The peaks of the range generally experience several snowfalls each winter, the Liverpool Range was named after Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom at the time of its exploration by Europeans. The first route across the range was Pandoras Pass discovered by Allan Cunningham and this is located near the western end of the range, north from the town of Coolah and within Coolah Tops National Park.
The crossing used by the New England Highway is Nowlands Gap, the railway from Newcastle to Werris Creek crosses under this pass via Ardglen Tunnel. The southern slopes of the Liverpool Range are drained by the headwaters of the Hunter River and its tributaries, such as the Pages River, the northern slopes are drained by the headwaters of the Peel River and the Mooki River. The Talbragar River and the Coolaburragundy River rise on the range and flow south-west, List of mountains in Australia List of volcanoes in Australia
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli of the superior teeth. Alveolar consonants may be articulated with the tip of the tongue, as in English, or with the flat of the tongue just above the tip, as in French and Spanish. The laminal alveolar articulation is often called dental, because the tip of the tongue can be seen near to or touching the teeth. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have symbols for the alveolar consonants. Rather, the symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that are not palatalized like English palato-alveolar sh. To disambiguate, the bridge may be used for a dental consonant, note that differs from dental in that the former is a sibilant and the latter is not. Differs from postalveolar in being unpalatalized, the bare letters, etc. cannot be assumed to specifically represent alveolars. If it is necessary to specify a consonant as alveolar, a diacritic from the Extended IPA may be used, the letters ⟨s, t, n, l⟩ are frequently called alveolar, and the language examples below are all alveolar sounds.
Alveolar consonants are transcribed in the IPA as follows, The alveolar or dental consonants and are, along with, there are a few languages that lack them. A few languages on Bougainville Island and around Puget Sound, such as Makah, lack nasals and therefore, colloquial Samoan, lacks both and, but it has a lateral alveolar approximant /l/. In Standard Hawaiian, is an allophone of /k/, but /l/, in labioalveolars, the lower lip contacts the alveolar ridge. Such sounds are typically the result of a severe overbite, the Sounds of the Worlds Languages
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, social justice, health care, and economic development. The word mission originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem, meaning act of sending or mittere, meaning to send. The word was used in light of its usage, in the Latin translation of the Bible. The term is most commonly used for Christian missions, but can be used for any creed or ideology, a Christian missionary can be defined as one who is to witness across cultures. The Lausanne Congress of 1974, defined the term, related to Christian mission as, Missionaries can be found in many countries around the world. Jesus instructed the apostles to make disciples of all nations and this verse is referred to by Christian missionaries as the Great Commission and inspires missionary work. The New Testament-era missionary outreach of the Christian church from the time of St Paul expanded throughout the Roman Empire and beyond to Persia, in 596, Pope Gregory the Great sent the Gregorian Mission into England.
In their turn, Christians from Ireland and from Britain became prominent in converting the inhabitants of central Europe, about the same time, missionaries such as Francis Xavier as well as other Jesuits, Augustinians and Dominicans started moving into Asia and the Far East. The Portuguese sent missions into Africa and these are some of the most well-known missions in history. While some missions accompanied imperialism and oppression, others were relatively peaceful, contemporary Christian missionaries argue that working for justice forms a constitutive part of preaching the Gospel, and observe the principles of inculturation in their missionary work. Over time, the Vatican gradually established a church structure in the mission areas, often starting with special jurisdictions known as apostolic prefectures. The two 9th-century saints Cyril and Methodius had extensive success in central Europe. The Byzantines expanded their work in Ukraine after a mass baptism in Kiev in 988. The Serbian Orthodox Church had its origins in the conversion by Byzantine missionaries of the Serb tribes when they arrived in the Balkans in the 7th century, Orthodox missionaries worked successfully among the Estonians from the 10th to the 12th centuries, founding the Estonian Orthodox Church.
The Russian St. Nicholas of Japan took Eastern Orthodoxy to Japan in the 19th century, the Russian Orthodox Church sent missionaries to Alaska beginning in the 18th century, including Saint Herman of Alaska, to minister to the Native Americans. Quaker publishers of truth visited Boston and other mid-17th century colonies, the Danish government began the first organized Protestant mission work through its College of Missions, established in 1714. This funded and directed Lutheran missionaries such as Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg in Tranquebar, India and he got to know a slave from the Danish colony in the West Indies. Within thirty years, Moravian missionaries had become active on every continent, and they are famous for their selfless work, living as slaves among the slaves and together with the Native Americans, the Delaware and Cherokee Indian tribes
Soliva sessilis, one of up to nine species of the genus Soliva, is a low-growing herbaceous annual plant. Its common names include field burrweed, Onehunga-weed, lawn burrweed, lawnweed and it is one of several plants known as bindi weed, bindii, or bindi-eye. A weedy plant known for its tiny sharp-needled seeds and it appears with small feathery leaves reminiscent of parsley, with an exposed upward-pointing rosette of seeds in a pod nestled at the branch junctions. Eventually small bright flowers appear if the plant is allowed to develop and those familiar with the plant may know it as bindi patches, which cant be walked on barefoot. Dogs and cats are no less affected and tend to avoid areas where they have encountered it and it is mainly found in parks and ovals, though it has become an invasive species in lawns in the southeast USA, Australia and New Zealand. Bindi weed can be removed by pulling it out at the root, usually when its grown big, and started to flower. A hand tool that pinches the tap root, and enables some leverage, bindi can be treated with herbicide.
Late winter and early spring are the best times to destroy the weed before its seeds germinate, effective herbicides are typically combinations of MCPA and Dicamba, which target broad-leaved plants but not grasses. These chemicals have similar effects as natural plant auxins, and their increased concentrations cause unnatural plant growth which kill the plant, mowing grass to a higher level will allow more competitive plants to thrive in the area. Bindi weed favours compacted ground, so aerating the soil should reduce the presence of the plant, encyclopedia of Life Jepson Manual Treatment Media related to Soliva sessilis at Wikimedia Commons Flora of North America Washington Burke Museum Photo gallery
Hunter River (New South Wales)
The Hunter River is a major river in New South Wales, Australia. The Hunter River rises in the Liverpool Range and flows south and east, reaching the Tasman Sea at Newcastle, the second largest city in New South Wales. Its lower reaches form an open and trained mature wave dominated barrier estuary, the river is joined by ten tributaries upstream of Lake Glenbawn, and a further thirty-one tributaries downstream of the reservoir. The main tributaries are the Pages, Goulburn and the Paterson rivers, east of Hexham, the river splits into two main channels, separated by the Ramsar-protected Kooragang Wetlands that feeds Milham Ponds, Wader Pond, Swan Pond and a series of smaller wetland pondages. The southern arm of the river creates Hexham Island, while the northern creaters Smiths Island, the two channels converge at Walsh Point, reaching confluence with Throsby Creek adjacent to the Newcastle central business district, before reaching the river mouth. The Hunter River descends 1,397 m over its 468 km course from the upper reaches, through the Hunter Valley.
The Hunter River is subject to flooding, which Glenbawn Dam. Major floods have occurred on the Hunter including the flood of 1955 that caused devastation to townships along the river, severe flooding again occurred in June 2007 and again in 2015. Towns along the Hunter River, from upstream to downstream, include Aberdeen, Denman, Jerrys Plains, Maitland, the Hunter Valley is one of the best routes to the interior of the state with access relatively unimpeded by mountains and other obstacles. Annual rainfall ranges from 1,100 mm at Newcastle to only 640 mm at Merriwa, in the driest years rainfall can be as low as 600 mm at Newcastle and 375 mm in the upper valley. Around the Barrington Tops on the side of the valley, annual precipitation can be as high as 2,000 mm. In the lower areas, summer maxima are usually around 27 °C, except for the driest parts of Tasmania and a small area of the Monaro between Cooma and Nimmitabel, the Hunter Valley is the southern limit of rich black earths. Around Merriwa and south of Singleton, the soils are very infertile sands more typical of Australia as a whole, parts of the Hunter Valley are important for grape growing and wine producing.
The Hunter Valley is one of Australias most important coal mining areas, the Hunter River is threatened by drought, climate change and proposed loss of water due to coal mining. The region is favoured by thoroughbred horse breeders and stud farms, the Hunter River was discovered by European explorers in the 1790s. In June 1796 fishermen sheltering from bad weather discovered coal there, in 1797 it was formally named the Hunter, after Captain John Hunter who was Governor of the British colony in New South Wales at that time. Between 1826 and 1836 convicts built the 264 km long Great North Road that links Sydney to the Hunter Region
Ethnologue, Languages of the World is a web-based publication that contains information about the 7,099 living languages in its 20th edition, which was released in 2017. The publication is well respected and widely used by linguists, Ethnologue is published by SIL International, a Christian linguistic service organization with an international office in Dallas, Texas. Ethnologue follows general linguistic criteria, which are based primarily on mutual intelligibility, shared language intelligibility features are complex, and usually include etymological and grammatical evidence that is agreed upon by experts. These lists of names are not necessarily complete, in 1984, Ethnologue released a three-letter coding system, called an SIL code, to identify each language that it described. This set of codes significantly exceeded the scope of other standards, e. g. ISO 639-1, the 14th edition, published in 2000, included 7,148 language codes. In 2002, Ethnologue was asked to work with the International Organization for Standardization to integrate its codes into an international standard.
The 15th edition of Ethnologue was the first edition to use this standard and this standard is now administered separately from Ethnologue according to rules established by ISO, and since Ethnologue relies on the standard to determine what is listed as a language. e. A language with which no-one retains a sense of ethnic identity, in December 2015, Ethnologue launched a soft paywall, users in high-income countries who want to refer to more than seven pages of data per month must buy a paid subscription. Ethnologues 18th edition describes 228 language families and six typological categories, in 1986, William Bright, editor of the journal Language, wrote of Ethnologue that it is indispensable for any reference shelf on the languages of the world. In 2008 in the journal, Lyle Campbell and Verónica Grondona said, Ethnologue. has become the standard reference. However, he concluded that, on balance, Ethnologue is a comprehensive catalogue of world languages. Starting with the 17th edition, new editions of Ethnologue are to be published every year, linguasphere Observatory Register Glottolog Lists of languages List of language families Martin Everaert, Simon Musgrave, Alexis Dimitriadis, eds.
The Use of Databases in Cross-Linguistic Studies, linguistic Genocide in Education-or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights. Evaluating language statistics, the Ethnologue and beyond