Promotion and relegation
In sports leagues, promotion and relegation is a process where teams are transferred between two divisions based on their performance for the completed season. In some leagues, playoffs or qualifying rounds are used to determine rankings. This process can continue through several levels of divisions, with teams being exchanged between levels 1 and 2, levels 2 and 3, levels 3 and 4, the number of teams exchanged between the divisions is almost always identical. Such variations will almost inevitably cause an effect through the lower divisions. Even in the absence of such circumstances, the pyramid-like nature of most European football league systems can still create knock-on effects at the regional level. The system is said to be the characteristic of the European form of professional sports league organization. Promotion and relegation have the effect of allowing the maintenance of a hierarchy of leagues and divisions and they also maintain the importance of games played by many low-ranked teams near the end of the season, which may be at risk of relegation. In contrast, a low-ranked US or Canadian teams final games serve little purpose, although not intrinsic to the system, problems can occur due to the differing monetary payouts and revenue-generating potential that different divisions provide to their clubs. For example, financial hardship has sometimes occurred in leagues where clubs do not reduce their wage bill once relegated, some leagues offer parachute payments to its relegated teams for the following year. The payouts are higher than the money received by some non-relegated teams and are designed to soften the financial hit that clubs take whilst dropping out of the Premier League. However, in many cases these parachute payments just serve to inflate the costs of competing for promotion among the lower division clubs as newly relegated teams retain a financial advantage. If these are not satisfied, a team may be promoted in their place. While the primary purpose of the system is to maintain competitive balance. On several occasions, the Italian Football Federation has relegated clubs found to have involved in match-fixing. This occurred most recently in 2006, when the initial champions Juventus were relegated to Serie B. An exception is the proposed UEFA Nations League, which will feature promotion and relegation across four levels, in tennis, the Davis Cup has promotion and relegation where each group uses a knockout tournament format in which first-round losers play off to avoid relegation. In the United States, Canada, and Australia, teams are not promoted or relegated. The USL set up two leagues, now known as the United Soccer League and the Premier Development League, although the system is now in place, it is not compulsory and is rarely used
Iraklis 1908 Thessaloniki F.C.
Iraklis 1908 FC or Iraklis FC, is a Greek football club, based in the city of Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece, currently playing in the Superleague, the top tier of Greek football. Their home ground is the Kaftanzoglio Stadium with a capacity of 27,770, founded in 1908 as Macedonikos Gymnasticos Syllogos, they are one of the oldest in Greek football and the oldest in Thessaloniki, hence the nickname Ghireos. A year later, the name Iraklis was added to the name as an honour to the ancient Greek hero Heracles. The teams colours are cyan or blue and white, inspired by the Greek flag, Iraklis was a founding member of Macedonia Football Clubs Association, as well as the Hellenic Football Federation, as a part of G. S. Iraklis. Before the formation of the league of Alpha Ethniki, Iraklis competed in the league that was run by the Macedonia Football Clubs Association. The club has played in five Greek Cup finals, lifting the trophy once in the 1976 final. They have also a title, as they won the Balkans Cup in 1985. Iraklis traces its roots back in 1899 when Omilos Filomouson was established, the club was established as a cultural union of the Greeks of Thessaloniki, but in 1902 it founded a sports department. Football was a new sport at the time, but rapidly increasing in popularity, the first match that was held by the Omilos Filomouson football team was on 23 April 1905, against a team of the Western European diaspora of the city called Union Sportive. Omilos Filomouson won the match by a 3-0 scoreline, later on, the club faced financial problems, but members of the club joined forces with another Greek athletic club of the city, called Olympia. The result of union was the foundation of a new club on 29 November 1908, called Makedonikos Gymnastikos Syllogos. The new clubs first president was a Greek doctor, Alkiviadis Maltos, the name of the club had a direct reference to the ethnic tensions that took place in the area at that time. Due to the Young Turks revolt of 1908 and their promises for ease of ethnic tensions in the area, thus a new name was decided for the club, Ottomanikos Ellinikos Gymnastikos Syllogos Thessalonikis Iraklis. The new name was approved, together with a new statute, Iraklis won Alliance 3-1, Progrès Sportive 5-1 and after winning the French-German School Alumni Union, the club was proclaimed Champion of Thessaloniki. On 6 April 1914, Iraklis played a match against Athinaikos Syllogos Podosfairou and it was the clubs first match against a club outside Thessaloniki. In 1914, Iraklis established the clubs youth squad, so the students of the Greek Gymnasium of the city could train in football, a year later Iraklis won the second Thessaloniki Football Championship. The next championship was not held due to World War I, in the years following World War I, several football clubs were established in Thessaloniki and that led to the establishment of the Macedonia Football Clubs Association in 1923. The first championship from the newly founded association was organised shortly afterwards, in 1924 Iraklis played its first match against a club from outside the borders of Greece
Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically also known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2015. Athens is the capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. Greece consists of nine regions, Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Thessaly, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace, Crete. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a vast number of islands, eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming a part of the Roman Empire and its successor. The Greek Orthodox Church also shaped modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World, falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greeces rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe, Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, and a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Greeces unique cultural heritage, large industry, prominent shipping sector. It is the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor, the names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages, locations and cultures. The earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, all three stages of the stone age are represented in Greece, for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries and these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, and the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek. The Mycenaeans gradually absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC and this ushered in a period known as the Greek Dark Ages, from which written records are absent. The end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to 776 BC, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, in 508 BC, Cleisthenes instituted the worlds first democratic system of government in Athens
It is the clubs oldest and most successful department, officially established in 1929 and named after the famous ancient Cretan expatriate Olympic runner Ergoteles of Himera. The clubs best finish in the competition is 7th place during the 2013–14 season and it has also won the Beta Ethniki once, in 2006, as well as the Greek Football Amateur Cup in 1983. Its traditional colors are yellow and black, Ergotelis was established as an amateur club of Cretan footballers in 1929 by prominent Heraklion citizens, mainly refugees from Asia Minor. As a result, five of Ergotelis best considered players at the time, were signed by local rival OFI – who remained in the national competitions, after members of the clubs board of directors were either demoted or prosecuted, Ergotelis was practically disbanded in 1967. After the juntas collapse in 1974, several attempts were made to bring the back to Greek football reality. As a result, Ergotelis struggled between the regional and national competitions for over 30 years. Ergotelis managed not to go unnoticed during these years however, achieving some notable breakthroughs in the 80s. During the 1982–83 season, the club won its first national title, lifting the Greek Football Amateur Cup, the 1984–85 season saw the club finishing at the top of the Delta Ethniki Group 1 table to promote to the Gamma Ethniki as champions. This feat marked the end of Ergotelis attempts at a return during this period, Ergotelis briefly resurfaced in the mid-90s, spending two consecutive seasons in the Gamma Ethniki during 1996–98, after winning the Delta Ethniki 1995–96 Group 2 championship. It would then take another 5 years for the club to re-emerge, in the late 90s Ergotelis owners at the time Georgios Soultatos and Nikos Tzortzoglou devised a plan that would eventually lead to the clubs resurrection. However, due to lack of experience, the failed to avoid relegation in its first season in the league. In January 2008, Ergotelis came under the ownership of Heraklion businessman Apostolos Papoutsakis, outside the pitch, the clubs board of directors would gain praise from the media for its initiative to sign international partnerships with Dutch side FC Utrecht and State-side Philadelphia Union. The most notable achievement of this period was an 8th-place finish in the 2010–2011 season, for the 2011–2012 season, the clubs board of directors decided to cut down the teams budget, a direct result of the Greek economic crisis of the late 2000s. To further add to the pain, club president Papoutsakis died on July 23,2012 at the age of 60. The next season saw Ergotelis go through an overhaul on all fronts. Nikos Karageorgiou terminated his contract on mutual consent after six years of service, the roster was rebuilt with youngsters from the clubs training academies, as most of the clubs veterans were either released, or refused to follow the team in the lower division. During mid-season, the club came to financial instability after major shareholders announced they were stepping down. Despite these facts however, Ergotelis managed to secure a second-place finish in the 2012–13 Football League marathon procedure, Ergotelis third tenure in top-flight proved to be short-lived however
Ethnikos Piraeus F.C.
Ethnikos Piraeus 1923 F. C. is a Greek professional football club based in Piraeus. They have had a turbulent recent history, and are competing in the third division Football League 2. Colloquially referred to as Ethnikos Piraeus, is a club with teams competing in football, water polo. The clubs most significant teams, in terms of history and success, are their football and water polo teams, prior to 1959–60 Greek football was played in regional championships and then the top teams from each region would advance to play for the National Championship. In some pre-War years a traditional Final match was played between 2 regional champions, but generally the Panhellenic Championship was played as a final round-robin between at least 3 teams, Ethnikos was Piraeus Champion in 1927–28, but lost the National Championship to Aris. The following year Ethnikos was Piraeus Champion once again, but the National Championship was not played, in 1932–33 Ethnikos won the Greek Cup, the club’s only major title. Ethnikos eliminated Apollon in the Quarterfinals and Olympiacos in the Semifinals before meeting Aris in the Final, Ethnikos and Aris played to a 2–2 draw in Thessaloniki, but Ethnikos won the replay 2–1 and took the Cup. Ethnikos won another Piraeus Championship in 1938–39, but lost the South Division by 2 points, Ethnikos reached the Semifinals of the Greek Cup in 1938–39 and 1939–40, but lost to PAOK and Panathinaikos, respectively. The Ethnikos teams of the mid- to late-1950s are considered by many to be Ethnikos’ greatest teams, in 1955–56 Ethnikos finished 2nd in Greece, just 1 point behind champions Olympiakos. In 1956–57 a scandal robbed Ethnikos of the National Championship, with 4 matches left in the National Championship, Ethnikos was favorite for the title, and next on the schedule was Olympiakos, who Ethnikos had already defeated earlier in the season. Ethnikos was docked 4 points and not allowed to play the final 4 matches of the season, from 1959–60 the Greek championship changed to its modern form and the first division became known as Alpha Ethniki. Since 1959–60 Ethnikos is tied for the 8th-most first division participations with 36, along with OFI, ahead of Ethnikos are traditional powers Olympiakos, Panathinaikos, AEK and PAOK as well as Iraklis, Aris and Panionios. During the 1960s Ethnikos’ best league finishes were 5th in 1962–63 and 6th in 1960–61, from 1960–61 to 1968–69 Ethnikos never finished outside the top 10. Ethnikos reached the Semifinals of the Greek Cup twice during the 1960s, in 1967–68 Ethnikos lost in the Semifinals to Panathinaikos. The following year Ethnikos came desperately close to another Cup Final – after defeating PAOK 5–4 in the Quarterfinals, in 1974–75 Ethnikos made its best challenge for the league championship in the modern era. Though never making another challenge for the league championship, Ethnikos remained consistently competitive during the 1970s. Ethnikos’ two best runs in the Greek Cup in the 1970s were halted by PAOK, in 1972-72 Ethnikos lost to PAOK 3–2 in the Semifinals and in 1976–77 Ethnikos was defeated by PAOK in the Quarterfinals. Ethnikos made decent 7th-place finishes in 1979–80 and 1980–81, but the team would struggle through the rest of the 1980s
Anagennisi Karditsa F.C.
Anagennisi Karditsa, or Anagennisi Karditsa 1904, is a Greek association football club based in the city of Karditsa, Greece. The name of the club comes from the Greek word for Rebirth, playing in the independent Thessalian League from 1929 to 1962, it joined the newly established Greek second division in time for Season 1962-63. In 2008 Anagennisi Karditsa reach the Gamma Ethniki play-off and beat Ilioupoli F. C. 2-0 in Athens to win promotion to Beta Ethniki, Anagennisi Karditsa is a well-supported club by regional football standards, and their passion is very well known. They hold the record for the most fans to attend an away game for Gamma Ethniki in 2008. For many years, Anagennisi also maintained a local rivalry with AOK. In January 2010 the stadium capacity was extended to 9.500 seats, club training facilities are located in the nearby southern borough of Rousso. Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. gr at anagenisi-karditsas. gr
P.A.S.A. Irodotos F.C.
Irodotos F. C. is a Greek football club, based in Nea Alikarnassos, Heraklion. The club was founded in 1932 and they will play for 2nd season in Football League 2 for the season 2014-15. Founded in 1932, the colors are blue and white. It has as an emblem of the bust of Herodotus, the first historian, descended from Halicarnassus, keeps department of Football and Basketball for men, whereas historically functioned and sections of Wrestling, Cycling, Womens Football and Athletics. Delta Ethniki,2 1991-92, 2003–04 Official website
Football League (Greece)
It is It began in 1954 as regional championship, separated in two groups, North and South. Then, the teams were the champions of each Greek football clubs association. Every year the teams were different. In 1960, the Division took its name and some teams were permanent, from 1960 to 1984, there existed multiple groups, peaking in 1962 with ten groups. In 1962, the Division was made permanent, something that had as a condition the disengagement of the teams from their local championships. This change has led many statisticians to begin statistics from this period, for 21 periods, from 1962–63 to 1982–83, championship was carried out in groups. The subordinate system was introduced for first time in 1983–84 season, on August 3,2010, the change of divisions name to Football League was announced. At present, there are eighteen clubs that compete in the Football League, playing each other in a home, at the end of the season, the bottom four teams are relegated to the Football League 2. The top two teams gain automatic promotion, unlike the Superleague, clubs in the Football League do not get relegated if the club fails to obtain a license. All teams in the Football League take part in the Greek Football Cup, Football League official website Table, results and fixtures at Soccerway Promoted Teams Top Scorers Football League News
Gamma Ethniki Cup
The Gamma Ethniki Cup is a football competition cup introduced the 2013–14 season. In this participate only the clubs of the new Football League 2, the Gamma Ethniki Cup winner will compete at the end of the season with the winner of the Amateurs Cup for Amateurs Super Cup. The participation of all teams of Gamma Ethniki is obligatory, the pairs are a result of random drawing. In the Second Round, the four Group winners compete after drawing in single matches. The Final is played on ground, which is decided by the Hellenic Football Federation. In case of a tie, overtime and penalties apply
Macedonia Football Clubs Association
Macedonia Football Clubs Association is an association responsible for administering football in the Prefecture of Thessaloniki. It was formed in 1923 as Football Union of Macedonia and Thrace and it administrated football in the regions of West Macedonia, Central Macedonia and East Macedonia, since 1935 its area of responsibility was restricted within the borders of the Prefecture of Thessaloniki. Founding members of the union were Aris, Iraklis and Megas Alexandros,238 football clubs participate in the championships organised by the Union itself. 9 clubs of the union participate in the Delta Ethniki championship,2 in Football League 2,1 in Football League and 3 in the Greek Superleague and it also holds U-16 and U-18 sides that compete in the respective national interregional championships. From its foundation to 1959 the Union of Football Clubs of Macedonia organised a league that was considered the top tier of football in Northern Greece, and its winner was proclaimed EPSM champion