A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions and other goods. In different parts of the world, a place may be described as a souk, bazaar. Some markets operate on most days, others may be once a week. The term, market comes from the Latin mercatus, the exact phrase was “Ic wille þæt markete beo in þe selue tun, ” which roughly translates as “I want to be at that market in the good town. ”Markets have existed since ancient times. Open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia and Assyria and these markets were typically situated in the towns centre where they were surrounded by alleyways occupied by skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, in ancient Greece markets operated within the agora, and in ancient Rome the forum. In the Graeco-Roman world, the market primarily served the local peasantry. They would sell small surpluses from their farming activities, purchase minor farm equipment.
Major producers such as the estates were sufficiently attractive for merchants to call directly at their farm-gates. The very wealthy landowners managed their own distribution, which may have involved exporting, the nature of export markets in antiquity is well documented in ancient sources and archaeological case studies. At Pompeii multiple markets served the population of approximately 12,000, produce markets were located in the vicinity of the Forum, while livestock markets were situated on the citys perimeter, near the amphitheatre. A long narrow building at the north-west corner of the Forum was some type of market, on the opposite corner stood the macellum, thought to have been a meat and fish market. Market stall-holders paid a tax for the right to trade on market days. Some archaeological evidence suggests that markets and street vendors were controlled by local government, a graffito on the outside of a large shop documents a seven-day cycle of markets, Saturn’s day at Pompeii and Nuceria, Sun’s day at Atella and Nola, Moon’s day at Cumae. etc.
The presence of an official commercial calendar suggests something of the importance to community life. Markets were important centres of social life, in early Western Europe, markets developed close to monasteries, castles or royal residences. Priories and aristocratic manorial households created considerable demand for goods and services - both luxuries and necessities and these centres of trade attracted sellers and would stimulate the growth of the town. A charter would protect trading privileges in return for an annual fee, from the 11th and 12th century, the number of markets and fairs burgeoned
Fortifications of Copenhagen (17th century)
The fortifications of Copenhagen underwent a comprehensive modernization and expansion in the 17th century. The project was commenced and was largely the masterplan of Christian IV in the early 17th century but was continued and completed by his successors, the ring fortification consisted of four bastioned ramparts and an annexed citadel as well as various outworks. Today only the Christianshavn Rampart and the citadel Kastellet remain intact, Christian IVs modernization of the fortifications of Copenhagen commenced in 1606 and would take 20 years to complete. The course of the fortifications was kept but Slotsholmen was now incorporated into the complex. A large bastion in masonry was constructed on its southwestern tip, in the same time, Østervold was taken around parts of Bremerholm to meet the sea. A total of 12 bastions were constructed and just outside the entire fortification a moat was dug, due to topographical variations in the terrain, it was constructed as a series of basins, separated by dams, to solve the problem of variations in the terrain.
The uppermost basin was fed by water from Peblingesøen, the Western and Northern City Gates were renovated and given tall spires and a new Eastern City Gate was built. From 1618-23 Christianshavn was laid out and incorporated as a market town. Strategically situated in the middle of a shallow-watered, marshy area north of Amager, the rampart was constructed with four and a half bastions and a gate, known as Amager Gate. To guard the entrance to the port, a blockhouse was constructed on the shallow-watered Refshaleø in 1624. On the Zealand side of the harbour, north of the city and this work was begun in 1627. As part of his aspirations to strengthen Copenhagen as a regional centre, as early as 1606, when his modernization of the fortifications began, he had purchased 200 hectares of land outside the Eastern City Gate. His intention was to redevelop this area into a new district referred to as Ny København or Sankt Annæ By, the plan was to change the course of Østervold, which at that time made a bend and ran along what is today Gothersgade and Kongens Nytorv.
The new Østervold would be an extension of Nørrevold, connecting it to Sankt Annæ Skanse. However, the 1630s was a time of crisis and both Sankt Annæ Skanse and the new course of Østervold was delayed with no major work going on during that decade. After both Jutland and Scania had been occupied by forces in the first half of the 1640s. The new Østervold was constructed and a new project for the fortress at Sankt Annæ Skanse, in 1840 Christian VIII appointed a national defense commission which two years recommended that the existing fortifications be decommissioned. At the outbreak of the First Schleswig War in 1848, nothing had happened, in 1852, the Line of Demarcation was partially disabandoned but work to maintain and improve the ramparts were carried out as late as 1856-57
Pork is the culinary name for meat from the domestic pig. It is the most commonly consumed meat worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC, Pork is eaten both freshly cooked and preserved. Curing extends the life of the pork products. Ham, smoked pork, gammon and sausage are examples of preserved pork, charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, many from pork. Pork is the most popular meat in East and Southeast Asia and it is highly prized in Asian cuisines for its fat content and pleasant texture. Consumption of pork is forbidden by Jewish and Muslim dietary law, the sale of pork is illegal or severely restricted in Israel and in certain Muslim countries, particularly those where sharia law is part of their constitution. The pig is one of the oldest forms of livestock, having been domesticated as early as 5000 BC and it is believed to have been domesticated either in the Near East or in China from the wild boar. The adaptable nature and omnivorous diet of this creature allowed early humans to domesticate it much earlier than other forms of livestock.
Pigs were mostly used for food, but people used their hides for shields and shoes, their bones for tools and weapons, and their bristles for brushes. Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products such as bacon, sausage, galantines, pâtés, and confit, primarily from pork. Originally intended as a way to preserve meats before the advent of refrigeration, in 15th century France, local guilds regulated tradesmen in the food production industry in each city. The guilds that produced charcuterie were those of the charcutiers, the members of this guild produced a traditional range of cooked or salted and dried meats, which varied, sometimes distinctively, from region to region. The only raw meat the charcutiers were allowed to sell was unrendered lard, the charcutier prepared numerous items, including pâtés, sausages, bacon and head cheese. Due to the nature of the meat in Western culinary history. The year-round availability of meat and fruits has not diminished the popularity of this combination on Western plates, Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, accounting for about 38% of meat production worldwide.
Consumption varies widely from place to place, the meat is taboo to eat in the Middle East and most of the Muslim world because of Jewish kosher and Islamic Halal dietary restrictions. But pork is widely consumed in East and Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, as the result, large numbers of pork recipes are developed throughout the world. Feijoada for example, the dish of Brazil, is traditionally prepared with pork trimmings, tail
Kongens Nytorv is a public square in Copenhagen, centrally located at the end of the pedestrian street Strøget. The largest square of the city, it was out by Christian V in 1670 in connection with a major extension of the fortified city. Outside the gate, an undulating terrain extended towards the sea, as part of Christian IVs ambitious plans to strengthen Copenhagen as a regional centre, he wanted to double the area of the fortified city, he acquired 200 hectares of land outside Østerport in 1606. To protect the new city district, called New Copenhagen or Saint Annes Town, he started construction of a redoubt, Saint Annes Post, in 1627 a customs house was added at the site. According to a masterplan created by the fortification engineer Axel Urups. Shortly after Christian V was crowned in 1670, he decided to level and this decision was taken mainly for military reasons, its strategic location with almost the same distance to all points along the ramparts of the city making it well suited as a central alarm square.
In the same time, the square was to serve as a place royale with inspiration from France, land around the new square was distributed among interested wealthy citizens, including people from the new ranks. Buildings facing the square were required to be in at least two stories and meet certain standards, in 1688, a baroque garden complex with trees around a parterre and a gilded equestrian statue of Christian V in its centre, was inaugurated. In 1747 the entire square was rebuilt by Frederik V as a drill and ceremony ground for the Kings troops until 1908. The equestrian statue of Christian V was created by the French sculptor Abraham-César Lamoureux, dating from 1688, it is the oldest equestrian statue in Scandinavia. Originally made in gilded lead, it was recast in bronze 1939, at the foot of the plinth, Lamoureux placed four allegorical statues. This happened from 1939 to 1942 and the new cast was inaugurated on 22 May 1946, Krinsen is an old form of the Danish word Krans, meaning circle or wreath.
It is an elliptical parterre surrounding the statue of Christian V, the ellipse was a favoured geometrical shape at the time, an obvious example bing the elliptical pattern in the paving around the Marcus Aurelius statue at Piazza del Campidoglio. Around the parterre, two rows of trees were planted, some of the trees were dug up and reused for the establishment of the avenue Østre Allé. New rows of elm trees were planted around the statue in 1855-56, in 2001,80 lime trees were planted as part of a major refurbishment of the square. On the square stands an old kiosk and telephone stand from 1913 and it is built in Baroque Revival style with a copper-clad roof and hand-carved ornamentation. It used to offer the first public telephonic connection in Copenhagen from where it was possible to every day except Sunday from 10 am to 8 pm. Today it houses a small café with outdoor service,1, Charlottenborg Palace Herdorffs House, at No
Valby is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is in the corner of Copenhagen Municipality, and has a mixture of different types of housing. Valby Hill marks the boundary between Valby and the — more central and more urban — neighbouring Vesterbro district, the expression west of Valby Hill is in Danish often used as a metonym for the provinces or outside Copenhagen. With the progressing redevelopment of the Carlsberg area into a new lively, high-density neighbourhood, other former industrial sites are under redevelopment and Valby is today one of the districts in Copenhagen with the fastest growing population. Valby covers an area of 9.23 km² and has a population of 46,161, the most distinctive geographical features of the district are Valby Hill in its north-eastern corner and Harrestrup Å which marks its western boundary. Valby borders on Damhus Lake in its extreme north-western corner, the Danshøj tumulus, along with many other archeological finds in the area, provides evidence that the Valby area has been inhabited since ancient times.
Modern Valby has developed around the two villages of Valby and Vigerslev, the first recorded mention of the name Valby is from 1186, as Walbu, but the history of both settlements probably goes back considerably longer. Valby means village/house on the plain, in the early Middle Ages both villages came under Utterslev, a Crown estate which included most of the area around Havn, the small market town which became Copenhagen. In 1682, Valby had 13 farms and 25 houses with no more land than a modest garden, at the time, the Valby community did not have its own church but instead, since 1628, belonged to Hvidovre Parish. In 1675, Hvidovre Church was extended with a Valby nave, in the 17th century, the road to Roskilde was taken through Valby and an inn opened. The first holder of the license was Hans Pedersen Bladt, a merchant who was elected mayor of Copenhagen in 1675. Valby profited from the proximity of Frederiksberg Palace which was constructed from 1699 to 1703 atop Valby Hill as a new residence for King Frederick IV.
The royal presence in the area brought along more activity in the village and it is said that Queen Marie Sophie, consort of King Frederick VI, often rode through Valby, handing out candy to the children. In 1721, the granted the community new trading privileges and a Rytterskole. Valby became particularly associated with raising poultry which the Valby women sold beside the Caritas Well on Gammeltorv in Copenhagen, the trade took place on Wednesdays and Saturdays, which were market days, until 1857. Instead Valby began to develop into an area where members of the bourgeoisie took up summer residency, one of the first to arrive in Valby proper was the actor James Price who spent his first summer there in 1795, shortly after his arrival in Denmark. He was followed by members of the bourgeoisie. When the first railway out of Copenhagen opened in 1847, a 30 km rail line to Roskilde, it had an intermediate station slightly east of where Valby station lies today
The tympanum, the triangular area within the pediment, is often decorated with relief sculpture. The pediment is found in classical Greek temples, renaissance, a prominent example is the Parthenon, where it contains a tympanum decorated with figures in relief sculpture. This architectural element was developed in the architecture of ancient Greece, in Ancient Rome, the Renaissance, and architectural revivals, the pediment was used as a non-structural element over windows and aedicules. A variant is the segmental or arch pediment, where the normal angular slopes of the cornice are replaced by one in the form of a segment of a circle, both traditional and segmental pediments have broken and open forms. In the broken pediment the raking cornice is left open at the apex, the open pediment is open along the base – often used in Georgian architecture. A further variant is the Swan-necked pediment, where the cornice is in the form of two S-shaped brackets. The decorations in the tympanum frequently extend through these openings, in the form of Alto-relievo sculpture, tondo paintings and these forms were adopted in Mannerist architecture, and applied to furniture designed by Thomas Chippendale.
The terms open pediment and broken pediment are often used interchangeably, a pediment is sometimes the top element of a portico
Arne Emil Jacobsen, Hon. FAIA was a Danish architect and designer. He is remembered for his contribution to architectural Functionalism as well as for the success he enjoyed with simple. Arne Jacobsen was born on 11 February 1902 in Copenhagen and his father Johan was a wholesale trader in safety pins and snap fasteners. His mother Pouline was a bank teller whose hobby was painting floral motifs and he first hoped to become a painter but was dissuaded by his father who encouraged him to opt instead for the more secure domain of architecture. Still a student, in 1925 Jacobsen participated in the Paris Art Deco fair, Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, on that trip, he was struck by the pioneering aesthetic of Le Corbusiers LEsprit Nouveau pavilion. Before leaving the Academy, Jacobsen travelled to Germany, where he acquainted with the rationalist architecture of Mies van der Rohe. Their work influenced his early designs including his graduation project, an art gallery, after completing architecture school, he first worked at city architect Poul Holsøes architectural practice.
It was a spiral-shaped, flat-roofed house in glass and concrete, incorporating a private garage, a boathouse, other striking features were windows that rolled down like car windows, a conveyor tube for the mail and a kitchen stocked with ready-made meals. A Dodge Cabriolet Coupé was parked in the garage, there was a Chris Craft in the boathouse, Jacobsen immediately became recognised as an ultra-modern architect. The year after winning the House of the Future award, Arne Jacobsen set up his own office and he designed the functionalist Rothenborg House, which he planned in every detail, a characteristic of many of his works. Soon afterwards, he won a competition from Gentofte Municipality for the design of a resort complex in Klampenborg on the Øresund coast just north of Copenhagen. The various components of the resort became his major breakthrough in Denmark. In 1932, the first item, the Bellevue Sea Bath, was completed, Jacobsen designed everything from the characteristic blue-striped lifeguard towers and changing cabins to the tickets, season cards and even the uniforms of the employees.
The focal point of the area was supposed to have been a tower, more than a hundred metres high with a revolving restaurant at the top. Still, it is reflected in the arrangement of buildings in the area which all follow lines that extend from their missing centre. In 1934, came the Bellavista residential development, built in concrete and glass, with surfaces and open floor planning. Completing the white trilogy in 1937, the Bellevue Theatre featured a retractable roof allowing open-air performances and these early works clearly show the influence of the White Cubist architecture Jacobsen had encountered in Germany, particularly at the Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart. The cluster of buildings at Bellevue includes the Skovshoved Filling Station
Copenhagen Fire of 1728
The Copenhagen Fire of 1728 was the largest fire in the history of Copenhagen, Denmark. It began on the evening of 20 October 1728 and continued to burn until the morning of 23 October and it destroyed approximately 28% of the city, left 20% of the population homeless, and the reconstruction lasted until 1737. Although the number of dead and wounded was relatively low compared to the extent of the fire, the exact time that the fire started is unknown. Various sources mention times between 6,00 and 8,00 p. m. and 7,30 p. m. is the best estimate, the exact location of the origin of the fire is known. Almost directly across the street from Vesterport was Lille Sankt Clemens Stræde, on the corner facing Vestervold, there was a small house on lot Vester Kvarter 146 owned by Signe, widow of Boye Hansen. The lot is almost identical to the one on the corner of present-day Frederiksberggade, among the widows tenants were restaurant manager Peder Rasmussen and his wife, Anne Iversdatter. It was on the floor of the restaurateurs apartment that the fire started.
The wind blew from the southwest that evening, carrying the fire along Lille Sankt Clemens Stræde, Store Sankt Clemens Stræde, Vombadstuestræde, Antiquitetsstræde, by 9,00 p. m the main street of Vestergade was burning on both sides. From here the fire spread along Store Lars Bjørns Stræde, Lille Lars Bjørns Stræde and Studiestræde, that evening, the fire reached Sankt Peders Stræde, where the Valkendorfs Kollegium dormitory was engulfed in flames. Professor Peder Horrebow, who lived at the dormitory, lost most of his possessions, presumably simultaneously, the fire reached Professor Hans Steenbuchs room on Studiestræde. Around midnight, the reached the priests residence by the church Sankt Petri Kirke. On Nørregade, another fire started at a brewery Wednesday evening – possibly between 10 p. m. and 11 p. m, just prior to that the original fire had reached Gammeltorv, where people fought to keep the fire back. For that reason, help was sent late to deal with the new fire, around midnight the wind shifted to the west, and the situation on Nørregade turned critical as the fire was driven towards the street along a wide front.
At first people sought to keep the fire on the side of Nørregade. Simultaneously, the fire moved from present day Nørre Voldgade towards Nørreport, early Thursday morning, a final desperate attempt to keep the flames from spreading was made at Gammeltorv. Already-burning houses were fired upon with cannons to make them collapse, when that did not work, an order was given to blow up the houses with black powder charges. While the building did go down, people were killed and injured, at Nørregade, the fire reached Sankt Petri Kirke around 8 a. m. By 9 a. m. the flames reached bishop Christen Worms residence, the bishop who was travelling, was left with the clothes on his back and three prayer books
Meatpacking District, Copenhagen
The Meatpacking District is a district of Vesterbro in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is situated between the lines going into Copenhagen Central Station and the street Sønder Boulevard. The modern English-language name Meatpacking District is taken from the Meatpacking District in New York, the district consists of three separate areas, referred to as the White and Brown Kødby for the dominant colour of their buildings. The brown part is the oldest area, closest to the Central Station and it has since c.2000 been changed into a new creative cluster with galleries, art cafés, nightlife and small creative businesses like studios and architecture firms in the historical buildings. It is home to DGI-byen, a sports and conference complex, the newer white area is a 400 ×600 m enclave of white modernistic structures, built in 1934 to the design of city architect Poul Holsøe. A municipal master plan aims at creating an area, encouraging cultural, design. In 1671 a cattle market was established at the initiative of Court Butcher Niels Olufsen at the border of Frederiksberg.
Called Trommesalen because it was opened to the sound of a drum in the morning, in 1878, due to shortage of space and fear of cholera epidemics, the City decided to construct a new cattle market. A municipal committee suggested a location at Kalvebod Beach, which at the time was situated where the square Halmtorvet is today, the site was located on the grounds of a large estate which the city had acquired from the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society in 1870. The new cattle market was constructed partly on an area occupied by shooting ranges. The new market opened on 28 November 1879, planned and designed by architect Hans Jørgen Holm, the market, stretching from Halmtorvet to the gasworks harbour, was dissected by a broad internal road lined with cattle stables, sheep pens and dealers offices on both sides. In 1883, three slaughterhouse for cattle were constructed and a slaughterhouse for pigs and two slaughterhouses for cattle and lambs were added, the market area housed cooling houses and various rendering businesses like tallow melting houses and blood dryers producing blood meal.
Mandatory meat control was introduced, requiring all fresh meat coming into the city to be inspected and stamped. In 1901, the market was extended with construction of Øksnehallen. It housed dealers offices and had a capacity for 1600 head of cattle, the extension included new pens for cattle and sheep and was built by city architect L. P. Fenger. With no vacant space at the market area, the new market hall was placed on reclaimed land where the Falck Headquarters is today. On April 15,1910, the a new complex was inaugurated, besides a 6,500 m² market hall, it included a cooling house and administration. From that date all trade in pork at Gammeltorv was prohibited
The Caritas Well, known as the Caritas Fountain, is the oldest fountain in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was built in 1608 by Christian IV and is located on Gammeltorv and it is known for the Golden Apples yjsy jump on the Queens birthday. The figure group is originally carved in wood by the German wood carver Statius Otto in Elsinore for casts afterwards to be made in bronze, the figures depict the greatest of the three theological virtues, love or charity, symbolised by a pregnant mother with her children. The figures stand on a column in a copper basin, the copper basin is raised above a lower basin on a stone pillar. The female figure sprays water from her breasts while the little boy pees into the basin, from 1857 to 1940, these holes were sealed, out of deference to the sensibilities of the time. The Caritas Well is a result of a relocation and modernization of a fountain erected by Frederik II. He provided for the construction of a six km water tube from Lake Emdrup north of the city to Gammel Torv, the altitude difference being 9 metres, the water pressure was adequate for a fountain to be constructed.
Though ornamental in character, the well was part of the citys water supply system. On the monarchs birthday, copper balls covered in 24 carat gold, symbolising golden apples, are placed in the fountain, the tradition goes back to the 18th century
A thing was the governing assembly of a Northern Germanic society, made up of the free people of the community presided over by lawspeakers. Its meeting-place was called a thingstead, the Anglo-Saxon folkmoot or folkmote was analogous, the forerunner to the witenagemot and a precursor of the modern Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Old Norse, Old Frisian, and Old English þing with the assembly is identical in origin to the English word thing, German Ding, Dutch ding. All of these derive from Proto-Germanic *þingą meaning appointed time. The word shift in the meaning of the thing from assembly to object is mirrored in the evolution of the Latin causa to modern French chose, Spanish/Italian/Catalan cosa. In English the term is attested from 685 to 686 CE in the meaning assembly, it referred to a being, entity or matter. The early sense of meeting, assembly did not survive the shift to Middle English, the meaning of personal possessions, commonly in the plural, first appears in Middle English around 1300.
In the pre-Christian clan-culture of Scandinavia the members of a clan were obliged to avenge injuries against their dead, a balancing structure was necessary to reduce tribal feuds and avoid social disorder. It is known from North-Germanic cultures that the institution was the thing, although similar assemblies are reported from other Germanic peoples. The thing was the assembly of the men and women of a country. There were consequently hierarchies of things, so that the things were represented at the higher-level thing. At the thing, disputes were solved and political decisions were made, the place for the thing was often the place for public religious rites and for commerce. The thing met at regular intervals, elected chieftains and kings, and judged according to the law, the things negotiations were presided over by the lawspeaker and the chieftain or the king. In reality the thing was dominated by the most influential members of the community, the heads of clans and wealthy families, the Thing for Vestfold in Norway, was located in Tønsberg at Haugar.
This site was one of Norways most important places for the proclamation of kings, in 1130, Harald Gille called together a meeting at the Haugating at which he was declared to be King of Norway. Sigurd Magnusson was proclaimed king in 1193 at Haugating, magnus VII was acclaimed hereditary King of Norway and Sweden at the Haugating in August 1319. Main things in Sweden were the Thing of all Swedes, the Thing of all Geats, the island of Gotland had twenty things in late medieval times, each represented at the island-thing called landsting by its elected judge. New laws were decided at the landsting, which took other decisions regarding the island as a whole, the landstings authority was successively eroded after the island was occupied by the Teutonic Order in 1398
In architecture, functionalism is the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building. This statement is less self-evident than it first appears, and is a matter of confusion and controversy within the profession, Functionalism had the strongest influence in Germany, the USSR and the Netherlands. The place of functionalism in building can be traced back to the Vitruvian triad, Functionalist views were typical of some gothic revival architects. The implication is that if the functional aspects are satisfied, architectural beauty would naturally and necessarily follow, sullivans credo is often viewed as being ironic in light of his extensive use of intricate ornament, since a common belief among functionalist architects is that ornament serves no function. The credo does not address whose function he means, form follows function expresses a significant and enduring idea. Sullivans protégé Frank Lloyd Wright is cited as an exemplar of functional design, in the mid-1930s, functionalism began to be discussed as an aesthetic approach rather than a matter of design integrity.
The idea of functionalism was conflated with lack of ornamentation, which is a different matter, for 70 years the preeminent and influential American architect Philip Johnson held that the profession has no functional responsibility whatsoever, and this is one of the many views today. Johnson said, Where form comes from I don’t know, the position of postmodern architect Peter Eisenman is based on a user-hostile theoretical basis and even more extreme, I dont do function. Popular notions of modern architecture are influenced by the work of the Franco-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Both were functionalists at least to the extent that their buildings were radical simplifications of previous styles, Functionalism was a dominant architectonic style in former Czechoslovakia in the period of 1928-1970. It was a result of fascination first by industrial development and by an effort to create a new man and its program was formulated by the Club of architects in Prague in 1924. In 1930s and in 1960s and 1970s the position of functionalism was dominant, the term Danish Functionalism is sometimes used to describe the Danish branch of functionalistic architecture which had its heyday in the 1960s.
A fine example of the Danish Functionalist style is Aarhus University designed by the architect C. F. Møller, Danish architects such as Kaare Klint and Arne Jacobsen extended their approach to the furniture now known as Danish modern. Zlín is a city in Czech republic which was in 1930s completely reconstructed on principles of functionalism, in that time the city was a headquarters of Bata Shoes company and Tomáš Baťa initiated a complex reconstruction of the city which was inspired by functionalism and the Garden city movement. Zlíns distinctive architecture was guided by principles that were observed during its whole inter-war development. Its central theme was the derivation of all elements from the factory buildings. The central position of the production in the life of all Zlín inhabitants was to be highlighted. Hence the same building materials were used for the construction of all public edifices, the common structural element of Zlín architecture is a square bay of 20x20 feet