Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
Philip Gidley King
Captain Philip Gidley King RN was the third Governor of New South Wales, and did much to civilise the young colony in the face of great obstacles. When the First Fleet arrived in January 1788, King was detailed to colonise Norfolk Island for defence, as Governor of New South Wales, he helped develop livestock farming and mining, built many schools and launched the colonys first newspaper. But conflicts with the military wore down his spirit, and they were able to force his resignation, Philip Gidley King was born at Launceston England on 23 April 1758, the son of draper Philip King, and grandson of Exeter attorney-at-law John Gidley. He joined the Royal Navy at the age of 12 as captains servant, King served under Arthur Phillip who chose him as second lieutenant on HMS Sirius for the expedition to establish a convict settlement in New South Wales. On arrival, in January 1788, King was selected to lead a party of convicts and guards to set up a settlement at Norfolk Island. More convicts were sent, and these proved occasionally troublesome, early in 1789 he prevented a mutiny when some of the convicts planned to take him and other officers prisoner, and escape on the next boat to arrive.
Whilst commandant on Norfolk Island, King formed a relationship with the female convict Ann Inett – their first son, another son was born in 1790 and named Sydney. Following the wreck of Sirius at Norfolk Island in March 1790, King left, Ann Inett was left in Sydney with the boys, she married another man in 1792, and went on to lead a comfortable and respected life in the colony. King, who had arranged the marriage, arranged for their two sons to be educated in England, where they became officers in the navy. Whilst in England King married Anna Josepha Coombe on 11 March 1791 and returned shortly after on HMS Gorgon to take up his post as Lieutenant-Governor of Norfolk Island, Kings first legitimate offspring, Phillip Parker King, was born there in December 1791, and four daughters followed. On his return to Norfolk Island, King found the population of one thousand torn apart by discontent after the strict regime of Major Robert Ross. However, he set about enthusiastically to improve conditions and he encouraged settlers, drawn from ex-convicts and ex-marines, and he listened to their views on wages and prices.
By 1794 the island was self-sufficient in grain, and surplus swine were being sent to Sydney, the number of people living off the government store was high, and few settlers wanted to leave. As their conduct became mutinous, he sent twenty of them to Sydney for trial by court-martial, there Lieutenant-Governor Francis Grose censured Kings actions and issued orders which gave the military illegal authority over the civilian population. Grose apologised, but conflict with the continued to plague King. King became Governor on 28 September 1800 and he set about changing the system of administration, and appointed Major Joseph Foveaux as Lieutenant-Governor of Norfolk Island. His first task was to attack the misconduct of officers of the New South Wales Corps in their trading in liquor. He tried to discourage the importation of liquor, and began to construct a brewery, however, he found the refusal of convicts to work in their own time for other forms of payment, and the continued illicit local distillation, increasingly difficult to control
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
The range encloses the Illawarra region which stretches from Stanwell Park in the north to Kiama and the Shoalhaven River in the south. The escarpment or scarp was created between 225 to 280 million years ago and since eroded by creeks to its present height around 30 million years ago, most of it is sandstone, with many Hawkesbury sandstone boulders and ledges visible in addition to the actual cliffs. Its maximum heights are reached in the south, west of Albion Park at Knights Hill,709 metres and this forms the eastern edge of the Southern Highlands plateau, uplifted along with the Blue Mountains around 70 million years ago. Many of the towns on the plain adjacent to the escarpment were first founded to harvest the cedar trees on the slopes of the escarpment or the coal seams beneath it. With the original logging industry of the came the need for passes over the escarpment, creating such ones as Rixons Pass, Bulli Pass, OBriens Road. The city of Wollongong is the city in the Illawarra. The escarpment contains a variety of native flora and fauna and is a haven for many forms of wildlife.
It is known for the Illawarra Flame Tree with its bright foliage, on Saddleback Mountain and at Minnamurra Rainforest and other places there are remnant localities of rainforest bushland, as well as, to the north, dry sclerophyll forests. The southern typical bush meets the northern at Mount Kembla, creating a unique effect, many bird and animal species thrive here and the escarpment contains many historic sites such as mine entrances and passes. The Cambewarra Range is considered a separate, yet related, geological formation that continues around the Noorinan promontory and it is mostly of hard sandstone, with outcrops like Mount Keira and Mount Kembla rising above 450 metres. There are many tracks to the top of such summits including the tip of the escarpment, Saddleback Mountain. The flora ranges from northern and southern eucalypts and at Mount Kembla fuses, the range has much history, including Hoddles Track which used to go to Bowral from Kiama. West of Albion Park is Callula Pass, passes below Knights Hill and descends to Yellow Rock west of Albion Park, still walk-able Between Dapto and Albion Park, Johnsons Spur which has not been used since the establishment of Macquarie Pass.
Numerable areas are protected as part of the Illawarra Escarpment State Conservation Area or as state forests such as Kembla State Forest southwest of Wollongong, much is however private property or owned by mining companies like BHP. There are several well-known lookouts, such as Bald Hill, Bulli Pass, Sublime Point and Mount Keira, some tracks have gone into disrepair such as the Wodi Wodi track at Stanwell Park, but some such as the Mount Keira Ring Track have been upgraded. Weed infestation is a problem, with many areas invaded by lantana, list of mountains of New South Wales R. W. Australia, Australian Broadcasting Corporation – via Radio National
Southern Highlands (New South Wales)
The Southern Highlands, locally referred to as the Highlands, is a geographical region and district in New South Wales, Australia and is 110 km south-west of Sydney. The entire region is under the government area of the Wingecarribee Shire. The region is considered a wine region. The region specifically is the area centred on the towns of Mittagong, Moss Vale. The Highlands geographically sits between 500m and 900m above sea level on the Great Dividing Range, like other regions along this plateau such as the Blue Mountains to the north and the Australian Alps to the south, the Southern Highlands is known for its cool temperate climate. The Southern Highlands council, Wingecarribee Shire, is home to about 44,379 residents and is growing at a rate of 2. 1% per annum, majority of the residents are Australian-born with the minority of the population being born overseas, primarily Europe. The population density of the Highlands is 42.069 persons/km2, Berrima is a village located 10 kilometres west of Bowral and 14 kilometres south west of Mittagong that once served as the main town of the Highlands.
Notably, the region of Bowral and Berrima and various villages including the Northern Villages used to be known as the Berrima District, Berrima contains many historic buildings including the historical Berrima Gaol and Courthouse which is in use today and many other historical buildings. Bowral is considered the centre of the Highlands and may be the most well-known towns of the Highlands. Bowral is well known for its boutiques, gourmet restaurants, Corbett Gardens, the town is home to the Sir Donald Bradman or Bradman Museum. The Bradman Museum is a museum to Australian cricketer Sir Donald Bradman who grew up in. The museum contains artifacts of Bradmans life and serves as a museum of cricket, the museum is located adjacent to Bradman Oval where the Australian Cricket Team play a friendly game annually. Fitzroy Falls is a found in the Morton National Park near the Highlands village of the same name, Fitzroy Falls. The Fitroy Falls reserve offers lookouts of the waterfall and of panoramic views of the Morton National Park, the waterfall and village is located near the lake Fitzroy Reservoir.
The waterfalls and lakes reserve includes lookouts, bushwalking trails and picnic areas, the Illawarra Fly Tree Top Walk, known as Illawarra Fly is located south-east of Robertson in the area known as Knights Hill. The facility is a 500m long and 25m high walk facility that opened in mid-2008, the project is similar to the Otway Fly Tree Top Walk in Victoria, Australia. The project consists of a 1500m walk, moreover, 500m of the 1500m walk is 25m high among the Blackwoods and many other trees of the temperate rainforest of the Budderoo National Park and Illawarra Escarpment. In addition, the project has a 45m high lookout along with the walk that offers panoramic views far south to Bass Point, Joadja is a historic abandoned ghost town about 32 km west of Mittagong
A hierarchy is an arrangement of items in which the items are represented as being above, below, or at the same level as one another. A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally, indirect hierarchical links can extend vertically upwards or downwards via multiple links in the same direction, following a path. This is akin to two co-workers or colleagues, each reports to a superior, but they have the same relative amount of authority. Organizational forms exist that are alternative and complementary to hierarchy. A hierarchy is a system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority, Hierarchies have their own special vocabulary. Most hierarchies use a more specific vocabulary pertaining to their subject, for example, with data structures, objects are known as nodes, superiors are called parents and subordinates are called children. In a business setting, a superior is a supervisor/boss and a peer is a colleague, degree of branching refers to the number of direct subordinates or children an object has a node has).
Hierarchies can be categorized based on the degree, the highest degree present in the system as a whole. Categorization in this way yields two broad classes and branching, in a linear hierarchy, the maximum degree is 1. In other words, all of the objects can be visualized in a lineup, note that this is referring to the objects and not the levels, every hierarchy has this property with respect to levels, but normally each level can have an infinite number of objects. An example of a hierarchy is the hierarchy of life. In a branching hierarchy, one or more objects has a degree of 2 or more, for many people, the word hierarchy automatically evokes an image of a branching hierarchy. Branching hierarchies are present within numerous systems, including organizations and classification schemes, the broad category of branching hierarchies can be further subdivided based on the degree. A flat hierarchy is a hierarchy in which the maximum degree approaches infinity. Most often, systems intuitively regarded as hierarchical have at most a moderate span, therefore, a flat hierarchy is often not viewed as a hierarchy at all.
For example and graphite are flat hierarchies of numerous carbon atoms which can be decomposed into subatomic particles. An overlapping hierarchy is a hierarchy in which at least one object has two parent objects. Pseudo-Dionysius used the related Greek word both in reference to the hierarchy and the ecclesiastical hierarchy
Major-General Lachlan Macquarie CB was a British Army officer and colonial administrator from Scotland. Macquarie served as the fifth and last autocratic Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821, an inscription on his tomb in Scotland describes him as The Father of Australia. Lachlan Macquarie was born on the island of Ulva off the coast of the Isle of Mull in the Inner Hebrides, a chain of islands off the West Coast of Scotland. He was a gentleman of the Scottish Highland family clan MacQuarrie which possessed Ulva, and a region of the Isle of Mull for over one thousand years, and his forebears were buried on Iona. Governor Macquaries father, a man of Intelligence and much of the world, supposedly attained the age of 103 years and his mother was the daughter of a Maclaine chieftain who owned a castle on the Isle of Mull. Macquarie left the island at the age of 14, if he did attend the Royal High School of Edinburgh, as tradition has it, it was only for a very brief period because, at the same age, he volunteered for the army.
Macquarie joined the 84th Regiment of Foot on 9 April 1777, as a new recruit on the way to America he participated in the Battle of the Newcastle Jane. This battle was the first naval victory for a British merchant ship over an American privateer and he was initially stationed at Halifax, Nova Scotia, and was commissioned as an ensign five months after his arrival. On 18 January 1781, he was promoted to lieutenant and transferred to the 71st Regiment of Foot, and served them in New York City, Charleston. In June 1784 he returned to Scotland as a half-pay lieutenant, three years later, on Christmas Day 1787 he received his commission as lieutenant in the 77th Regiment, where he saw service with the army in India and Egypt. Macquarie became a Freemason in January 1793 at Bombay, in Lodge No.1 and he was promoted Captain on 9 November 1789, Major on 12 March 1801. Two years later,1803, he was in London, as Assistant Adjutant General to Lord Harrington, in 1803 and 1804 saw him on active service in India.
In 1793 he married Jane Jarvis, daughter of the Chief Justice of Antigua, three years she died of tuberculosis. In November 1807, Macquaries cousin Elizabeth Henrietta Campbell became his second wife, in April 1809 Macquarie was appointed Governor of New South Wales. At the head of troops he was unchallenged by the New South Wales Corps whose members had become settled in farming, commerce. Macquarie was promoted to Colonel in 1810, Brigadier in 1811 and Major-General in 1813, the Macquaries departed from England in May 1809 aboard HMS Dromedary, accompanied by HMS Hindostan. They reached Sydney on 28 December 1809 and he started as a governor on 1 January 1810 and he appointed John Campbell as his secretary. The first task Macquarie had to tackle was to restore orderly, lawful government, Macquarie was ordered by the British government to arrest both John Macarthur and Major George Johnston, two of the leaders of the Rum Rebellion
Camden, New South Wales
Camden is a historic town, south-west of Sydney, New South Wales, located 65 kilometres from the Sydney central business district. Camden is the centre for the local government area of Camden Council and is a part of the Macarthur region. The area now known as Camden was originally at the edge of land belonging to the Gandangara people of the Southern Highlands who called it Benkennie meaning dry land. North of the Nepean River were the Muringong, southernmost of the Darug people while to the east were the Tharawal people. They lived in extended family groups of 20–40 members, hunting kangaroos and eels and gathering yams and other seasonal fruit and they were described as short, stocky and superbly built and generally considered peaceful. However, as British settlers encroached on their land and reduced their food sources, explorers first visited the area in 1795 and named it Cowpastures after a herd of cattle that had disappeared was discovered there. Macarthur named his property Camden Park in honour of his sponsor, as Macarthurs wool industry thrived, local citizens began pushing for the establishment of a town in the area to support the industry.
Surveyor-General Major Thomas Mitchell suggested Macarthur surrender 320 acres of his land for the purpose to which he refused, following his death in 1834, his children decided to subdivide the land and the first lots in the new town of Camden went on sale in 1840. Camden Post Office opened on 1 May 1841, the day after the nearby Elderslie office closed, by 1883, the population had grown to over 300 and a movement began to establish a local council which held its first meeting in 1889. Between 1882 and 1962 Camden was connected to Campbelltown and Sydney by the Camden railway line, Camden is served by Camden Airport, which is mostly used by trainee pilots for flying schools, the Australian Air League, and other forms of general aviation. Camden has a subtropical climate. Camden is the location of facilities for the veterinary and agricultural schools of the University of Sydney. The local government area has three high schools, Camden High School, Elderslie High School and Elizabeth Macarthur High School, as well as eight Catholic.
The Camden Show is an event which combines amusement park attractions with the elements of a state fair. Camden is served by three radio stations, 2MCR, Vintage FM and C91. 3FM. Local newspapers are the Camden Advertiser, the District Reporter and the Macarthur Chronicle, according to the 2011 census, there were 3,244 residents in Camden. In Camden,80. 7% of people were born in Australia, the most common other countries of birth were England 5. 4%, Scotland 1. 1%, New Zealand 0. 9%, Ireland 0. 6% and Germany 0. 5%. 90. 6% of people only spoke English at home, other languages spoken at home included Italian 0. 7%, Spanish 0. 4% and Indonesian 0. 3%
Great Dividing Range
The Great Dividing Range, or the Eastern Highlands, is Australias most substantial mountain range and the third longest land-based range in the world. The width of the range varies from about 160 km to over 300 km, the Dividing Range does not consist of a single mountain range. It consists of a complex of ranges, upland areas and escarpments with an ancient. The physiographic division name for the landmass is called the East Australian Cordillera, in some places the terrain is relatively flat, consisting of very low hills. Typically the highlands range from 300 m to 1,600 m in height, the mountains and plateaus, which consist of limestones, quartzite and dolomite, have been created by faulting and folding processes. In the north, the rivers on the west side of the drain towards the Gulf of Carpentaria. The higher and more rugged parts of the range do not necessarily part of the crest of the range. At some places it can be up to 400 km wide, notable ranges and other features which form part of the range complex have their own distinctive names.
The Great Dividing Range was formed during the Carboniferous period—over 300 million years ago—when Australia collided with what is now parts of South America, the range has experienced significant erosion since. For tens of thousands of years prior to British colonisation the ranges were home to various Aboriginal Australian nations and clans, evidence remains in some places of their traditional way of life including decorated caves and trails used to travel between the coastal and inland regions. Many descendants of these still exist today and remain the traditional owners. After British colonisation in 1788, the ranges were an obstacle to exploration, although not high, parts of the highlands were very rugged. Towns in the Blue Mountains were named each of these men. This was the start of the development of the districts of inland New South Wales. A road was built to Blaxland by convicts within six months, easier routes to inland New South Wales were discovered towards Goulburn to the southwest, and westwards from Newcastle.
Subsequent explorations were made across and around the ranges by Allan Cunningham, John Oxley, Hamilton Hume, Paul Edmund Strzelecki, Ludwig Leichhardt and these explorers were mainly concerned with finding and appropriating good agricultural land. By the late 1830s the most fertile rangelands adjacent to the ranges had been explored, appropriated from the traditional inhabitants. These included the Gippsland and Riverina regions in the south, up to the Liverpool Plains, various road and railway routes were subsequently established through many parts of the ranges, although many areas remain remote to this day
Norman Barnett Tindale AO was an Australian anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnologist. The family returned to Perth, and in 1917 moved to Adelaide where Tindale took up a position as a cadet at the Adelaide Public Library. Shortly after this, Tindale lost the sight in one eye in a gas explosion which occurred while assisting his father with photographic processing. In January 1919 he secured a position at the South Australian Museum as Entomologists Assistant to Arthur Mills Lea and he had already published thirty-one papers on entomological and anthropological subjects before receiving his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Adelaide in March 1933. Tindale is best remembered for his work mapping the various groupings of Indigenous Australians. This interest began with a trip to Groote Eylandt where an Anindilyakwa man gave Tindale very detailed descriptions of which land was his. This led Tindale to question the orthodoxy of the time which was that Aboriginal people were purely nomadic and had no connection to any specific region.
While Tindales methodology and his notion of the tribe have been superseded. Quite a number of now-important record films were made by Tindale, in 1942 Tindale joined the Royal Australian Air Force and was assigned the rank of Wing Commander. He had previously tried to enlist in the Australian army at the outbreak of WWII but was rejected due to his damaged eyesight, in 1967, at the age of sixty-six, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Colorado. He was eventually honoured with a doctorate by the Australian National University in 1980, during 1993 Tindale received unofficial confirmation of his appointment as an Officer of the Order of Australia, this was presented posthumously, to his widow Muriel. Also in 1993, the South Australian Museum Boards named a public gallery in his honour, Tindale published extensively, both as sole author and collaborator. Note that the archives contain 2,804 items related to Dr Tindale
The Warragamba River, a river that is part of the Hawkesbury-Nepean catchment, is located in the Macarthur region of New South Wales, Australia. The river descends 96 metres, the majority of which is over the dam spillway, and north into the Nepean River, north of the village of Warragamba. Prior to the creation of Lake Burragorang, the Warragamba River would have formed by the confluences of the Coxs, Nattai. Downstream, the river flowed through a gorge that varied in width from 300 metres to 600 metres and it was this configuration which allowed a relatively short but high dam wall in the gorge to impound a large quantity of water. List of rivers of New South Wales List of rivers of Australia Rivers of New South Wales Warragamba Dam Lake Burragorang subcatchment
Mittagong is a town located in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales, Australia, in Wingecarribee Shire. At the 2011 census, Mittagong had a population of 8,103 people, the town acts as the gateway to the Southern Highlands when coming from Sydney. Mittagong is situated at an elevation of 635 metres, the town is close to Bowral, Moss Vale and the Northern Villages such as Yerrinbool and Colo Vale. Moreover, Mittagong is home to many wineries of the Southern Highlands which has been a recent growing wine, Mittagong is colloquially known as Mitta. Mittagong as a town includes the surrounding villages of Welby, Braemar. The town lies between three small mountain reserves, Mount Alexandra 780 metres above sea level, Mount Gibraltar 888 metres above sea level, popular among locals and visitors is a small man made lake, Lake Alexandra, that feeds into the nearby Nattai River. Lookouts are available at all three reserves for viewing, lookouts on Mount Gibraltar include Bowral Lookout, Mittagong Lookout and Mount Jellore Lookout.
Lookouts on Mount Alexandra include Katoomba Lookout and Box Vale Track Lookout, gibbergunyah Reserve include the Gib Lookout and Ninety Acre Hill Lookout. Mount Gibraltar can be seen up close when travelling to Bowral from Mittagong along Bowral Road, the name Mittagong is said to come from an Aboriginal word meaning little mountain. Other suggested meanings are a companion and plenty of native dogs, the town offers visitors the chance to explore its history, small waterfalls and its famed Waratah flowering in November. A chamber music festival is held each Easter, tourists can visit Mount Gibraltar, Lake Alexandra and various wineries located around and in Mittagong. It features one of the first iron mining sites in Australia, the main street boasts a wide array of retailers and many antique shops. Notably, Mittagong is close to many of the Southern Highlands wineries, the wineries have established themselves in the region since the 1980s due to the soil and climate of Mittagong which is believed to be perfect for viticulture.
Mittagong is home to an historical building complex known as the Maltings. In the past, The Maltings served as malthouses for the old major beer company of New South Wales, one of the malthouse buildings can be seen when entering Mittagong on the Old Hume Highway from Braemar. This building is one of the buildings and is over 100 years old. This complex is abandoned and in decay, however, a few years ago it had been subject to an attempted renovation which was stopped shortly after. Mittagong is on the Old Hume Highway, which linked Sydney and Melbourne, Mittagong can be accessed from the Hume Highway in the north via the Aylmerton/Braemar ramp and in the south via the Welby ramp