Bhai Pratap Dialdas
Bhai Pratap, was an Indian businessman and freedom fighter, best remembered as the founder of the towns of Adipur and Gandhidham to resettle refugees from Sindh after the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan in August 1947. Pratap Moolchand Dialdas was born in Sindh, on 14 April 1908 into an affluent family. Bhai Pratap was travelled and had established his businesses in India as well as internationally, his ethnic as well as international taste is reflected amply in Pratab Mahal, which had a huge library with books from around the world. After the partition of India, he left along with his family for Bombay and established a city for the displaced Sindhi Hindus, it was two twin cities that he founded one next to the other by the names of Gandhidham and Adipur, as well as the Kandla Port, in Kutch
Adipur is a town in Kutch District in the state of Gujarat, India. The town is situated 5 miles from Gandhidham. Adipur was founded as a refugee camp after the partition of India, in 1947, by the government of India, its administration was passed onto a self-governing body called the Sindhu Resettlement Corporation Ltd. The person credited with the formation of this settlement was Bhai Pratap Dialdas, who requested land from Mahatma Gandhi for the immigrants from Sindh, Now West Pakistan; the Maharaja of Kutch, Vijayaraji donated 15,000 acres of land. In Adipur/Gandhidham, built on this land; the Indian Institute of Sindhology was established at Adipur is a center for advanced studies and research in the fields related to the Sindhi language, literature and culture. Adipur is famous for a huge number of Charlie Chaplin fans and impersonators; the climate here is usual, there is a trifle rainfall in a year in Adipur town. This climate is considered to be BWh according to the Koppen-Geiger classification of climates.
The average annual temperature is 26.8c. The average rainfall is 375mm. Adipur has nine higher education institutions run by Tolani Collegiate Board: Tolani Commerce College Tolani College of Arts and Science Tolani Institute of Management Studies Tolani Foundation Gandhidham Polytechnic Tolani College of Pharmacy Tolani institute of law Tolani institute of commerce Dada Dukhayal College of Education Dr. H. R. Gajwani College of EducationAdmissions were traditionally competitive with the rest of the district, but overall, due to the limited infrastructure surrounding the campuses, the populace is local students from Anjar, Gandhidham and other surrounding towns. Schools in the city include Excelsior Model School, Shri R. P Patel High School, St. Xavier's School, Sadhu Hiranand Navalrai Academy, Maitri Maha Vidyalaya, Modern School,Mount Carmel School & Twinkle star school Gandhidham Anjar Kandla Galpadar
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
Partition of India
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions and Pakistan. The Dominion of India became, as of 1950, the Republic of India, the Dominion of Pakistan became, as of 1956, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan In 1971, the People's Republic of Bangladesh came into being after Bangladesh Liberation War; the partition involved the division of three provinces, Assam and Punjab, based on district-wide Hindu or Muslim majorities. The boundary demarcating India and Pakistan came to be known as the Radcliffe Line, it involved the division of the British Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service, the railways, the central treasury, between the two new dominions. The partition was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, as the British government there was called; the two self-governing countries of Pakistan and India came into existence at midnight on 14–15 August 1947.
The partition displaced over 14 million people along religious lines, creating overwhelming refugee crises in the newly constituted dominions. The violent nature of the partition created an atmosphere of hostility and suspicion between India and Pakistan that plagues their relationship to the present; the term partition of India does not cover the secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, nor the earlier separations of Burma and Ceylon from the administration of British India. The term does not cover the political integration of princely states into the two new dominions, nor the disputes of annexation or division arising in the princely states of Hyderabad and Jammu and Kashmir, though violence along religious lines did break out in some princely states at the time of the partition, it does not cover the incorporation of the enclaves of French India into India during the period 1947–1954, nor the annexation of Goa and other districts of Portuguese India by India in 1961. Other contemporaneous political entities in the region in 1947, Bhutan and the Maldives were unaffected by the partition.
In 1905, the viceroy, Lord Curzon, in his second term, divided the largest administrative subdivision in British India, the Bengal Presidency, into the Muslim-majority province of East Bengal and Assam and the Hindu-majority province of Bengal. Curzon's act, the Partition of Bengal—which some considered administratively felicitous, contemplated by various colonial administrations since the time of Lord William Bentinck, but never acted upon—was to transform nationalist politics as nothing else before it; the Hindu elite of Bengal, among them many who owned land in East Bengal, leased out to Muslim peasants, protested fervidly. The large Bengali Hindu middle-class, upset at the prospect of Bengalis being outnumbered in the new Bengal province by Biharis and Oriyas, felt that Curzon's act was punishment for their political assertiveness; the pervasive protests against Curzon's decision took the form predominantly of the Swadeshi campaign and involved a boycott of British goods. Sporadically—but flagrantly—the protesters took to political violence that involved attacks on civilians.
The violence, was not effective, as most planned attacks were either preempted by the British or failed. The rallying cry for both types of protest was the slogan Bande Mataram, the title of a song by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, which invoked a mother goddess, who stood variously for Bengal and the Hindu goddess Kali; the unrest spread from Calcutta to the surrounding regions of Bengal when Calcutta's English-educated students returned home to their villages and towns. The religious stirrings of the slogan and the political outrage over the partition were combined as young men, in groups such as Jugantar, took to bombing public buildings, staging armed robberies, assassinating British officials. Since Calcutta was the imperial capital, both the outrage and the slogan soon became nationally known; the overwhelming, but predominantly Hindu, protest against the partition of Bengal and the fear, in its wake, of reforms favouring the Hindu majority, now led the Muslim elite in India, in 1906, to meet with the new viceroy, Lord Minto, to ask for separate electorates for Muslims.
In conjunction, they demanded proportional legislative representation reflecting both their status as former rulers and their record of cooperating with the British. This led, to the founding of the All-India Muslim League in Dacca. Although Curzon, by now, had resigned his position over a dispute with his military chief Lord Kitchener and returned to England, the League was in favour of his partition plan; the Muslim elite's position, reflected in the League's position, had crystallized over the previous three decades, beginning with the 1871 Census of British India, which had first estimated the populations in regions of Muslim majority. In the three decades since that census, Muslim leaders across northern India, had intermittently experienced public animosity from some of the new Hindu p
J. B. Kripalani
Jivatram Bhagwandas Kripalani, popularly known as Acharya Kripalani, was an Indian politician, noted for holding the presidency of the Indian National Congress during the transfer of power in 1947 and the husband of Sucheta Kriplani. Kripalani was a Gandhian socialist, environmentalist and independence activist, he grew close to Gandhi and at one point, he was one of Gandhi's most ardent disciples. Kripalani was a familiar figure to generations of dissenters, from the Non-Cooperation Movements of the 1920s to the Emergency of the 1970s. Jivatram Bhagwandas Kripalani was born in Hyderabad in Sindh in 1888. Following his education at Fergusson College in Pune, he worked as a schoolteacher before joining the freedom movement in the wake of Gandhi's return from South Africa. From 1912 to 1917 Kripalani worked as a lecturer of English and history in Griers Bhumihar Brahmin College,Muzaffarpur, Bihar. Kripalani was involved in the Non-Cooperation Movement of the early 1920s, he worked in Gandhi's ashrams in Gujarat and Maharashtra on tasks of social reform and education, left for Bihar and the United Provinces in northern India to teach and organise new ashrams.
He courted arrest on numerous occasions during the Civil Disobedience movements and smaller occasions of organising protests and publishing seditious material against the British raj. Kripalani joined the All India Congress Committee, became its general secretary in 1928–29. Kripalani was prominently involved over a decade in top Congress party affairs, in the organisation of the Salt Satyagraha and the Quit India Movement. Kripalani served in the Constituent Assembly of India. During this time he rejected the proposal of United Bengal from Abul Hashim and Sarat Bose and called for the division of Bengal and the Punjab. In spite of being ideologically at odds with both the right-wing Vallabhbhai Patel and the left-wing Jawaharlal Nehru – he was elected Congress President for the crucial years around Indian independence in 1947. After Gandhi's assassination in January 1948, Nehru rejected his demand that the party's views should be sought in all decisions. Nehru, with the support of Patel, told Kripalani that while the party was entitled to lay down the broad principles and guidelines, it could not be granted a say in the government's day-to-day affairs.
This precedent became central to the relationship between government and ruling party in subsequent decades. Nehru, supported Kripalani in the election of the Congress President in 1950. Kripalani, supported by Nehru, was defeated by Patel's candidate Purushottam Das Tandon. Bruised by his defeat, disillusioned by what he viewed as the abandonment of the Gandhian ideal of a countless village republics, Kripalani left the Congress and became one of the founders of the Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party; this party subsequently merged with the Socialist Party of India to form the Praja Socialist Party. For a while it was believed that Nehru, stung by the defeat, was considering abandoning the Congress as well. A great many of the more progressive elements of the party left in the months following the election. Congress's subsequent bias to the right was only balanced when Nehru obtained the resignation of Tandon in the run up to the general elections of 1951. In October 1961, Kripalani contested the Lok Sabha seat of V.
K. Krishna Menon serving as Minister of Defence, in a race that would come to attract extraordinary amounts of attention; the Sunday Standard observed of it that "no political campaign in India has been so bitter or so remarkable for the nuances it produced". Kripalani, who had endorsed Menon's foreign policy, devoted himself to attacking his vituperative opponent's personality, but lost the race, with Menon winning in a landslide. Kripalani remained in opposition for the rest of his life and was elected to the Lok Sabha in 1952, 1957, 1963 and 1967 as a member of Praja Socialist Party, his wife since 1938, Sucheta Kripalani, remained in Congress and went from strength to strength in the Congress Party, with several Central ministries. The Kripalanis were at loggerheads in Parliament. One matter they agreed on was the undesirability of vast parts of the Hindu Marriage Act the controversial'Restitution of Conjugal Rights' clause. By this clause a partner who had survived an unsuccessful filing for divorce could move the courts to return to the status quo ante in terms of conjugal interaction.
Kripalani, made one of his most memorable speeches, saying "this provision is physically undesirable, morally unwanted and aesthetically disgusting."Kripalani was concerned with the privilege of parliament over the press. During Nehru's premiership, the Lok Sabha called the Chief Editor of the weekly Blitz, the well-known Russi Karanjia to the bar and admonished him for "denigration and defamation of a member of parliament" for calling Kriplani Cripple-loony; this was despite Karanjia's closeness to and Kripalani's estrangement from, Nehru. Kripalani moved the first-ever No confidence motion on the floor of the Lok Sabha in August 1963 after the disastrous India-China War. Kripalani remained a critic of Nehru's policies and administration, while working for social and environmental causes. While remaining active in electoral politics, Kripalani became more of a spiritual leader of the socialists than anything else, he was active, along with Bhave, in pre
Sindhi Hindus are Sindhi people that follow the Hindu religion and traditions, originate from the Sindh region of modern Pakistan, a part of pre-partition British India. Hinduism, as in other areas of the Indian Subcontinent, was the earliest religion predominantly practiced in the Sindh region in modern-day Pakistan; the region of Sindh has been, still is, home to the largest community of Hindus in Pakistan. Following the Arab Muslim conquest in the 8th century, Islam spread throughout the region and over the period of time Islam became the faith practiced by the majority of Sindhi people; the Islamic religion, coupled with traditional influences and exposure to and interaction with Hinduism, has shaped the diverse Sindhi culture. Starting with Muhammad bin Qasim and Habbari dynasty, the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire ruled the region. After the partition of India in 1947, around half of Sindh's Hindus migrated to India, settled in neighboring Gujarat and the city of Mumbai, where their population is estimated to be 3 million.
There are sizable Sindhi Hindu communities elsewhere in the world, sometimes termed, the'Sindhi diaspora'. Following the partition of India, a significant number of Sindhi Hindus left Sindh following religious-based persecution against Hindus in the province. Many settled in Rajasthan and in the neighbouring Kutch district of Gujarat, which bears linguistic and cultural similarities to Sindh; as per Census of India 2011, there are around 2,772,264 Sindhi speakers living in India. Most Sindhi Hindu family names are a modified form of a patronymic and end with the suffix "-ani", used to denote descent from a common male ancestor. One explanation states that the -ani suffix is a Sindhi variant of'anshi', derived from the Sanskrit word'ansh', which means'descended from'; the first part of a Sindhi Hindu surname is derived from the name or location of an ancestor. In northern Sindh, surnames ending in'ja' are common. A person's surname would consist of the name of his or her native village, followed by'ja'.
Sindhi Hindus add the suffix ‘-ani’ to the name of a great grandfather and adopt the name as a family name. Raja Dahir, last Hindu king of Sindh Hemu Kalani, Freedom fighter Rooplo Kolhi, Freedom fighter J. B. Kripalani, Freedom fighter and President of Indian National Congress at the time of Independence N. R. Malkani, Freedom fighter and social worker Krishna Kripalani, Freedom fighter and parliamentarian L. K. Advani, Former Deputy Prime Minister of India Krishna Kolhi, Senator From Pakistan Peoples Party Rana Bhagwandas, Judge on the Supreme Court of Pakistan Ram Jethmalani, Indian senior lawyer Former Law Minister of India Mahesh Jethmalani, eminent lawyer Gulab Mohanlal Hiranandani,Indian Navy officer who served as the Vice Chief of the Naval Staff K. R. Malkani, journalist and politician Gopichand Hinduja, British businessman, co-chairman of the Hinduja Group Micky Jagtiani,Indian billionaire businessman and owner of Landmark Group Kishore Mahbubani, Singaporean diplomat Sunil Vaswani, chairman of the Stallion Group Niranjan Hiranandani, Indian Billionaire Surendra Hiranandani, Indian Billionaire Chandru Raheja, Indian Billionaire Rajan Raheja, Indian Billionaire Hari Harilela, Hong Kong Indian businessman, Romesh Wadhwani, chairman and CEO of Symphony Technology Group Gulu Lalvani, chairman of Binatone Kartar Lalvani, founder ans chairman of Vitabiotics Tej Lalvani, CEO of the UK's largest vitamin company Vitabiotics Sonu Shivdasani, founder and CEO of Soneva Kabir Mulchandani, Indian businessman Harish Fabiani,Madrid-based Non-Resident Indian businessman.
Lakhumal Hiranand Hiranandani, Indian Otorhinolaryngologist G. S. Sainani, Indian general physician, medical researcher, medical writer and an Emeritus Professor of the National Academy of Medical Sciences. Rana Chandra Singh, Founder of Pakistan Hindu Party and Federal Minister, Seven times member of pakistan National Assembly Sabeer Bhatia and founder of Hotmail Jairamdas Daulatram, political leader in the Indian independence movement, Governor of the Indian states of Bihar and Assam. Suresh H. Advani, oncologist who pioneered Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in India Ishwardas Rohani, Indian politician and former Speaker of Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly Meera Sanyal, former CEO & chairman of the Royal Bank of Scotland in India Sobho Gianchandani, Pakistani Sindhi social scientist, revolutionary writer G. P. Sippy, Bollywood movie producer and director Ramesh Sippy, Bollywood movie producer and director Rajkumar Hirani, Indian film director and editor Asrani, Indian comedian and actor Ranveer Singh, Indian Actor.
Hansika Motwani, Indian Actress. Hiten Tejwani, Indian Actor. Nikhil Advani, Indian Director and Screenwriter. Kiara Advani, Indian Actress. Tarun Tahiliani, Indian fashion designer Rajesh Mirchandani, global communications leader and former British television journalist Pankaj Advani, world champion in Snooker and Billiards from India Sundri Uttamchandani, noted Indian writer Deepak Bhojwani, Ambassador Sindhis in India Hinduism in Pakistan Bherumal Mahirchand Advani, "Amilan-jo-Ahwal" - published in Sindhi, 1919 Amilan-jo-Ahwal - translated into English in 2016 at sindhis