Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Store norske leksikon
Store norske leksikon, abbreviated SNL, is a Norwegian language online encyclopedia. The SNL was created in 1978, when the two publishing houses Aschehoug and Gyldendal merged their encyclopedias and created the company Kunnskapsforlaget. Up until 1978 the two publishing houses of Aschehoug and Gyldendal, Norway's two largest, had published Aschehougs konversasjonsleksikon and Gyldendals konversasjonsleksikon, respectively; the respective first editions were published in 1907–1913 and 1933–1934. The slump in sales for paperbased encyclopedias around the turn of the 21st century hit Kunnskapsforlaget hard, but a fourth edition of the paper encyclopedia was secured by a grant of 10 million Norwegian kroner from the foundation Fritt Ord in 2003; the fourth edition consisted of a total of 12,000 pages and 280,000 entries. First edition, 1978-1981, 12 volumes. Chief editors Olaf Kortner, Preben Munthe, Egil Tveterås Second edition, 1986-1989, 15 volumes. Chief editors Olaf Kortner, Preben Munthe, Egil Tveterås.
Third edition, 1995-1998, 16 volumes. Chief editor Petter Henriksen. Fourth edition, 2005-2007, 16 volumes. Chief editor Petter Henriksen; the online edition of SNL was launched in 2000, had both private and institutional subscribers. The paywall was removed on 25 February 2009, the online encyclopedia became free. On 12 March 2010, Kunnskapsforlaget announced that they would close the online encyclopedia because of lacklustre sales and failing revenue, it was announced that the articles would not be given to the Wikimedia Foundation, with chief-editor Petter Henriksen stating that: "It is important that the people behind the articles remain visible". In 2011, the foundations Fritt Ord and Sparebankstiftelsen DNB acquired the encyclopedia, hired Anne Marit Godal as the new chief editor and established a new organisation, assisted by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters and Norwegian Non-Fiction Writers and Translators Association. In 2014 the Great Norwegian Encyclopedia Association took over the encyclopedia.
In 2016 Erik Bolstad became the new chief editor. As of 2018, the SNL has around 200,000 articles online, updated by 750 affiliated academics; the SNL accepts contributions from users, but all changes to the articles are verified by a topic expert before publication. The online encyclopedia are among the most-read Norwegian published sites, with around 2 million unique visitors per month; the online version of Store norske leksikon
Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier. There are many fjords on the coasts of Alaska, British Columbia, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, Kamchatka, the Kerguelen Islands, New Zealand, Novaya Zemlya, Nunavut, Quebec, South Georgia Island, Washington state. Norway's coastline is estimated at 29,000 kilometres with nearly 1,200 fjords, but only 2,500 kilometres when fjords are excluded. A true fjord is formed when a glacier cuts a U-shaped valley by ice segregation and abrasion of the surrounding bedrock. According to the standard model, glaciers formed in pre-glacial valleys with a sloping valley floor; the work of the glacier left an overdeepened U-shaped valley that ends abruptly at a valley or trough end. Such valleys are fjords. Thresholds above sea level create freshwater lakes. Glacial melting is accompanied by the rebounding of Earth's crust as the ice load and eroded sediment is removed. In some cases this rebound is faster than sea level rise.
Most fjords are deeper than the adjacent sea. Fjords have a sill or shoal at their mouth caused by the previous glacier's reduced erosion rate and terminal moraine. In many cases this sill causes large saltwater rapids. Saltstraumen in Norway is described as the world's strongest tidal current; these characteristics distinguish fjords from rias, which are drowned valleys flooded by the rising sea. Drammensfjorden is cut in two by the Svelvik "ridge", a sandy moraine that during the ice cover was under sea level but after the post-glacial rebound reaches 60 m above the fjord. Jens Esmark in the 19th century introduced the theory that fjords are or have been created by glaciers and that large parts of Northern Europe had been covered by thick ice in prehistory. Thresholds at the mouths and overdeepening of fjords compared to the ocean are the strongest evidence of glacial origin, these thresholds are rocky. Thresholds are related to sounds and low land where the ice could spread out and therefore have less erosive force.
John Walter Gregory argued that fjords are of tectonic origin and that glaciers had a negligible role in their formation. Gregory's views were rejected by subsequent research and publications. In the case of Hardangerfjord the fractures of the Caledonian fold has guided the erosion by glaciers, while there is no clear relation between the direction of Sognefjord and the fold pattern; this relationship between fractures and direction of fjords is observed in Lyngen. Preglacial, tertiary rivers eroded the surface and created valleys that guided the glacial flow and erosion of the bedrock; this may in particular have been the case in Western Norway where the tertiary uplift of the landmass amplified eroding forces of rivers. Confluence of tributatry fjords led to excavation of the deepest fjord basins. Near the coast the typical West Norwegian glacier spread out and lost their concentration and reduced the glaciers' power to erode leaving bedrock thresholds. Bolstadfjorden is 160 m deep with a treshold of only 1.5 m, while the 1,300 m deep Sognefjorden has a threshold around 100 to 200 m deep.
Hardangerfjord is made up of several basins separated by thresholds: The deepest basin Samlafjorden between Jonaneset og Ålvik with a distinct treshold at Vikingneset in Kvam. Hanging valleys are common along U-shaped valleys. A hanging valley is a tributary valley, higher than the main valley and were created by tributary glacier flows into a glacier of larger volume; the shallower valley appears to be ` hanging' above a fjord. Waterfalls form at or near the outlet of the upper valley. Hanging valleys occur under water in fjord systems; the branches of Sognefjord are for instance much shallower than the main fjord. The mouth of Fjærlandsfjord is about 400 m deep; the mouth of Ikjefjord is only 50 meters deep while the main fjord is around 1,300 m at the same point. During the winter season there is little inflow of freshwater. Surface water and deeper water are mixed during winter because of the steady cooling of the surface and wind. In the deep fjords there is still fresh water from the summer with less density than the saltier water along the coast.
Offshore wind, common in the fjord areas during winter, sets up a current on the surface from the inner to the outer parts. This current on the surface in turn pulls dense salt water from the coast across the fjord threshold and into the deepest parts of the fjord. Bolstadfjorden has a threshold of only 1.5 m and strong inflow of freshwater from Vosso river creates a brackish surface that blocks circulation of the deep fjord. The deeper, salt layers of Bolstadfjorden are deprived of oxygen and the seabed is covered with organic material; the shallow threshold creates a strong tidal current. During the summer season there is a large inflow of river water in the inner areas; this freshwater gets mixed with saltwater creating a layer of brackish water with a higher surface than the ocean which in turn sets up a current from the river mouths towards the ocean. This current is more salty towards the coast and right under the surface current there is a reverse current of saltier water from the coast.
In the deeper
Hundvåg is an island in Stavanger municipality in Rogaland county, Norway. The island is located in the borough of Hundvåg, just north of the city centre of Stavanger, separated by the Byfjorden; the 4.7-square-kilometre island is flat and urbanized. There were 9803 residents of the island in 2014. There is some agricultural areas as well as a lot of industry; the small island of Buøy is connected to the south side of Hundvåg by a small man-made isthmus. Hundvåg Church is located on the island. Hundvåg is connected to the mainland by a series of bridges connecting the islands of Buøy to Engøy to Sølyst to Grasholmen and over the Stavanger City Bridge to the mainland of the city. Hundvåg Tunnel is under construction and it will go under the sea and islands from the mainland of Stavanger to the northern part of Hundvåg island. Ryfast subsea tunnel will continue with Ryfylke Tunnel which being built from Hundvåg under the fjord to the east connecting the island to Strand municipality about 15 kilometres away.
List of islands of Norway
Rogaland is a county in Western Norway, bordering Hordaland, Aust-Agder, Vest-Agder counties. Rogaland is the center of the Norwegian petroleum industry. In 2016, Rogaland had an unemployment rate of one of the highest in Norway. In 2015, Rogaland had a fertility rate of 1.78 children per woman, the highest in the country. The Diocese of Stavanger for the Church of Norway includes all of Rogaland county. Rogaland is the region's Old Norse name, revived in modern times. During Denmark's rule of Norway until the year 1814, the county was named Stavanger amt, after the large city of Stavanger; the first element is the plural genitive case of rygir, referring to the name of an old Germanic tribe. The last element is land which means "land" or "region". In Old Norse times, the region was called Rygjafylki; the coat-of-arms is modern. The arms are blue with a silver pointed cross in the centre; the cross is based on the old stone cross in the oldest national monument in Norway. It was erected in memory of Erling Skjalgsson after his death in 1028.
This type of cross was common in medieval Norway. Rogaland is a coastal region with fjords and islands, the principal island being Karmøy; the vast Boknafjorden is the largest bay, with many fjords branching off from it. Stavanger/Sandnes, the third-largest urban area of Norway, is in central Rogaland and it includes the large city of Stavanger and the neighboring municipalities of Sandnes and Sola. Together, this conurbation is ranked above the city Trondheim in population rankings in Norway. There are many cities/towns in Rogaland other than Sandnes, they include Haugesund, Sauda, Kopervik, Åkrehamn, Skudeneshavn. Karmøy has large deposits of copper. Sokndal has large deposits of ilmenite. Rogaland is the most important region for oil and gas exploration in Norway, the Jæren district in Rogaland is one of the country's most important agricultural districts. There are remains in Rogaland from the earliest times, such as the excavations in a cave at Viste in Randaberg; these include. Various archeological finds stem from the Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
Many crosses in Irish style have been found. Rogaland was called Rygjafylke in the Viking Age. Before Harald Fairhair and the Battle of Hafrsfjord, it was a petty kingdom; the Rugians were a tribe connected with Rogaland. A series of festivals and congresses of international fame and profile are arranged, such as The Chamber Music Festival, The Maijazz Festival, The Gladmat Festival, The ONS event, held in Stavanger every second year since 1974; the ONS is a major international conference and exhibition with focus on oil and gas, other topics from the petroleum industry. The Concert Hall and Music Complex at Bjergsted and the Stavanger Symphony Orchestra provide important inspiration in the Norwegian musical environment. Another annual event in Stavanger is The World Tour Beach Volleyball. During this tournament, the downtown is converted into a beach volleyball arena. Rogaland is home to many natural wonders, like Prekestolen and Gloppedalsura. In Stavanger, there is an archeological museum with many artifacts from early history in Rogaland.
An Iron Age farm at Ullandhaug in Stavanger is reconstructed on the original farm site dating back to 350–500 AD. The Viking Farm is a museum at Karmøy; the county is conventionally divided into traditional districts. These are Haugalandet north of the Boknafjorden, Ryfylke in the mountainous east, Jæren to the southwest, Dalane in the far south, the Stavanger region. Rogaland has a total of 26 municipalities: Total population: Anders Andersen Bjelland, politician Bendix Ebbell, amateur Egyptologist, Rogaland county physician from 1917 to 1935. Official county website Region Stavanger Official tourism site for the Stavanger region
Stavanger Peninsula is a peninsula in Rogaland county, Norway. The peninsula is named for the city of Stavanger, located on its northeastern shore and it includes the most populous parts of Greater Stavanger; the peninsula extends from a line between the Sandnes harbour at the southern end of the Gandsfjorden straight west to the village of Ølbør in Sola. This line runs just south of Stavanger Airport; the peninsula is delimited by the Gandsfjorden, Boknafjorden and the North Sea. Stavanger Peninsula comprises mainland Stavanger and Randaberg municipalities, as well as parts of Sandnes and Sola municipalities; the name Stavanger Peninsula can sometimes be used interchangeably with North Jæren, but the former is a geographical region, while the latter is a political definition