It appears to have benefited from the change in the landscape since European colonisation and may be replacing the Major Mitchells cockatoo in parts of its range. The term galah is derived from gilaa, a found in Yuwaalaraay. Galahs are about 35 cm long and weigh 270–350 g and they have a pale silver to mid-grey back, a pale grey rump, a pink face and chest, and a light pink mobile crest. They have a beak, and the bare skin of the eye rings is carunculated. The sexes appear similar, however generally adult birds differ in the colour of the irises, the male has dark brown irises. The colours of the juveniles are duller than the adults, juveniles have greyish chests and crests, and they have brown irises and whitish bare eye rings, which are not carunculated. Galahs are found in all Australian states, and are absent only from the driest areas and it is still uncertain whether they are native to Tasmania, though they are locally common today, especially in urban areas. They are common in metropolitan areas, for example Adelaide and Melbourne.
Flocks of galahs will often congregate and forage on foot for food in open grassy areas, the classification of the galah was difficult. It was separated in the monotypic genus Eolophus, but the relationships were not clear. There are obvious similarities between the galah and the white cockatoos that make up the genus Cacatua and indeed the galah was initially described as Cacatua roseicapilla. Early DNA studies allied the galah with the cockatiel or placed it close to some Cacatua species of different appearance. It fell to the study of Brown & Toft to compare the available data with their mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence research. The significance of these two shared by the Cacatuinae had previously been explained away in earlier studies by strict application of parsimony on misinterpreted data. There is slight variation in the colours of the plumage and in the extent of the carunculation of the eye rings among the three subspecies, most pet birds outside Australia are the south-eastern form.
The galah nests in tree cavities, the eggs are white and there are usually two or five in a clutch. The eggs are incubated for about 25 days, and both the male and female share the incubation, the chicks leave the nest about 49 days after hatching. Living in captivity galahs can reach up to 70 to 80 years of age when a quality diet is strictly followed
Lessor, the cockatoo used in the TV series Baretta, is thought to be a yellow-crested cockatoo but is actually a medium sulphur-crested cockatoo. The yellow-crested cockatoo is found in wooded and cultivated areas of East Timor and Indonesias islands of Sulawesi and the Lesser Sundas. It is easily confused with the larger and more common sulphur-crested cockatoo, the yellow-crested cockatoos crest is a brighter color, closer to orange. The citron-crested cockatoo, which is a subspecies of the cockatoo, is similar. The yellow-crested cockatoos diet mainly of seeds, fruits, nuts. Traditionally, four subspecies have been recognized, Cacatua sulphurea sulphurea – Sulawesi, Cacatua sulphurea abbotti – Masalembu Islands. Cacatua sulphurea parvula – Sumbawa, Flores, based on recent evidence, three additional subspecies should be recognized, Cacatua sulphurea djampeana – Tanah Jampea. Cacatua sulphurea occidentalis – Lesser Sundas from Lombok to Alor, Cacatua sulphurea paulandrewi – Tukangbesi Islands.
The yellow-crested cockatoo nests in tree cavities, the eggs are white and there are usually two in a clutch. The incubation is shared by both parents, the eggs are incubated for about 28 days and the chicks leave the nest about 75 days after hatching. The yellow-crested cockatoo is critically endangered, numbers have declined dramatically due to illegal trapping for the cage-bird trade. Between 1980 and 1992, over 100,000 of these birds were exported from Indonesia yet a German proposal submitted to CITES to move it to Appendix I was not approved. It has since moved to Appendix I. The current population is estimated at fewer than 7,000 individuals and is thought to be declining in number, the subspecies abbotti is found only on the island of Masakambing, one of the Masalembu islands. Its population on this island had fallen to 10 as of June. The decline results from trapping and logging, especially of mangrove, there is an introduced population of these birds in Hong Kong. They are a common sight across the populated area on both sides of the harbour, easily spotted in the woods and public parks in the north.
The large group has developed from a number of caged birds that have been released into the Hong Kong skies over many years
Bushland is a blanket term for land which supports remnant vegetation or land which is disturbed but still retains a predominance of the original floristics and structure. Human survival in bushland has a whole mythology evolving around it, Bushland has been a traditional source of wood for fuel and bushfood. Bushland provides a number of services including the protection of water quality, stopping erosion, acting as a windbreak. This presents a challenge to authorities as infrastructure and habitations encroach into bushland areas, until recently Australia had a very high rate of land clearing which resulted in the destruction of bushland. Since 2006 the rate of land clearing has declined significantly, in New South Wales bushfires cause the greatest destruction of bushland, followed by land clearing for crops, grazing and buildings. Bushland preservation has become the focus of conservation efforts. In Brisbane, the Brisbane City Council has established a Bushland Acquisition Program which is funded by a small levy paid by rate-payers, the program began in 1990 and aims to protect koala habitat from urban development.
It is estimate that the population in the area has declined from 6,240 in 1996 to 1,500 in 2012
Major Mitchell's cockatoo
The Major Mitchells cockatoo known as Leadbeaters cockatoo or pink cockatoo, is a medium-sized cockatoo restricted to arid and semi-arid inland areas of Australia. It is here placed in its own monotypic genus Lophochroa, though to include it in Cacatua as others do is not wrong as long as the corellas are included there. With its soft-textured white and salmon-pink plumage and large, bright red and yellow crest, Major Mitchell females and males are almost identical. The female has a yellow stripe on the crest and develop a red eye when mature. The reaches sexual maturity around 3-4 years old, the oldest recorded pink cockatoo died at 83 years old. Indeed, disregarding the crest, Major Mitchells cockatoo looks almost like a version of that species. The scientific name commemorates the British naturalist, Benjamin Leadbeater, in Central Australia south of Alice Springs, the Pitjantjatjara term is kakalyalya. In contrast to those of the galah, populations of the Major Mitchells cockatoo have declined rather than increased as a result of changes to the arid interior of Australia.
Where galahs readily occupy cleared and part-cleared land, Major Mitchells cockatoo requires extensive woodlands, particularly favouring Callitris and Eucalyptus. Unlike other cockatoos, Major Mitchell pairs will not nest close to one another, so they cannot tolerate fragmented, partly cleared habitats, Major Mitchells cockatoo is not listed as a threatened species on the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Major Mitchells cockatoo is listed as a species on the Victorian Flora. Under this Act, an Action Statement for the recovery and future management of species has been prepared. On the 2007 advisory list of threatened vertebrate fauna in Victoria, was a Major Mitchells cockatoo and was a beloved resident of Illinois Brookfield Zoo near Chicago from the time the zoo opened in 1934 until his death on August 27,2016. Cookie was 83 years old and he had retired from public display since 2009. Flegg, Photographic Field Guide, Birds of Australia, reed New Holland, Sydney & London.
ISBN 1-876334-78-9 Fluffies. org, Zazu the Major Mitchells cockatoo
Birds, a subgroup of Reptiles, are the last living examples of Dinosaurs. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m ostrich. They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at ten thousand. Birds are the closest living relatives of crocodilians, the fossil record indicates that birds evolved from feathered ancestors within the theropod group of saurischian dinosaurs. True birds first appeared during the Cretaceous period, around 100 million years ago, especially those in the southern continents, survived this event and migrated to other parts of the world while diversifying during periods of global cooling. Primitive bird-like dinosaurs that lie outside class Aves proper, in the broader group Avialae, have been found dating back to the mid-Jurassic period, around 170 million years ago. Birds have wings which are more or less developed depending on the species, the digestive and respiratory systems of birds are uniquely adapted for flight.
Some bird species of aquatic environments, particularly seabirds and some waterbirds, have evolved for swimming. Many species annually migrate great distances, Birds are social, communicating with visual signals and bird songs, and participating in such social behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting and mobbing of predators. The vast majority of species are socially monogamous, usually for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years. Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous or, Birds produce offspring by laying eggs which are fertilised through sexual reproduction. They are usually laid in a nest and incubated by the parents, most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching. Some birds, such as hens, lay eggs even when not fertilised, songbirds and other species are popular as pets. Guano is harvested for use as a fertiliser, Birds prominently figure throughout human culture. About 120–130 species have become extinct due to human activity since the 17th century, human activity threatens about 1,200 bird species with extinction, though efforts are underway to protect them.
Recreational birdwatching is an important part of the ecotourism industry, the first classification of birds was developed by Francis Willughby and John Ray in their 1676 volume Ornithologiae. Carl Linnaeus modified that work in 1758 to devise the taxonomic classification system currently in use, Birds are categorised as the biological class Aves in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylogenetic taxonomy places Aves in the dinosaur clade Theropoda, Aves and a sister group, the clade Crocodilia, contain the only living representatives of the reptile clade Archosauria
Cockatiels, are generally regarded as good pets or companion parrots, having a sweet demeanour. Like most other pets, the manner in which the animal is raised, some birds are quite gregarious and sociable while others can be shy, retreating to the back of the cage when an unfamiliar figure appears. If handled often and if they have a patient owner, cockatiels will become tame very quickly compared to some of the parrot species. Cockatiels are generally kept in a cage and allowed to exercise and socialise with their owners outside of the cage for a few hours a day. As a social bird, cockatiels prefer areas with a lot of activity during the waking hours, cockatiels may nap on or near their owners, including the owners chest and shoulders if the owner is stationary for a long period of time. Generally, well-socialized birds are gentle and friendly, some cockatiels enjoy physical contact, lending themselves well to taming. Cockatiels and their owners often develop shared rituals such as petting and preening, cockatiels which are hand-fed from a young age often enjoy physical contact.
Some birds will emit a distinctive hiss when irritated, retreating or defending with pecking bites and this hissing may be coupled with the bird tapping its beak on a hard surface to generate additional attention while lowering its head and spreading its wings in a display of aggression. Cockatiels do have a reputation for demanding attention of their owners on a regular basis and their vocalizations range from soft cheeps to piercing cries, but they lack the screeching voice of other parrots, males are, louder than females. Tamed cockatiels require a consistent few hours of quality time per day with a person or in a persons company, following a natural daylight schedule is the best arrangement for sleep, contrary to the popular belief that all birds must have 12 hours sleep each night. Another reason for allowing exposure to a natural dawn and dusk is that birds will react badly to their cages being covered. In the wild, it would not suddenly become dark, and suddenly become light again, so when it does in captivity, some birds will get confused and scared and may start thrashing around in their cage.
If left on their own, quiet birds will make contact calls with their owners, that can be quite loud if the person is out of sight. Cockatiels can grow so attached to their owners that they may try to protect them from anyone who tries to come near them, such as a partner or family member, by biting or hissing. By keeping cockatiels in a shared room, they are exposed to all family members equally and will not favour one person. Cockatiels must be acquainted with the family, in order to assure even temperament toward all. Cockatiels can be bullied by smaller but more dominant birds such as budgerigars, however budgerigars may over-preen the cockatiels plumage, causing bald spots. It is not uncommon at all for a larger or smaller bird to maim the cockatiel, creating lifelong disabilities, like almost all other parrots, love to chew paper and may chew objects when left unattended
Taxonomy is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups. The exact definition of taxonomy varies from source to source, but the core of the remains, the conception, naming. There is some disagreement as to whether biological nomenclature is considered a part of taxonomy, the broadest meaning of taxonomy is used here. The word taxonomy was introduced in 1813 by Candolle, in his Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, the term alpha taxonomy is primarily used today to refer to the discipline of finding and naming taxa, particularly species. In earlier literature, the term had a different meaning, referring to morphological taxonomy, ideals can, it may be said, never be completely realized. They have, however, a value of acting as permanent stimulants. Some of us please ourselves by thinking we are now groping in a beta taxonomy, turrill thus explicitly excludes from alpha taxonomy various areas of study that he includes within taxonomy as a whole, such as ecology, physiology and cytology.
He further excludes phylogenetic reconstruction from alpha taxonomy, Ernst Mayr in 1968 defined beta taxonomy as the classification of ranks higher than species. This activity is what the term denotes, it is referred to as beta taxonomy. How species should be defined in a group of organisms gives rise to practical and theoretical problems that are referred to as the species problem. The scientific work of deciding how to define species has been called microtaxonomy, by extension, macrotaxonomy is the study of groups at higher taxonomic ranks, from subgenus and above only, than species. While some descriptions of taxonomic history attempt to date taxonomy to ancient civilizations, earlier works were primarily descriptive, and focused on plants that were useful in agriculture or medicine. There are a number of stages in scientific thinking. Early taxonomy was based on criteria, the so-called artificial systems. Later came systems based on a complete consideration of the characteristics of taxa, referred to as natural systems, such as those of de Jussieu, de Candolle and Bentham.
The publication of Charles Darwins Origin of Species led to new ways of thinking about classification based on evolutionary relationships and this was the concept of phyletic systems, from 1883 onwards. This approach was typified by those of Eichler and Engler, the advent of molecular genetics and statistical methodology allowed the creation of the modern era of phylogenetic systems based on cladistics, rather than morphology alone. Taxonomy has been called the worlds oldest profession, and naming and classifying our surroundings has likely been taking place as long as mankind has been able to communicate
Cork is an impermeable buoyant material, the phellem layer of bark tissue that is harvested for commercial use primarily from Quercus suber, which is endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa. The montado landscape of Portugal produces approximately half of cork harvested annually worldwide, Cork was examined microscopically by Robert Hooke, which led to his discovery and naming of the cell. There are about 2,200,000 hectares of cork forest worldwide, 34% in Portugal and 27% in Spain. Annual production is about 200,000 tons,49. 6% from Portugal,30. 5% from Spain,5. 8% from Morocco,4. 9% from Algeria,3. 5% from Tunisia,3. 1% Italy, and 2. 6% from France. Once the trees are about 25 years old the cork is traditionally stripped from the trunks every nine years, the trees live for about 300 years. The cork industry is regarded as environmentally friendly. Cork production is considered sustainable because the cork tree is not cut down to obtain cork. The tree continues to live and grow, the sustainability of production and the easy recycling of cork products and by-products are two of its most distinctive aspects.
Cork Oak forests prevent desertification and are a habitat in the Iberian Peninsula. The Corticeira Amorim’s study, in particular, was developed by PricewaterhouseCoopers, results concluded that, concerning the emission of greenhouse gases, each plastic stopper released 10 times more CO2, whilst an aluminium stopper releases 26 times more CO2 than does a cork stopper. The Cork Oak is unrelated to the trees, which have corky bark but are not used for cork production. Cork is extracted only from early May to late August, when the cork can be separated from the tree without causing permanent damage, when the tree reaches 25–30 years of age and about 24 in in circumference, the cork can be removed for the first time. However, this first harvest almost always produces poor quality or male cork, bark from initial harvests can be used to make flooring, shoes and other industrial products. Subsequent extractions usually occur at intervals of 9 years, though it can take up to 13 for the cork to reach an acceptable size.
If the product is of quality it is known as gentle cork. The workers who specialize in removing the cork are known as extractors and this is the most delicate phase of the work because, even though cutting the cork requires quite a bit of strength, the extractor must not damage the underlying phellogen or the tree will be harmed. To free the cork from the tree, the extractor pushes the handle of the axe into the rulers, a good extractor needs to use a firm but precise touch in order to free a large amount of cork without damaging the product or tree. These freed portions of the cork are called planks, the planks are usually carried off by hand since cork forests are rarely accessible to vehicles
The Eleonora cockatoo, Cacatua galerita eleonora, known as medium sulphur-crested cockatoo, is similar in appearance to other subspecies of the sulphur-crested cockatoo. It is native to the Aru Islands in Indonesia, but has introduced to Kai Islands. It is the smallest of the four subspecies of Cacatua galerita,44 cm long and weighing in at between 404–602 grammes. The Eleonora cockatoo often has pale yellow ear patches, and yellow diffusion throughout the body, especially under the wings, the Eleonora has a bald patch behind its crest. The Eleonora cockatoo was named by Dr. Otto Finsch and he discovered the subspecies in Amsterdams Artis zoo and named it after Maria Eleonora van der Schroef, the wife of the director of the zoo. In the wild, the Eleonora cockatoo is found in woodlands, forests. It feeds on nuts, flower buds, seeds, the breeding season of this cockatoo is mainly from September to January. The birds build their nests in a hollow or rock crevice. The female lays 2–3 white oval eggs, which hatch after a period of 30 days, both parents incubate the eggs and in turn provide for the chicks.
The young fledge after about 75 days, one notable Eleonora cockatoo is Snowball, a bird recently demonstrated to be capable of beat induction – in other words, that the bird is capable of perceiving a musical beat and dancing to it. Like all cockatoos, the Eleonora cockatoo is considered to be very intelligent
The citron-crested cockatoo is a medium-sized cockatoo with an orange crest, dark grey beak, pale orange ear patches, and strong feet and claws. The underside of the wing and tail feathers have a pale yellow colour. The eye colour ranges from brown through very dark brown to black, the smallest of the yellow-crested cockatoo subspecies, it is endemic to Sumba in the Lesser Sunda Islands in Indonesia. The diet consists mainly of seeds, fruits, the citron-crested cockatoo is an endangered bird whose population has declined due to habitat loss and illegal trapping for the cage-bird trade. A1993 survey of Sumba estimated the numbers at less than 2,000 individuals. Together with the subspecies of the yellow-crested cockatoo, it is listed in appendix I of the CITES list. Consequently, international trade is regulated and trade in wild caught citron-crested cockatoos is illegal. Being friendly and sociable, hand-reared citron-crested cockatoos can make good pets and they are not as noisy as most cockatoos, but are curious and like to chew.
They are generally quiet, but they can make a loud honking or screeching sound and they can make a repetitive quieter whistling or squeaking noise. They are not as good at imitating human speech as some members of the family, although they readily learn behaviors. They often raise the coloured crest feathers in display, when surprised and their droppings are semi-solid and can be messy. As with many species, citron-crested cockatoos taken as pets need much greater care. In personality, they are more shy or nervous than other cockatoos. They are not commonly seen in pet stores, but are becoming popular with breeders. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds website - threats to bird populations
The sulphur-crested cockatoo is a relatively large white cockatoo found in wooded habitats in Australia and New Guinea and some of the islands of Indonesia. They can be very numerous, leading to them sometimes being considered pests. A highly intelligent bird, they are known in aviculture. In Australia, sulphur-crested cockatoos can be found widely in the north and east, ranging from the Kimberley to as far south as Tasmania and they are numerous in suburban habitats in cities such as Adelaide, Canberra and Brisbane. Except for highland areas, they occur throughout most of New Guinea and on smaller islands such as Waigeo and Aru. Within Australia, sulphur-crested cockatoos of the race have been introduced to Perth. Outside Australia, they have introduced to Singapore, where their numbers have been estimated to be between 500 and 2000. They have introduced to Palau and New Zealand. In New Zealand the introduced populations may number less than 1000 and this species has been recorded as established in Hawaii and from various islands in Wallacea, but it is unclear if it has managed to become established there.
It has a length of 44–55 cm, with the Australian subspecies larger than subspecies from New Guinea. The plumage is white, while the underwing and -tail are tinged yellow. The bill is black, the legs are grey, and the eye-ring is whitish, males typically have almost black eyes, whereas the females have a more red or brown eye, but this requires optimum viewing conditions to be seen. The differences between the subspecies are subtle, C. g. fitzroyi is similar to the nominate race but lacks the yellow on the ear tufts and has slightly blueish skin around the eye. C. g. eleonora is similar to C. g. fitzroyi but is smaller and has broader feathers in the crest and it is similar in appearance to the three species of corellas found in Australia. However, corellas are smaller, lack the prominent yellow crest and have pale bills, in captivity, the sulphur-crested cockatoo is easily confused with the smaller yellow-crested cockatoo or the blue-eyed cockatoo with a differently shaped crest and a darker blue eye-ring.
Their distinctive raucous call can be loud, it is adapted to travel through the forest environments in which they live. These birds are curious, as well as very intelligent. They have adapted well to European settlement in Australia and live in many urban areas