A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans
The Gang Ranch is a Canadian ranch in the Chilcotin region of the Central Interior of British Columbia. It is located 28 miles north of Clinton on the west bank of the Fraser River opposite the Indian Reserve community of Dog Creek; the ranch, near Alkali Lake, was founded in 1863. For many years the largest ranch in North America, it is now the second-largest in Canada, after the Douglas Lake Ranch; the Churn Creek Protected Area is nearby. Two American brothers and Jerome Harper, traveled from Harpers Ferry, via California, to British Columbia in the Cariboo Gold Rush, they mined in Yale, lived in Victoria for a time. At one point, they were accused of supporting the rebel Confederacy and plotting against the nearby North. One account suggests; some miners found the remote plateau. Unsuccessful in their search for gold, the Harpers settled on the west bank of the Fraser River in 1863 and installed a gang plow, thus the Gang Ranch began its long operation. The Harpers made an agreement with the Chilcotin Indian Kalalest whereby the land at the confluence of the Chilcotin and Fraser rivers was divided between the First Nations and the Harpers.
The Harpers began to drive cattle from Washington or Oregon, hundreds of miles on the hoof, northwards to feed the hungry gold miners. One drive was made from Utah; the brothers bought and sold stock and land, moving at first. The town of Horsefly was first called "Harper's Camp" and included a steam sawmill. From their gains with the cattle drives, the brothers expanded the Gang Ranch; the Harpers had misfortune, including a severe winter in 1878. Despite this, the brothers persevered. In 1883, they bought 8,900 acres of Chilcotin land from the government; the brothers had rangeland at Hat Creek, Cache Creek and Kamloops, in all about 38,000 acres. The business operated as the Canadian Ranching Company but the brothers ran into further financial difficulty and the Canadian Ranching Company was sold, in 1891, to an English partner; the new proprietor was one of the founders of the Cassell publishing house. Retired from publishing, Galpin was looking for new ventures and investments. After a few years, the business was restructured as the Western Canadian Ranching Company in 1898.
It continued under this name until 1952. Galpin's local representative was Jim Prentice, who became his son-in-law when he married one of Galpin's nine daughters, Mabel. Prentice added to the standing of the WCRC when he was elected a member of the Legislative Assembly, as the Hon J D Prentice. Considerable work was needed: fencing pastures and building sawmills, bridges and roads. At the same time, they had to oversee the feeding and rounding-up of thousands of head of cattle in rough terrain. With the goodwill and assistance of the Chilcotin people, the ranch prospered. Families such as Gaspard, Paternaude and Kalalest settled in the area; the English owners continued into the twentieth century. A combination of absentee landowners, salaried English managers and rough BC bush meant that the business was not always profitable; the hardscrabble way of the ranch, combined with the hard work of developing a business in raw territory, was costly. The Depression and the market crash took its toll; the English owners sold the ranch, but not before introducing English farming practices to the area, English housewares and furniture to the "Big House" on the premises.
In the late 1970s, the ranch was bought by Alsager Holdings. This was the first time in many years that the ranch had been Canadian owned and television news crews came out several times from Vancouver, to cover the story of the ranch's Canadian ownership and subsequent fall into receivership. Dale Alsager and his wife lived on the ranch in a house. Lonnie Jones was manager and cow boss, he made camp with the cowboy crew. Bob Munsey from Paulina, Oregon was the cow boss. Douglas Lake Cattle Company List of historic ranches in British Columbia Gang Ranch info page, ancestry.com "Gang Ranch". BC Geographical Names
A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or in the case of a cogwheel, inserted teeth, which mesh with another toothed part to transmit torque. Geared devices can change the speed and direction of a power source. Gears always produce a change in torque, creating a mechanical advantage, through their gear ratio, thus may be considered a simple machine; the teeth on the two meshing gears all have the same shape. Two or more meshing gears, working in a sequence, are called a transmission. A gear can mesh with a linear toothed part, called a rack, producing translation instead of rotation; the gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in belt pulley system. An advantage of gears is; when two gears mesh, if one gear is bigger than the other, a mechanical advantage is produced, with the rotational speeds, the torques, of the two gears differing in proportion to their diameters. In transmissions with multiple gear ratios—such as bicycles and cars—the term "gear" as in "first gear" refers to a gear ratio rather than an actual physical gear.
The term describes similar devices when the gear ratio is continuous rather than discrete, or when the device does not contain gears, as in a continuously variable transmission. Early examples of gears date from the 4th century BC in China, which have been preserved at the Luoyang Museum of Henan Province, China; the earliest preserved gears in Europe were found in the Antikythera mechanism, an example of a early and intricate geared device, designed to calculate astronomical positions. Its time of construction is now estimated between 150 and 100 BC. Gears appear in works connected to Hero of Alexandria, in Roman Egypt circa AD 50, but can be traced back to the mechanics of the Alexandrian school in 3rd-century BC Ptolemaic Egypt, were developed by the Greek polymath Archimedes; the segmental gear, which receives/communicates reciprocating motion from/to a cogwheel, consisting of a sector of a circular gear/ring having cogs on the periphery, was invented by Arab engineer Al-Jazari in 1206.
The worm gear was invented in the Indian subcontinent, for use in roller cotton gins, some time during the 13th–14th centuries. Differential gears may have been used in some of the Chinese south-pointing chariots, but the first verifiable use of differential gears was by the British clock maker Joseph Williamson in 1720. Examples of early gear applications include: The Antikythera mechanism Ma Jun used gears as part of a south-pointing chariot; the first geared mechanical clocks were built in China in 725. Al-Jazari invented the segmental gear as part of a water-lifting device; the worm gear was invented as part of a roller cotton gin in the Indian subcontinent. The 1386 Salisbury cathedral clock may be the world's oldest still working geared mechanical clock; the definite ratio that teeth give gears provides an advantage over other drives in precision machines such as watches that depend upon an exact velocity ratio. In cases where driver and follower are proximal, gears have an advantage over other drives in the reduced number of parts required.
The downside is that gears are more expensive to manufacture and their lubrication requirements may impose a higher operating cost per hour. An external gear is one with the teeth formed on the outer surface of a cone. Conversely, an internal gear is one with the teeth formed on the inner surface of a cylinder or cone. For bevel gears, an internal gear is one with the pitch angle exceeding 90 degrees. Internal gears do not cause output shaft direction reversal. Spur gears or straight-cut gears are the simplest type of gear, they consist of a disk with teeth projecting radially. Though the teeth are not straight-sided, the edge of each tooth is straight and aligned parallel to the axis of rotation; these gears mesh together only if fitted to parallel shafts. No axial thrust is created by the tooth loads. Spur gears tend to be noisy at high speeds. Helical or "dry fixed" gears offer a refinement over spur gears; the leading edges of the teeth are set at an angle. Since the gear is curved, this angling makes.
Helical gears can be meshed in crossed orientations. The former refers to. In the latter, the shafts are non-parallel, in this configuration the gears are sometimes known as "skew gears"; the angled teeth engage more than do spur gear teeth, causing them to run more smoothly and quietly. With parallel helical gears, each pair of teeth first make contact at a single point at one side of the gear wheel. In spur gears, teeth meet at a line contact across their entire width, causing stress and noise. Spur gears make a characteristic whine at high speeds. For this reason spur gears are used in low-speed applications and in situations where noise control is not a problem, helical gears are used in high-speed applications, large power transmission, or where noise abatement is important; the speed is considered high. A disadvantage of helical gears is a resultant thrust along the axis of the gear, which must
Gangs is the second studio album by the Northern Irish post-rock band And So I Watch You From Afar, released on 29 April 2011 on Richter Collective. Gangs was released to positive critical acclaim. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalised rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 68, based on 9 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews." Allmusic reviewer Dave Donnelly referred to the album's sound as "weightier and more abrasive than its predecessor" but criticised that it was "tailored for the stage" which "sacrificed some of the beautiful flow and elegant dynamic." He awarded the album three and a half out of five stars. Writing for the Austin Chronicle, Adam Schragin said that Gangs "spins an enormously wrought piece of work that matches the band's inflated aspirations with production values" but called the songs "oddly unmemorable" in his two out of five star review. BBC Music writer Brad Barrett praised the album, summarising it as "an album strewn with the debris of a war march, albeit one laced with smirks and triumphant songs" and noted how it "starts to feel textural as opposed to bludgeoning."
Simon Jay Catling of Drowned in Sound rated the album nine out of ten and described its music as "maelstrom of dexterity gives way to great waves of squalled sound."In her four-star review for Entertainment.ie of Gangs, Jenny Mulligan said "its eight tracks come together harmoniously self-referencing with repeated patterns and sequences, moving with ease from the band's characteristic ferocious vigour." Kerrang! awarded the album three out of five stars and wrote "while this is as trying and testing as it is unique, it's not without its charms", Q called Gangs "monstrously heavy full of tense, nervous energy", awarding the album three stars. Writing for PopMatters, Brice Ezell said "particularly distinctive are the guitar lines that, while never at the level of Steve Vai-like shred, are quite tricky and at times groovy" and praised the album's mixture of post-rock and math rock style, in his seven out of ten review. Rock Sound writer Pete Withers rated Gangs nine out of ten and said "Seamlessly flowing from repetitive, hypnotic guitar patterns to delectable swathes of effortless grace, the record builds and burns, stacking surprise upon surprise before breaking it all back down to delicately strummed moments of reflective reprieve."Gangs was nominated for the Choice Music Prize in January 2012, though lost out to Oceans of Frequency by Jape.
All tracks written by And So I Watch You From Afar. All personnel credits adapted from the Gangs' online release notes, and So I Watch You From AfarRory Friers – guitar Tony Wright – guitar Jonathan Adger – bass Chris Wee – drums, percussionTechnical personnelAnd So I Watch You From Afar – production Rocky O'Reilly – production, mixing Lee McMahon – engineering assistant Robin Schmidt – mastering
Gang is a hamlet in the parish of St Ive in east Cornwall, England, UK
One Man Gang
George Gray is an American professional wrestler, better known by his ring name, One Man Gang. For two years in the World Wrestling Federation, he was Akeem "The African Dream". Prior to this, he was the top heel for the WWF's short-lived national competitor, the Universal Wrestling Federation, UWF Heavyweight Champion for six months in 1986 and 1987. Gray, a native of South Carolina, trained with longtime local independent wrestler and promoter Chief Jay Eagle and Darren "Rattlesnake" Westbrooks, he started his career at the age of 17 on the Carolina independent circuit wrestling both under his real name and as "Crusher Gray." He moved on to wrestle in the Kentucky/Tennessee area, including for International Championship Wrestling, under the ring name Crusher Broomfield. Gray went in as part of a package along with Bragg and Ric Starr. One of Broomfield's major angles was that his contract was owned by ICW Champion Randy Savage and Savage's nemesis Ron Garvin defeated Savage in a match to set Broomfield free.
He worked for several National Wrestling Alliance-affiliated promotions, Mid-South Wrestling, World Championship Wrestling as One Man Gang, billed as being from Chicago's Halsted Street on the South Side. He was managed by Kevin Sullivan, Theodore Long, Gentleman Jim Holiday, Sir Oliver Humperdink in various territories. In the regional territories, he was a member of Skandor Akbar's "Devastation Inc." as well as working with Gary Hart in World Class Championship Wrestling. It was as a protégé of Akbar's in the Mid-South territory where Gray would get the name that would stick with him the rest of his career. Making his debut in the territory by interfering in matches and assaulting the fan favorite, Mid-South announcer Bill Watts would say about the then-unnamed assailant "He's a one-man gang!". The Gang worked on-and-off in Mid-South in between tours of Florida and Texas, he would return to his hometown territory, the Carolinas, to work for Jim Crockett Promotions, where he was billed as "The One Man Gang, George Gray."
He worked in Texas All Star wrestling. It was on his last tour for Mid-South when the promotion renamed itself the Universal Wrestling Federation, with Gang one of its top villains, feuding at the main-event level with UWF top fan favorite Jim Duggan. In late 1986, Gang won the UWF Heavyweight Championship in an angle where the champion Terry Gordy was injured earlier in the evening by a revenge-minded "Dr. Death" Steve Williams. Gang, scheduled to face Gordy on the card, was awarded the belt via forfeit, he held that title for six months facing Duggan and Ted DiBiase. In May 1987, Gray began receiving enquiries from the World Wrestling Federation about coming up to wrestle for them, he promptly agreed to terms, but returned to the UWF in order to drop the title to Big Bubba Rogers, there from his normal place in the NWA due to the recent sale of the UWF to Jim Crockett. Gray made his debut in the WWF on May 12, 1987, being managed by Slick, in a match against Jesse Cortez, he spent much of his early WWF run defeating enhancement talent in short matches in order to build him up, most notably in a match where he Gourdbustered his opponent after the bell and did the same to the referee, thus being fined $10,000 for his actions.
While the Gang defeated enhancement talent and other lower card wrestlers with ease, he was on the end of defeat when main eventing against bigger stars such as Hulk Hogan and Randy Savage, although Gang was a major part of the angle regarding Billy Graham being forced into retirement. One Man Gang participated in the first Survivor Series pay-per-view as a member of André the Giant's team, fighting a team led by Hulk Hogan. In 1988, Gang entered the inaugural Royal Rumble at number 19 out of 20 participants and was one of the last two men left in the ring, before being eliminated by Jim Duggan. One Man Gang participated in the World Title Tournament at WrestleMania IV, defeating Bam Bam Bigelow by count-out in the opening round, he drew a bye in the quarterfinals before being disqualified in the semifinals against eventual-tournament-winner Randy Savage after Gang attempted to hit Savage with his manager's cane. Following his loss at WrestleMania, Gang was placed lower "on the card," feuding with Bam Bam Bigelow, Koko B.
Ware, Don Muraco. In September 1988, One Man Gang's manager, announced that Gang was African and planned to re-embrace his roots. An episode of WWF Superstars, which aired on September 24, 1988, featured a vignette with Gene Okerlund on-location in an American ghetto, dubbed "The Deepest Darkest Parts Of Africa," where dancers dressed as tribal Africans danced and chanted around a fire; this vignette received some criticism, as the Caucasian "Akeem" delivered a promo in which he spoke with an stereotypical "jive" black accent and danced in the style of Dusty Rhodes while an African ritual took place in the background. Akeem and the Big Boss Man captained a team that featured "The Million Dollar Man" Ted DiBiase, the Red Rooster, Haku to battle the Mega Powers' team at Survivor Series in 1988. During the match, Akeem along with teammate Big Boss Man handcuffed Hulk Hogan to the ring post and were disqualified; the two formed. Though the Twin Towers never held the WWF Tag Team Championship, they did feud with WWF World Tag Team champions Demolition at house shows while feuding with the Mega Powers (Hulk Hogan and undisputed WWF Champion "Macho Man" Ra
Gang is an album by Johnny Hallyday and directed by Jean-Jacques Goldman and released in December 1986. "L'envie" "Je t'attends" "J'oublierai ton nom" "Toute seule" "Je te promets" "Laura" "Tu peux chercher" "Dans mes nuits... on oublie" "Encore" "Ton fils"Source: Gang track listing