Chang Myon was a South Korean statesman, diplomat and social activist as well as a Roman Catholic youth activist. He was the Prime Minister of the Second Republic, his styled name was Unseok. His English name was John Chang Myon. Under the Japanese rule, Chang worked as a teacher. From 1919–21, he taught at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology School and from 1931–36 at Dongsung Commerce High School. From 1937–44, he was principal of Hyehwa Kindergarten of the Hyehwa-dong Catholic Church. From 1936–45, he was principal of Dongsung Commerce High School. In 1948, he led the delegation of the Republic of Korea to the UN General Assembly. In 1949, he became the first ambassador of the Republic of Korea to the United States. In 1950, he appealed to the United States and the UN to send troops to assist in the Korean War. On November 23, 1950, he was appointed the second prime minister of the First Republic of Korea. From 1956 to 1960, he served as the fourth vice president of the First Republic of Korea; when Syngman Rhee's government was ousted by the student-led pro-democracy uprising of April 19 Movement, he was elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic in 1960.
After the country adopted a parliamentary system in response to Rhee's abuse of presidential power, Chang became the head of government. Chang Myon's government ended when Park Chung-hee led a successful military coup on May 16, 1961, which marked the end of the Second Republic and the nation's brief experimentation with the cabinet form of government. Chang Myon was born in 1899 in Hansung, he was the first son of Lucia Hwang. His father was a revenue officer of the seaport of Incheon and became superintendent of customs of the seaport of Busan, his given name was Myon. He was a member of the Indong Chang Family, descended from Jukjong Chang Cham, a well-known Neo-Confucianism philosopher. Chang's ninth-generation grandfather lived in South Pyongan Province Province but his father moved to Incheon; the first Roman Catholic believer in his family was Lady Park. In 1906, he began studying at Incheon Parkmun Primary School, graduated in 1912, he went to Incheon Public Simsang Elementary School, graduating in 1914.
He attended Suwon Agriculture High School, he graduated on May 25, 1917. In March 1916, he married Kim Ok-yun, they had three daughters. In September 1918, he was registered at the YMCA Village School, from 1919–21 he taught at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology School. On March 1, 1919, he participated in the eponymous protests against Japanese occupation of Korea but escaped arrest. In January 1921, Chang Myon went to the United States with his younger brother Chang Bal to study, they were sponsored by the Maryknoll Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America. In September 1921, he entered Manhattan College and in 1924 took a one-year leave of absence from the college due to acute appendicitis. In August 1921, he entered the Secular Franciscan Order. After graduating from Manhattan College in July 1925, he left for Italy on July 30 to attend the beatification of 79 Korean Joseon Catholic martyrs, he was received by Pope Pius XII. That August he returned to Korea. On December 2, 1925, he was appointed Maryknoll Center School's professor of the Korean language and translation.
At the same time, he served as the leader of the laity for the Pyongyang archdiocese. On February 11, 1927, he formally entered the service of the Pyongyang Catholic church, he translated religious terms for Catholic teaching into the Korean language and published The Summary of Religious Terms in November 1929. In 1930, he published Way of the seeker of truth and on September 15 he published An Outline of Joseon Catholic History. On March 18, 1931, he moved to Seoul. Appointed as a teacher at Dongsung Commerce High School on April 1, 1931, he took on the responsibility of teaching English and rhetorical subjects. On July 10th, along with Jeong Ji-yong, he published the first issue of Catholic Young Men's News. In 1935, he became Manager of Affairs for Dongsung Commerce High School. On April 1, 1937, he became the lay leader of Hyehwa-dong Catholic Church and principal of Hyehwa Kindergarten. On November 19, 1936, he became principal of Dongsung Commerce High School. At the same time he took on the additional role of principal of Gyesong Elementary School in Jongro, Seoul, in April 1939.
That September, he was appointed chairman of the Seoul Catholic Young Men's National Union. He translated James Gibbons' The Faith of Our Fathers: A Plain Exposition and Vindication of the Church Founded by Our Lord Jesus Christ into the Korean language and published the hangul edition on July 4, 1944. On February 11, 1946, he was appointed a member of the Democratic Conference and a Representative of Emergency Peoples Conference; that August, Chang was elected to the South Korean Provisional National Assembly. By this time, he emerged as a major political figure in the Syngman Rhee administration of the First Republic of Korea. On May 10, 1948, he ran for a National Assembly seat from Jongro District of Seoul, he was duly elected on May 30. On October 11 of the same year, he led the delegation of the Republic of Korea to the UN Gene
Incheon the Incheon Metropolitan City, is a city located in northwestern South Korea, bordering Seoul and Gyeonggi to the east. Inhabited since the Neolithic, Incheon was home to just 4,700 people when it became an international port in 1883. Today, about 3 million people live in the city, making it South Korea's third most-populous city after Seoul and Busan; the city's growth has been assured in modern times with the development of its port due to its natural advantages as a coastal city and its proximity to the South Korean capital. It is part of the Seoul Capital Area, along with Seoul itself and Gyeonggi Province, forming the world's fifth largest metropolitan area by population. Incheon has since led the economic development of Korea by opening its port to the outside world, ushering in the modernization of Korea as a center of industrialization. In 2003, the city was designated as Korea's first free economic zone. Since large local companies and global enterprises have invested in the Incheon Free Economic Zone, including Samsung which chose Songdo International City as its new investment destination for its bio industry.
As an international city, Incheon has held numerous large scale international conferences, such as the Incheon Global Fair & Festival in 2009. The 17th Asian Games Incheon 2014 was held in Incheon on 19 September 2014. Incheon has established itself as a major transportation hub in northeast Asia with the Incheon International Airport and Incheon Port; the city is home to the Green Climate Fund, an international organization addressing environmental issues. The first historical record of the Incheon area dates back to 475 CE, during the reign of King Jangsu of Goguryeo, by the name of Michuhol, supposed to be located on today's Munhak Hill; the area underwent several name changes with successive dynasties. In Goryeo era, Incheon was called Inju; the current name was turned to Incheon in 1413. Incheon County became Incheon Metropolitan Prefecture. Old Incheon consisted of today's southern Incheon and northern part of Siheung City; the city centre was Gwangyo-dong, where the local academy were located.
The "original" two remaining buildings of the Incheon prefecture office are located in Munhak Elementary School, while the newly built prefecture office buildings are right across from Munhak Baseball Stadium. Another historical name of the city, was not used until the opening of the port in 1883. After the opening of the Incheon port, the city centre moved from Gwangyo to Jemulpo. Today, either Jemulpo or Gwangyo-dong is considered "Original Incheon", it was renamed as Jinsen during Japanese rule in Korean peninsula. In 1914, the Japanese colonial government merged outer parts of old Incheon with Bupyeong County, forming Bucheon County. Through 1936 and 1940, some part of Bucheon County was recombined into Incheon City, by which some part of "old" Bupyeong was annexed into Incheon. Incheon was part of Gyeonggi Province, but was granted Directly Governed City status on July 1, 1981. In 1989, neighbouring islands and Gyeyang township of Gimpo County were ceded to Incheon and in 1995 Geomdan township of Gimpo Country and two counties of Ganghwa and Onjin were annexed to Incheon Metropolitan City.
Incheon was known as Inchon prior to South Korea's adoption of a new Romanization system in 2000. The city was the site of the Battle of Chemulpo Bay, where the first shots of the Russo-Japanese War were fired. During the Korean War, Incheon was occupied by North Korean troops on 4 September 1950. Eleven days Incheon was the site of the Battle of Inchon, when United States troops landed to relieve pressure on the Pusan Perimeter and to launch a United Nations offensive northward; the result was a decisive UN victory and it was recaptured on 19 September 1950. The USS Inchon was named after the tide-turning battle. Incheon has hosted a series of major international events; the Global Fair & Festival 2009 Incheon was held in the Songdo District in August 2009. It was open from 7 August to 25 October for a period of 80 days, it was a comprehensive international event with global institutions and corporations as participants. Various musicians and artists performed during the event; the city hosted a meeting of the G20 Finance Ministers in February 2010.
Incheon was the site of the third Global Model United Nations Conference, held from 10th to the 14th of August 2011. It first hosted the Incheon Women Artists' Biennale in 2004 which expanded into welcoming international artists in its subsequent 2007, 2009 and 2011. Incheon hosted the Asian Games in 2014. On 27 February 2007, Incheon declared itself an "English City," and inaugurated the "Incheon Free English Zone" program; the goal of the program is to make the city as proficient in English as Hong Singapore. This is for the ultimate purpose of establishing Incheon as a commercial and business hub of northeast Asia; the official slogan of the program is "Smile with English." Incheon is home to a number of colleges and universities: George Mason University Korea Campus Ghent University Global Campus Gyeongin National University of Education Incheon campus Inha University Gachon University Medical·Ganghwa campus Gyeongin Women's College Inha Technical College Incheon Catholic University Incheon City College I
North Korea the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, with Pyongyang the capital and the largest city in the country. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. To the north and northwest, the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok and Tumen rivers. North Korea, like its southern counterpart, claims to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula and adjacent islands. In 1910, Korea was annexed by Imperial Japan. After the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II in 1945, Korea was divided into two zones, with the north occupied by the Soviet Union and the south occupied by the United States. Negotiations on reunification failed, in 1948, separate governments were formed: the socialist Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, the capitalist Republic of Korea in the south.
An invasion initiated by North Korea led to the Korean War. The Korean Armistice Agreement brought about a ceasefire. North Korea describes itself as a "self-reliant" socialist state, formally holds elections, though said elections have been described by outside observers as sham elections. Outside observers generally view North Korea as a Stalinist totalitarian dictatorship noting the elaborate cult of personality around Kim Il-sung and his family; the Workers' Party of Korea, led by a member of the ruling family, holds power in the state and leads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland of which all political officers are required to be members. Juche, an ideology of national self-reliance, was introduced into the constitution in 1972; the means of production are owned by the state through state-run enterprises and collectivized farms. Most services such as healthcare, education and food production are subsidized or state-funded. From 1994 to 1998, North Korea suffered a famine that resulted in the deaths of between 240,000 and 420,000 people, the population continues to suffer malnutrition.
North Korea follows "military-first" policy. It is the country with the highest number of military and paramilitary personnel, with a total of 9,495,000 active and paramilitary personnel, or 37% of its population, its active duty army of 1.21 million is the fourth largest in the world, after China, the United States and India. It possesses nuclear weapons; the UN inquiry into human rights in North Korea concluded that, "The gravity and nature of these violations reveal a state that does not have any parallel in the contemporary world". The North Korean regime denies most allegations, accusing international organizations of fabricating human rights abuses as part of a smear campaign with the covert intention of undermining the state, although they admit that there are human rights issues relating to living conditions which the regime is attempting to correct. In addition to being a member of the United Nations since 1991, the sovereign state is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, G77 and the ASEAN Regional Forum.
The name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel. After the division of the country into North and South Korea, the two sides used different terms to refer to Korea: Chosun or Joseon in North Korea, Hanguk in South Korea. In 1948, North Korea adopted Democratic People's Republic of Korea as its new legal name. In the wider world, because the government controls the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, it is called North Korea to distinguish it from South Korea, called the Republic of Korea in English. Both governments consider themselves to be the legitimate government of the whole of Korea. For this reason, the people do not consider themselves as'North Koreans' but as Koreans in the same divided country as their compatriots in the South and foreign visitors are discouraged from using the former term.
After the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, Korea was occupied by Japan from 1910 to 1945. Japan tried to suppress Korean traditions and culture and ran the economy for its own benefit. Korean resistance groups known as Dongnipgun operated along the Sino-Korean border, fighting guerrilla warfare against Japanese forces; some of them took part in parts of South East Asia. One of the guerrilla leaders was the communist Kim Il-sung, who became the first leader of North Korea. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Korean Peninsula was divided into two zones along the 38th parallel, with the northern half of the peninsula occupied by the Soviet Union and the southern half by the United States; the drawing of the division was assigned to two American officers, diplomat Dean Rusk and Army officer Charles Bone
The Sydney Morning Herald
The Sydney Morning Herald is a daily compact newspaper owned by Nine in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Founded in 1831 as the Sydney Herald, the SMH is the oldest continuously published newspaper in Australia and a national online news brand; the print version of the newspaper is published six days a week. The Sydney Morning Herald includes a variety including the magazines Good Weekend. There are a variety of lift-outs, some of them co-branded with online classified advertising sites: The Guide on Monday Good Food and Domain on Tuesday Money on Wednesday Drive, Shortlist on Friday News Review, Domain, Drive and MyCareer on SaturdayAs of February 2016, average week-day print circulation of the paper was 104,000; the editor is Lisa Davies. Former editors include Darren Goodsir, Judith Whelan, Sean Aylmer, Peter Fray, Meryl Constance, Amanda Wilson, William Curnow, Andrew Garran, Frederick William Ward, Charles Brunsdon Fletcher, Colin Bingham, Max Prisk, John Alexander, Paul McGeough, Alan Revell and Alan Oakley.
The February 2016 average circulation of the paper was 104,000. In December 2013, the Audit Bureau of Circulations's audit on newspaper circulation states a monthly average of 132,000 copies were sold, Monday to Friday, 228,000 copies on Saturday, both having declined 16% in 12 months. According to Roy Morgan Research Readership Surveys, in the twelve months to March 2011, the paper was read 766,000 times on Monday to Friday, read 1,014,000 times on Saturdays; the newspaper's website smh.com.au was rated by third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb as the 17th and 32nd most visited website in Australia as of July 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the fifth most visited news website in Australia and as the 42nd newspaper's website globally, attracting more than 15 million visitors per month, it is available nationally except in the Northern Territory. Limited copies of the newspaper are available at newsagents in New Zealand and at the High Commission of Australia, London. In 1831 three employees of the now-defunct Sydney Gazette, Ward Stephens, Frederick Stokes and William McGarvie, founded The Sydney Herald.
In 1931 a Centenary Supplement was published. The original four-page weekly had a print run of 750. In 1840, the newspaper began to publish daily. In 1841, an Englishman named John Fairfax purchased the operation, renaming it The Sydney Morning Herald the following year. Fairfax, whose family were to control the newspaper for 150 years, based his editorial policies "upon principles of candour and honour. We have no wish to mislead. During the decade 1890, Donald Murray worked there; the SMH was late to the trend of printing news rather than just advertising on the front page, doing so from 15 April 1944. Of the country's metropolitan dailies, only The West Australian was in making the switch. In 1949, the newspaper launched The Sunday Herald. Four years this was merged with the newly acquired Sun newspaper to create The Sun-Herald, which continues to this day. In 1995, the company launched the newspaper's web edition smh.com.au. The site has since grown to include interactive and multimedia features beyond the content in the print edition.
Around the same time, the organisation moved from Jones Street to new offices at Darling Park and built a new printing press at Chullora, in the city's west. The SMH has since moved with other Sydney Fairfax divisions to a building at Darling Island. In May 2007, Fairfax Media announced it would be moving from a broadsheet format to the smaller compact or tabloid-size, in the footsteps of The Times, for both The Sydney Morning Herald and The Age. Fairfax Media dumped these plans in the year. However, in June 2012, Fairfax Media again announced it planned to shift both broadsheet newspapers to tabloid size, in March 2013. Fairfax announced it would cut staff across the entire group by 1,900 over three years and erect paywalls around the papers' websites; the subscription type is to be a freemium model, limiting readers to a number of free stories per month, with a payment required for further access. The announcement was part of an overall "digital first" strategy of digital or on-line content over printed delivery, to "increase sharing of editorial content", to assist the management's wish for "full integration of its online and mobile platforms".
In July 2013 it was announced that the SMH's news director, Darren Goodsir, would become Editor-in-Chief, replacing Sean Aylmer. On 22 February 2014, the final Saturday edition was produced in broadsheet format with this too converted to compact format on 1 March 2014, ahead of the decommissioning of the printing plant at Chullora in June 2014. According to Irial Glynn, the newspaper's editorial stance is centrist, it is seen as the most centrist among the three major Australian non-tabloids. In 2004, the newspaper's editorial page stated: "market libertarianism and social liberalism" were the two "broad themes" that guided the Herald's editorial stance. During the 1999 referendum on whether Australia should become a republic, the Herald supported a "yes" vote; the newspaper did not endorse the Labor Party for federal office in the first six decades of Federation, but did endorse the party in 1961, 1984, 1987. During the 2004 Australian federal election, the Herald annou
Law enforcement in South Korea
South Korea has a unified and integrated approach to law enforcement. For example, the National Police Agency provides all general policing services throughout the country. Due to the unilateral system, local police organizations are directly under the NPA; this differs from the situation in many countries such as France, where policing is split between the National Police and Gendarmerie, or such as the United States which have a layered system of national, state/regional, and/or local law enforcement organizations. However, South Korea has several independent agencies that only enforce a specific law or laws--for example, Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Economy and Finance have their own enforcement organizations for either border control or taxation, respectively. However, they are not formally called police. Ministry of the Interior and Safety National Police Agency Provincial Police Agencies: Seoul, Daegu, Daejeon, Ulsan, Gyeonggi Nambu, Gyeonggi Bukbu, Chungbuk, Jeonbuk, Gyeongbuk, Jeju Ministry of Economy and Finance National Tax Service Investigation Bureau International Taxation Bureau Korea Customs Service Audit Policy Bureau Investigation and Surveillance Bureau Information Management and International Affairs Bureau Seoul Metropolitan Government 38 Tax Collection Division Ministry of Land and Transport Railway Police Government of Jeju Special Self-Governing Province Jeju Municipal Police Ministry of Public Safety and Security Korea Coast Guard Ministry of Justice Prosecution Service Provincial Prosecutors' Office Korea Immigration Service Border Control Division Investigation & Enforcement Division National Intelligence Service Government of South Korea List of government agencies of South Korea Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency Korea National Police Agency Official website Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency Official website Korea, South: Korean National Police—photius.com South_Korea—A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World "SOUTH KOREA: Police brutality against protesting farmers must end"—Asian Human Rights Commission "Workers' Anger on the Rise in South Korea"—PICIS Newsletter, no.
74, 4 July 2000 Korean Police Operation 101 -Part 1: Contacting the Korean Police—naver.com blog /
A Prime Minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. A prime minister is not a head of state or chief executive officer of their respective nation, rather they are a head of government, serving under a monarch in a hybrid of aristocratic and democratic government forms. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the head of state or the head of state's official representative holds a ceremonial position, although with reserve powers. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official, appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state.
The prime minister is but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature. In some monarchies the monarch may exercise executive powers that are constitutionally vested in the crown and may be exercised without the approval of parliament; as well as being head of government, a prime minister may have other roles or posts—the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, for example, is First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. Prime ministers may take other ministerial posts. For example, during the Second World War, Winston Churchill was Minister of Defence and in the current cabinet of Israel, Benjamin Netanyahu serves as Minister of Communications, Foreign Affairs, Regional Cooperation and Interior; the term prime minister in its French form, premier ministre, is attested in 17th Century sources referring to Cardinal Richelieu after he was named to head the royal council in 1624.
The title was however informal and used alongside the informal principal ministre d'État more as a job description. After 1661, Louis XIV and his descendants refused to allow one of their ministers to be more important than the others, so the term was not in use; the term prime minister in the sense that we know it originated in the 18th century in the United Kingdom when members of parliament disparagingly used the title in reference to Sir Robert Walpole. During the whole of the 18th Century, Britain was involved in a prolonged conflict with France, periodically bursting into all-out war, Britons took outspoken pride in their "Liberty" as contrasted to the "Tyranny" of French Absolute Monarchy. Over time, the title became honorific and remains so in the 21st century; the monarchs of England and the United Kingdom had ministers in whom they placed special trust and who were regarded as the head of the government. Examples were Thomas Cromwell under Henry VIII; these ministers held a variety of formal posts, but were known as "the minister", the "chief minister", the "first minister" and the "prime minister".
The power of these ministers depended on the personal favour of the monarch. Although managing the parliament was among the necessary skills of holding high office, they did not depend on a parliamentary majority for their power. Although there was a cabinet, it was appointed by the monarch, the monarch presided over its meetings; when the monarch grew tired of a first minister, he or she could be dismissed, or worse: Cromwell was executed and Clarendon driven into exile when they lost favour. Kings sometimes divided power between two or more ministers to prevent one minister from becoming too powerful. Late in Anne's reign, for example, the Tory ministers Harley and Viscount Bolingbroke shared power. In the mid 17th century, after the English Civil War, Parliament strengthened its position relative to the monarch gained more power through the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and passage of the Bill of Rights in 1689; the monarch could no longer establish any law or impose any tax without its permission and thus the House of Commons became a part of the government.
It is at this point. A tipping point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in 1714 and the accession of George I to the throne. George spoke no English, spent much of his time at his home in Hanover, had neither knowledge of, nor interest in, the details of English government. In these circumstances it was inevitable that the king's first minister would become the de facto head of the government. From 1721 this was the Whig politician Robert Walpole. Walpole chaired cabinet meetings, appointed all the other ministers, dispensed the royal patronage and packed the House of Commons with his supporters. Under Walpole, the doctrine of cabinet solidarity developed. Walpole required that no minister other than himself have private dealings with the king, that when the cabinet had agreed on a policy, all ministers must defend it in public, or resign; as a prime minister, Lord Melbourne, said, "It matters not what we say, gentlemen, so long as we all say the same thing."
JoongAng Ilbo is a South Korean daily newspaper published in Seoul, South Korea. It is one of the three biggest newspapers in South Korea; the paper publishes an English edition, Korea JoongAng Daily, in alliance with the International New York Times. It was first published on September 22, 1965 by Lee Byung-chul, the founder of Samsung Group which once owned the Tongyang Broadcasting Company. In 1980, JoongAng Ilbo gave up TBC and TBC merged with KBS. JoongAng Ilbo is the pioneer in South Korea for the use of horizontal copy layout, topical sections, specialist reporters with investigative reporting teams. Since April 15, 1995, JoongAng Ilbo has been laid out horizontally and became a morning newspaper from on; as of March 18, 2007, it has produced a Sunday edition called JoongAng Sunday. The Korea JoongAng Daily is the English language version of the newspaper, it is one of three English-language daily newspapers in South Korea, along with The Korea Times and The Korea Herald, it runs news and feature stories by staff reporters, some stories translated from the Korean language newspaper.
The Korea JoongAng Daily is sold together with the International New York Times. JoongAng Ilbo publishes a United States edition, with branches from Toronto to Buenos Aires, its parent company, Joongang Media Network holds publication rights to Korean editions of Newsweek and Forbes as well as 25% of the shares of JTBC cable TV. List of newspapers in South Korea Communications in South Korea List of Korea-related topics Joongang Tongyang Broadcasting Company Sohn Suk-hee Official website Korea JoongAng Daily Joins.com