SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Gangsta rap

Gangsta rap or gangster rap is a style of hip hop characterized by themes and lyrics that emphasize the "gangsta", "O. G" and "Thug-Life" lifestyle; the genre evolved from hardcore rap into a distinct form, pioneered in the mid-1980s by rappers such as Ice-T and popularized in the part of the 1980s by rap groups like N. W. A. After the national attention that Ice-T and N. W. A attracted in the late 1980s and early 1990s, gangsta rap, while a underground and alternative form of hip hop, soon became the most commercially lucrative subgenre of hip hop. Many gangsta rap artists boast of their associations with various active street gangs as part of their artistic image, with the Crips and Bloods being the most represented; the subject matter inherent in gangsta rap has caused a great deal of controversy. Criticism has come from both left-wing and right-wing commentators, as well as religious leaders, who have accused the genre of promoting crime, profanity, sex addiction, street gangs, alcohol abuse, substance abuse and narcissism.

The White House administrations of both George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton criticized the genre. "Many black rappers—including Ice-T and Sister Souljah—contend that they are being unfairly singled out because their music reflects deep changes in society not being addressed anywhere else in the public forum. The white politicians, the artists complain, neither understand the music nor desire to hear what's going on in the devastated communities that gave birth to the art form," wrote journalist Chuck Philips in a review of the battle between "the Establishment" and defenders of rap music. "The reason why rap is under attack is because it exposes all the contradictions of American culture... What started out as an underground art form has become a vehicle to expose a lot of critical issues that are not discussed in American politics; the problem here is that the White House and wanna-bes like Bill Clinton represent a political system that never intends to deal with inner city urban chaos," Sister Souljah told Philips.

On the other hand, some commentators have criticized gangsta rap as analogous to black minstrel shows and blackface performance, in which performers – both black and white – were made to look African American, acted in a stereotypical uncultured and ignorant manner for entertainment. Gangsta rappers defend themselves by arguing they are describing the reality of inner-city life, that they are only adopting a character which behaves in ways they do not endorse. Gangsta rappers are famous for appearing more hardcore compared to early concepts and themes of hip-hop artists, are known for saying things that are considered taboo. W. A produced the famous "Fuck tha Police" protest song about racial profiling. In high-crime areas, putting on these made up personas is life-threatening, but the fact that gangsta rappers told the stories of others is seen as having earned them respect for raising awareness of the severity of inner-city crime. Many gangsta rappers argue that in the world of their genre exists the emotions and perspectives of a people whose suffering is too overlooked and belittled by society.

Gangsta rap, some argue, was an effect of the various wrongdoings perpetrated against African-Americans in underprivileged neighborhoods. The various riots sparked by the Rodney King beating and the acquittal of the police officers responsible for the beating sparked anger and outrage in an area, at risk. Gangsta rap acted as an outlet to express their anger over the social injustices in society without fear that they were going to be silenced for telling the truth, they used gangsta rap to tell the stories of their lives, which sometimes included strong violence and drug abuse. Tracy "Ice-T" Morrow, was born in Newark, New Jersey, in 1958; as a teenager, he moved to Los Angeles. In 1986, Ice-T released "6 in the Mornin'", regarded as the first gangsta rap song. Ice-T had been MCing since the early'80s, but first turned to gangsta rap themes after being influenced by Philadelphia rapper Schoolly D and his 1985 album Schoolly D. In an interview with PROPS magazine, Ice-T said: Here's the exact chronological order of what went down: The first record that came out along those lines was Schoolly D's "P.

S. K." The syncopation of that rap was used by me when I made "6 in the Mornin'". The vocal delivery was the same:'... P. S. K. is makin' that green','... six in the morning, police at my door'. When I heard that record I was like "Oh @#!*%!" and call it a bite or what you will but I dug that record. My record didn't sound like P. S. K, but I liked the way. P. S. K. was talking about Park Side Killers but it was vague. That was the only difference, when Schoolly did it, it was "... one by one, I'm knockin' em out." All he did was represent a gang on his record. I took that and wrote a record about guns, beating people down, all that with "6 in the Mornin'". At the same time my single came out, Boogie Down Productions hit with Criminal Minded, a gangster-based album, it wasn't about messages or "You Must Learn", it was about gangsterism. In 2011, Ice-T repeated in his autobiography. Ice-T continued to release gangsta albums for the remainder of the 1980s: Rhyme Pays in 1987, Pow

Viviane Senna

Viviane Senna Lalli is a Brazilian entrepreneur and philanthropist. She is sister of the racing driver and three-times Formula 1 world champion Ayrton Senna, mother of the driver Bruno Senna, she is president of the Ayrton Senna Foundation, established in London in June 1994 and of the Instituto Ayrton Senna organization, headquartered in São Paulo since November 1994. Viviane Senna was born in São Paulo to Neide Senna da Silva. In 1979 she graduated in Psychology at the Pontificial Catholic University of São Paulo, specializing in Jungian psychology in the university's Sede Sapientiaes Institute, she worked as a psychotherapist for adult and children, supervised qualification groups and improvement of psychotherapists. She coordinated study groups of deep psychology, she received the Grand Prix 2012 BNP Paribas, that recognises worldwide leaders in the area of social investment, was appointed one of the Leaders for the New Millennium of CNN/Time. She is the only Brazilian member of the Fellow Adults of Boys of the World Prize together with Nelson Mandela, Silvia Renate Sommerlath, José Ramos-Horta, among others.

Viviane Senna manages the royalties of the Ayrton Senna brand that through its character Senninha has been reproduced in more than 200 products, from bicycles to french fries. Viviane Senna has been in three documentaries and two TV series

Donald Taylor (aviator)

Donald P. Taylor was an American aviator, notable for being in the late summer and early fall of 1976 the first person in history to fly a homebuilt aircraft around the world. From an early age, he'd resolved "I will build an airplane, I will fly it round-the-world." His plane, Victoria'76, a Lycoming-powered Thorp T-18 was fitted with improved communications and navigational equipment as well as a new fuel system after his initial 1973 round-the-world attempt had to be aborted due to bad weather between Japan and the Aleutian Islands. Taylor, who lived at the time in California, returned to his starting point of Oshkosh, Wisconsin a hero two months to the day after the August 1, 1976, start of his eastbound journey; the planning of this circumnavigation was complicated considering that both the People's Republic of China and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics were closed to U. S. general aviators at the time. Taylor flew Victoria 76 to Australia and back in 1980. Taylor flew Victoria'76 to both the true North Pole and the Magnetic North Pole in 1984.

Although the aircraft had a special heritage, he used "her" for routine transportation to-and-from his isolated ranch in the Southern California high semi-desert. In the early 1980s he had offered the T-18 to the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum in Washington, D. C. for display, but he was unable to obtain a firm agreement from them to display her to the public as he wished. Instead, Victoria'76 is now on display at the Experimental Aircraft Association's AirVenture museum in Oshkosh, his civilian flying awards include the FAA Distinguished Service Award and the NAA Harmon Internal Trophy, presented to him on March 20, 1989 by Vice President Dan Quayle. Taylor retired at the rank of lieutenant colonel from the United States Air Force in 1962, having seen action during World War II in the China-Burma-India Theater. During the Korean War he was stationed in Alaska, servicing the newly created Distant Early Warning Line stations with air cargo and electronics expertise. In the Late 1950s he commanded an Air Training Command Detachment, responsible for teaching Thor Missile maintenance and operation to RAF personnel in central England.

Taylor maintained an active interest in aviation. He was on a mission-control team supporting the round-the-world flight of the Rutan Voyager in December 1986, he died in December 2015 at the age of 97. Picture of Taylor flying Victoria'76 on Earthrounders.com Additional images and routing of Taylor's 1976 RTW trip