A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Easley, South Carolina
Easley is a city in Pickens County in the State of South Carolina. It is a principal city of the Greenville–Mauldin–Easley Metropolitan Statistical Area. Most of the city lies in Pickens County, with only a small portion of the city in Anderson County. In 2001, Easley hosted the Big League World Series for the first time, continued to host the tournament annually until it was disbanded in 2016. In 2017, the Senior League World Series moved to Easley as the host for the annual tournament; the Upper South Carolina State Fair is held annually in early September. In 1791 Washington District was established by the state legislature out of the former Cherokee territory. Rockville was created in 1791 but changed to Pickensville in 1792. Pickensville became the district seat of Washington District, composed of Greenville and Pendleton Counties. In 1798 Washington District was divided into Pendleton Districts. In 1828 Pendleton District was divided further with the upper portion becoming Anderson County and the lower becoming Pickens County named after Andrew Pickens.
Col. Robert Elliott Holcombe became a co-founder of the town by starting off as a farmer and timber mill owner in the area, his farming ventures enabled him to establish the storeroom in 1845 as the first business in the area. The namesake of the town was William King Easley. Easley was born in Pickens County, South Carolina in 1825. Easley and four others from Greenville represented the Greenville area in the South Carolina Secession Convention; when the American Civil War erupted, Easley raised a company of cavalry from Greenville and Pickens counties. During the war Easley served as a major in the Confederate Army. After the civil war Easley became a local attorney and persuaded the Atlanta and Charlotte Air Line Railway to be established through Pickensville by raising $100,000 to invest in the railroad. Holcombe was considered to be the first citizen of Easley, building the first dwelling and train depot in the town from his family's lumber mill. Holcombe became the first mayor of the town and was the first agent of the train depot.
The town of Easley was chartered in 1873. At the time, the consensus was that it should be named Holcombe or Holcombetown, but Col. Holcombe said that he didn't think Holcombe was a attractive name and that Easley sounded better; the Pickensville Post Office became Easley Post Office in 1875. The railroad transformed Easley into an industrious and thriving textile town; the Easley Textile Company known as Swirl Inc. came to Easley in 1953. The construction of U. S. Route 123 helped establish new business to Easley. On April 25, 1951, a department store was on fire threatening many buildings in downtown Easley but the quick response of the fire department extinguished the fire. Easley is located in southeastern Pickens County at 34°49′24″N 82°35′25″W, 12 miles west of the center of Greenville. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.3 square miles, of which 12.2 square miles is land and 0.039 square miles, or 0.17%, is water. Larry Bagwell is the elected mayor.
As of the census of 2000, there were 17,754 people, 7,227 households, 5,058 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,668.8 people per square mile. There were 7,932 housing units at an average density of 745.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.35% White, 11.81% African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.25% from other races, 0.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.82% of the population. There were 7,227 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.0% were non-families. 25.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.90. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $38,204, the median income for a family was $47,867. Males had a median income of $35,399 versus $25,443 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,965. About 8.4% of families and 10.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.2% of those under age 18 and 11.9% of those age 65 or over. The City of Easley maintains its own city police department, which has jurisdiction inside the city limits of Easley; the current chief of police is Tim Tollison. The department is located at the Easley Law Enforcement Center on Northwest Main Street in downtown Easley. There are 42 sworn police officers working for the department along with 3 civilians; the department is made up of an administration division, uniform patrol division, a detective division. The Administration Division is made up of the chief of police, deputy chief of police, uniform patrol captain, detective captain.
The Uniform Patrol Division is made up of patrol team one, patrol team two, patrol team three, patrol team four, two school resource officers, a reserve officer. The Detective Division is made up of 3 investigations officers; the rank structure is nepotistic. New officers are patrolmen, before rising to master patrol officer,then detective sergeant lieutenant captain major, finally
Interstate 85 is a major Interstate Highway in the Southeastern United States. Its current southern terminus is at an interchange with I-65 in Alabama, it is nominally north–south, but physically northeast–southwest. While most interstates that end in a "5" are cross-country routes, I-85 is a regional route, serving five southeastern states. Major metropolitan areas served by I-85 include the Greater Richmond Region in Virginia, the Research Triangle, Piedmont Triad, Metrolina regions of North Carolina, Upstate South Carolina, the Atlanta metropolitan area in Georgia, the Montgomery metropolitan area in Alabama. I-85 is a route that serves several major locations in the Southeastern United States, stretching from Alabama to Virginia and major metropolitan areas such as Atlanta and Charlotte. I-85 begins as a fork off I-65 in Montgomery. From there, I-85 parallels U. S. Route 80. At Tuskegee, I-85 leaves US 80 and starts to parallel US 29, which the highway parallels for much of its length. I-85 passes near Auburn, Opelika and Lanett before crossing the Chattahoochee River into Georgia.
I-85 will soon be rerouted southward just east of Montgomery, where it will intersect with I-65 just south of downtown Montgomery. Future I-685 will be the new designation for the route of current I-85, which leads directly to I-65 in downtown Montgomery. In Georgia, I-85 bypasses West Point before coming into the LaGrange area. East of LaGrange, I-85 intersects I-185 which connects to Fort Benning. In the Atlanta area, I-85 intersects I-20 and merges with I-75 through the downtown area. North of Atlanta, I-985 provides a link to Gainesville before heading through northeastern Georgia and crossing into South Carolina. Due to a bridge collapse on March 30, 2017, parts of I-85 in Atlanta were closed. I-85 provides the major transportation route for the Upstate of South Carolina, linking together the major centers of Greenville and Spartanburg with regional centers of importance. In Spartanburg, BMW has a major manufacturing plant. In South Carolina, I-85 bypasses Anderson on the way to Greenville.
Beginning at Anderson, I-85 widens from four to six lanes. Near Powdersville, US 29 joins I-85 and they run concurrently until they cross the Saluda River. I-85 bypasses just south of Greenville, but provides two links into the city via spur routes I-185 and I-385. I-85 has direct exits to Greenville–Spartanburg International Airport, which serves the Greenville–Spartanburg metropolitan area. I-85 bypasses the city of Spartanburg to the north, its original route is now signed as Business Loop 85 and was approved by AASHTO on April 22, 1995. Near mile marker 70, I-85 intersects with I-26; the exits are signed as 70B for westbound traffic. North of Spartanburg, I-85 narrows from six lanes back to bypasses Gaffney. Much of the terrain between Spartanburg and the North Carolina border is rural in nature but congested to the state line due to its location near Charlotte. In North Carolina, I-85 enters a rural area near Kings Mountain before entering the Gastonia and Charlotte areas. In Charlotte, I-85 bypasses Charlotte Douglas International Airport and turns northeastward just before reaching uptown Charlotte.
North of Charlotte, the highway passes near Concord, Salisbury and High Point before reaching Greensboro. At Greensboro, I-85 shifts away from downtown I-85 Business Loop. I-85 joins I-40 east of downtown, the two highways are cosigned as they pass through Burlington and Mebane separate near Hillsborough where I-40 turns toward Chapel Hill and Raleigh. After the split with I-40, I-85 continues to Durham, before turning northeastward through Oxford Henderson toward Virginia. Starting from the Virginia border, drivers will pass South Hill and McKenney before heading into a large forest. After the forest, I-85 reaches Petersburg and ends at I-95; the highway is cosigned with US 460 from a few miles west of Petersburg in Dinwiddie County to I-95. I-85 follows the same general path as US 1, as the two cross several times between the North Carolina border and the northern terminus outside Petersburg. In the northern half of I-85, the route parallels an ancient Indian trading path documented since colonial times from Petersburg, Virginia, to the Catawba Indian territory.
I-85 near Petersburg once formed the southern end of the Richmond–Petersburg Turnpike, completed in 1958. The tolls were removed in 1992. Before a 2010 decision to raise the speed limit in the state to 70 miles per hour, Virginia's portion of I-85 was the only Interstate Highway in the state with a posted speed limit greater than 65 miles per hour, it was raised from 65 to 70 mph on July 2006, by the state legislature. In 2004, I-85 was rerouted around Greensboro. I-40 ran with I-85 along the bypass to the southern/western end and I-40 continued on a new freeway alignment at exit 121 until September 2008, when it was rerouted back to its old alignment through the city. Despite its reroute around Greensboro, the overall length for I-85 in North Carolina remains the same as before. An extension of I-85 has been proposed west from Montgomery to interchange with I-20/I-59 just east of the Mississippi–Alabama state line, where it will connect with I-20/I-59 n
Atlanta is the capital of, the most populous city in, the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2017 population of 486,290, it is the 38th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. A small portion of the city extends eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminating stop of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point between multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include transportation, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."
Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. Standing Peachtree, a Creek village where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta; as part of the systematic removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek were forced to leave the area in 1821, white settlers arrived the following year. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points.
A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as "Terminus", as "Thrasherville" after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.
On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate. On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.
In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world. During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline emerged with the construction of the
Simpsonville, South Carolina
Simpsonville is a city in Greenville County, South Carolina, United States. It is part of the Greenville–Mauldin–Easley Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 18,238 at the 2010 census, up from 14,352 in 2000. The population had risen to an estimated 20,736 as of 2015. Simpsonville is part of the "Golden Strip", along with Mauldin and Fountain Inn, an area, noted for having low unemployment due to a diversity of industries including Para-Chem, Sealed Air and Milliken; the Burdette Building, Cureton-Huff House, Hopkins Farm, Simpsonville Baptist Church are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In October 2018, a winning lottery ticket for a $1.6 billion dollar Mega Millions jackpot was sold at the #7 KC Mart in Simpsonville. Simpsonville is located in southeastern Greenville County at 34°44′0″N 82°15′36″W, between Mauldin to the northwest and Fountain Inn to the southeast; the center of town has an elevation of 866 feet above sea level. South Carolina Highway 14 runs through the center of Simpsonville as Main Street, leading north 16 miles to Greer and southeast 5 miles to the center of Fountain Inn.
The center of Mauldin is 4.5 miles to the northwest via South Carolina Highway 417. Interstate 385 passes through Simpsonville west of the city center, with access from Exits 26 through 29. I-385 leads northwest 14 miles to the center of Greenville and southeast 28 miles to Interstate 26 near Clinton. Columbia, the state capital, is 89 miles southeast of Simpsonville. According to the United States Census Bureau, Simpsonville has a total area of 8.83 square miles, of which 8.81 square miles are land and 0.02 square miles, or 0.28%, are water. As of the census of 2010, there were 7,040 households; the population density was 2,070.1 people per square mile. There were 7,624 housing units at an average density of 865.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.7% White, 16.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.9% of the population. 26.0% of the population was under 18, 11.0% of the population was over 65.
51.6% of the population was female. For the period 2011-2015, the estimated median annual income for a household in the city was $56,691, the per capita income was $28,537. 7.3% of the population were below the poverty line. While Simpsonville's crime statistics are higher than national average crime rates, they are drastically lower than major U. S. cities. Violent crimes in 2010 totalled 82 for the year. 2006 statistics of violent crime in Simpsonville reflect there was not one murder, reported incidents of rape were higher than the national average, incidents of aggravated assaults were what tipped the 2006 violent crime scales, tallying in at 75% over the national average. In 2007 the personal crime incidents rate tallied in at 6 per 1000 residents, while the national average was 1.3 per 1000. In September 2007, the FBI reported that the state of South Carolina's violent crime rate was the highest in the nation per capita, although Simpsonville is not mentioned at all in the article. Car theft in Simpsonville was lower than the national average, causing unsubstantiated claims that Simpsonville has a high rate of car-jackings to be discredited.
Simpsonville is governed by a mayor, a city council, several boards and commissions. The current officeholders are: Mayor: Janice Curtis Council Ward I: Matthew Gooch Council Ward II: Stephanie Kelley Council Ward III: Jenn Hulehan Council Ward IV: Sherry Roche Council Ward V: Ken Cummings Council Ward VI: Lou Hutchings City Administrator: Dianna Gracely Simpsonville is home to Hillcrest High School; the city was home to the 2008 Little League Softball World Champions. Abiding Peace Academy is a K2-5 grade school of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod in Simpsonville. Justin Bolli, professional golfer Danielle Brooks, stars in Orange Is the New Black and was Tony Award-nominated for role as Sofia on Broadway in The Color Purple. Chandler Catanzaro, placekicker for NFL's New York Jets Danelle German, creator of cat handbags and founder of National Cat Groomers Institute of America Lucas Glover, PGA Tour golfer, winner of 2009 U. S. Open Golf Championship Shane Hall, NASCAR driver Tommy Jones, professional bowler.
Upstate South Carolina
The Upstate is the region in the westernmost part of South Carolina, United States known as the Upcountry, the historical term. Although loosely defined among locals, the general definition includes the ten counties of the commerce-rich I-85 corridor in the northwest corner of South Carolina; this definition coincides with the Greenville–Spartanburg–Anderson, SC Combined Statistical Area, as first defined by the Office of Management and Budget in 2015, maintained as of 2017. The region's population was 1,347,112 as of 2016. Situated between Atlanta and Charlotte, the Upstate is the fastest-growing region of South Carolina, is the geographical center of the Charlanta mega-region. After BMW's initial investment, foreign companies, including others from Germany, have a substantial presence in the Upstate. Greenville is the largest city in the region with a population of 67,453 and an urban-area population of 400,492, it is the base of most commercial activity. Spartanburg and Anderson are next in population.
Ten counties are included in the Upstate of South Carolina: Greenville, Anderson, Oconee, Laurens, Union, Abbeville. Within the Greenville–Spartanburg–Anderson CSA are a total of two Metropolitan Statistical Areas and three Micropolitan Statistical Areas; as of the 2010 Census, the Greenville–Spartanburg–Anderson CSA had a population of 1,362,073. The following population rankings are based on the 2010 Census Greenville and Anderson; the Office of Management and Budget labels all these cities as principal cities in their respective MSA's. Cities: Greenwood and Mauldin. In the 2016 Census population estimate, the cities of Easley and Simpsonville have populations that exceed 20,000; the OMB has labelled Easley as principal cities. CDPs: Taylors, Wade Hampton Cities: Clemson and Gaffney. If students from Clemson University are included, Clemson has close to 30,000 residents. CDP's: Berea, Five Forks, Parker Communities in the Upstate with under 10,000 residents include: Cities: Towns: According to the 2010 Census, no town in the Upstate has a population greater than 6000.
CDP's: The following table shows the major institutions of higher education in the Upstate. In 2008, U. S. News ranked Furman as the 37th best liberal arts college, Wofford College as the 59th best, Presbyterian College as the 101st best, they ranked Clemson University as the 67th best national university. According to the Bob Jones University, its Museum and Gallery constitutes the largest collection of religious art in the Western Hemisphere; the majority of business and commerce in the Upstate takes place in Greenville County. Greenville has the largest concentration of businesses and financial institutions in its downtown area. In fact, the Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson MSA was ranked seventh in the nation by site consultants considering the top markets for economic development. Many financial institutions have regional offices located in downtown Greenville; these include Bank of the now-defunct Wachovia. Other major industries of commerce in the Upstate include the auto industry, concentrated along the corridor between Greenville and Spartanburg around the BMW manufacturing facility in Greer.
The other major industry in the Upstate is pharmaceuticals. Greenville Hospital System and Bon Secours St. Francis Health System are the area's largest in the healthcare sector, while the pharmaceutical corporation of Bausch & Lomb have set up regional operations alongside smaller developed local companies like IRIX Manufacturing and Pharmaceutical Associates; the Upstate is home to a large amount of private sector and university-based research including R&D facilities for Michelin and General Electric and research centers to support the automotive, life sciences and photonics industries. Clemson University, BMW, IBM, Michelin have combined their resources to create International Center for Automotive Research, a research park that specializes in the development of automotive technology; the following corporations have a major presence in the Upstate: Adidas, Advance America, Bank of America, BMW of North America, Bon Secours St. Francis Health System, Bosch North America, Denny's Restaurants, Dunlop Slazenger Group, Ernst & Young, Fluor Corporation, Freightliner LLC, GE Power Systems, Greenville Hospital System, IBM, Kemet Corporation, Liberty Corporation, Mary Black Health System, Michelin of North America, Milliken & Co.
Spartanburg Regional Health System, Spectrum Communications, SunTrust, Ovation Brands, Perrigo Company of South Carolina, Toronto-Dominion Bank, Verizon. • BMW's only North American manufacturing plant is located in Spartanburg County, with an investment of $3.7 billion. • Fujifilm located their first manufacturing facility in the U. S. in Greenwood County. • Michelin North America's headquarters is located in Greenville, along with seven manufacturing plants, R&D facility and test track located in the Upstate. Michelin employs more than 7,800 in South Carolina. • Walgreens has their southeastern distribution center located in Anderson County, which employs mentally handicapped workers as nearly 40% of their workforce. The Upstate is served by two major interstate highways, I-85 and I-26. Other major interstate spurs include I-185, I-385, I-585; the major airport in the region is Greenville-Spartanburg International Airport, located nearly halfway between Greenville and Spartanburg in suburban Greer.
Greenville, Anderson, Pickens and Gaffney each have smaller airfields. AMTRAK service
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif