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Gap year

A gap year known as a sabbatical year, is a year-long break before or after college/university during which students engage in various educational and developmental activities, such as travel or some type of regular work. Students who take gap years achieve a growth in maturity and are better prepared to benefit from higher education or decide the form of education they wish to pursue. Gap years occur between high school and university; these students might take advanced courses in math or language studies, learn a trade, study art, travel, take internships, play sports, or get involved in cultural exchanges. Studies indicate that students who take a gap year perform better academically than those who do not. Many parents worry. Gap years first became common in the 1960s where the young, baby boom generation wanted to get away from the severity of war from their parents generation. At first, the primary purpose of the gap year was for countries to exchange cultural ideals in the hope of preventing future wars.

The outcome of this exchange was the growth of the gap year industry. The introduction of gap year companies in the 1960s and 1970s started the gap year industry. With the long-term success of organizations like Topdeck, Flight Centre, Raleigh International, the gap year industry developed rapidly. In 1967, Nicholas Maclean-Bristol created Project Trust, which sent three volunteers to Ethiopia from the UK; the goal of this was to help the nation develop, but build the volunteers' own skills. In 1972, Gap Activity Projects was started to send UK youth around the world on Gap Year experiences, their participants, still called "Gappers", went a long way to branding the year between high school and university as a Gap Year. In 1973, Graham Turner innovated the gap year industry by purchasing a bus and selling tickets to Kathmandu; this led to Turner creating Topdeck and Flight Centre, which are successful gap year companies today. In 1978, the Prince of Wales and Colonel John Blashford-Snell began Operation Drake which what is now known as Raleigh International, an expedition voyage around the world following Sir Francis Drake's route.

In 1969, the first gap year organization was founded in Massachusetts. The organization called Dynamy was founded with the intentions of teaching young people self confidence and the role they play in a large community. In the 1980s, the gap year idea was promoted by Cornelius H. Bull in the United States to allow students more time for individual growth. Cornelius saw that students needed a bridge between high school and college that would help develop more hands-on skills. To do this, he founded the Center for Interim Programs in 1980 which had goals of increasing self-awareness and developing new cultural perspectives. Australians and New Zealanders have a tradition of travelling overseas independently at a young age. In New Zealand this is known as "doing an OE". Sometimes this is limited to one year, but at times Australians and New Zealanders will remain overseas for longer, many working short-term in service industry jobs to fund their travels. Europe and Asia are popular destinations for Gap Year travels.

In Australia, exchange programs and youth benefits provide many opportunities for young people to gain experience through travel in a gap year. The Gap Year Association provided four million dollars in 2016 in the form of scholarships and need based grants; the Time Credit system in Belgium entitles employees of one year per lifetime of absence from their job, in order to prevent burn-out and to provide an opportunity to pursue other important things in life. In Denmark during the late 1990s the percentage of students continuing their education directly after high school was down to 25%. Along with this drop there was a rise in the number of students enrolling and graduating within ten years of finishing high school. Data shows that women in Denmark take more gap years than men. In 2018, a record low of 15% of that year's high school graduates had chosen to continue their education directly after graduation. Denmark has sought to limit the number of students who take a year out, penalizing students who delay their education to travel abroad or work full-time.

In 2006, it was announced. In April 2009, the Danish government proposed a new law which gives a bonus to students who refrain from a year out. In Ghana, most senior high school leavers have a year out from August to the August of the following year, although this is not mandatory. In Israel, it is customary for young adults who have completed their mandatory military service to engage in backpacker tourism abroad in groups before starting university or full-time work. Israel has become a popular gap year travel destination for thousands of young Jewish adults from abroad each year. There are over 10,000 participants in the Masa Israel Journey gap year annually; the employment practice known as simultaneous recruiting of new graduates matches students with jobs before graduation, meaning sabbaticals are unusual in Japan. While unusual, gap years in Japan are not unheard of; some students will take a gap year or two to readjust or reassess their career path or school of choice if not accepted into the school they had hoped for.

While waiting for their JAMB result after secondary school, Nigerian youths learn a trade or skill, or enroll for another academic program to increase their chances of getting into a university. In Romania, after

Kimenzan TanigorĊ

Kimenzan Tanigorō was a sumo wrestler. He was the sport's 13th yokozuna. Kimenzan was born in Washizu District, Mino Province and his real name was Shin'ichi Tanaka, he entered sumo in February 1852 in the second highest jūryō division and reached the top makuuchi division in January 1857. He was employed by the Tokushima Domain, he was promoted to ōzeki in November 1865. However, he was unenrolled in the November 1866 banzuke, it was because he had a quarrel with sumo elders. He was promoted to ōzeki again in June 1868, he was awarded a yokozuna license in February 1869. He became a yokozuna at the oldest ever. In the top makuuchi division, he won 143 bouts and lost 24 bouts, recording a winning percentage of 85.6. He died in the next year, his grave can be found in Saitama. There is a monument to him in Gifu; the actual time the tournaments were held during the year in this period varied.*Championships for the best record in a tournament were not recognized or awarded before the 1909 summer tournament and the above unofficial championships are conferred.

For more information see yūshō. Glossary of sumo terms List of past sumo wrestlers List of yokozuna Kimenzan Tanigoro tournament results

John F. Jungclaussen

John Frederik Jungclaussen is a German journalist and historian working in the UK. Jungclaussen writes and speaks about European history since the Enlightenment, Anglo-German relations, European current affairs. While he remains unconvinced about the benefits of Brexit to the UK economy he is sceptical about the long-term future of the post-war European project. "As long as the fundamental structural asymmetry of a monetary union without a fiscal union is ignored, the Europe of Robert Schumann and Jean Monnet is doomed." Jungclaussen was born in Hamburg. He attended the Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums. In 1993 he moved to Britain to read history and economics at Queen Mary University of London and King's College London, he was awarded a Bachelor degree 2:1 before moving to St Cross College, where he studied under the supervision of Niall Ferguson. In 2002, he gained a DPhil in History from the University of Oxford for his thesis "The Nazis and Hamburg's Merchant Elite - a History of Decline, 1933-1945" In 2001, he became the UK Economics Correspondent of Die Zeit.

Since he has written for the British media, the Swiss Basler Zeitung and Die Weltwoche, as well as other German publications. Schöpfer und Zerstörer In 2004, Jungclaussen and Uwe Jean Heuser published a collection of portraits of some of the most influential entrepreneurs in modern economic history. In their foreword and Jungclaussen argue that throughout history, successful entrepreneurs all share some of a number of characteristics which sets them apart: independent thinking readiness to learn a deep understanding of the market stubbornly sticking to an idea readiness to change the rules grasping opportunities understanding leadership frugality - "you're not in it for the money" ruthlessness business must be fun The book was awarded the "Herbert Quandt Medien-Preis", it was published in Korea. Risse in Weissen Fassaden In 2006, Jungclaussen published his PhD thesis in Germany, he re-evaluates the role of Hamburg's merchant elite during the rise of Nazism, the Second World War, the Holocaust.

Contrary to the notion established by previous generations of historians that the city's bourgeois elite continued to influence national politics in Germany as they had done for centuries, this close network of merchant families were, in fact, on a path of inexorable social and economic decline which only accelerated after Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933. In June 2010, he gave the last of three programmes called Home Thoughts From Abroad, a 15-minute episode on Radio 4, he claimed that Britain is becoming a more claustrophobic authoritarian society, that Germans were not as disciplinarian as is extolled, more libertarian than expected with a more healthy relationship with the state. On 2 January 2009, he broadcast. Between 2004 and 2012, Jungclaussen served as Treasurer of the King Edward VII. Anglo-German Foundation, he lives in Suffolk. Home Thoughts From Abroad Anglomania Articles for Die Zeit Risse in weissen Fassenden – his book Britain, ich liebe dich – Telegraph December 2008