Konstantin Georgiyevich Paustovsky was a Russian Soviet writer nominated for the Nobel Prize for literature in 1965. Konstantin Paustovsky was born in Moscow, his father, descendant of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, was a railroad statistician, was “an incurable romantic and Protestant”. His mother came from the family of a Polish intellectual. Konstantin grew up in Ukraine in the countryside and in Kiev, he studied in “the First Imperial” classical Gymnasium of Kiev, where he was the classmate of Mikhail Bulgakov. When he was in the 6th grade his father left the family and he was forced to give private lessons in order to earn a living. In 1912 he entered the faculty of Natural History in University of Kiev. In 1914 he transferred to the Law faculty of the University of Moscow, but World War I interrupted his education. At first he worked as a trolley-man in Moscow as a paramedic in a hospital train. During 1915, his medical unit retreated all the way through Belarus. After two of his brothers died on the front line, he returned to his mother in Moscow but left and wandered around, trying his hands at many jobs working in the metallurgical factories in Yekaterinoslav and Yuzovka.
In 1916 he lived in Taganrog. He joined a cooperative association of fishermen in Taganrog, where he started his first novel Романтики, published in 1935; the novel, whose content and feelings are reflected in its title, described what he had seen and felt in his youth. One of the heroes, the old Oscar, was an artist who resisted all of his life being forced to become a moneymaker, he returned to the main theme of Romantics, the destiny of an artist who strives to overcome his loneliness, his experiences in Taranrog in works, including Разговор о рыбе, Азовское подполье and Порт в траве. Paustovsky began writing while still in Gymnasium, his first works were imitative poetry but he restricted his writing to prose after Ivan Bunin wrote in a letter to him: "I think that your sphere, your real poetry, is prose. It is here, if you are determined enough, that I am sure you can achieve something significant." His first stories to be published were “Na vode” and “Chetvero” in 1911 and 1912. During World War I, he wrote sketches of life at the front, one of, published.
His first book, Morskiye Nabroski, received little attention. This was followed by Minetoza in 1927, the romantic novel Blistaiushie Oblaka in 1929, his work of this period was influenced by Alexander Grin as well as the writers of the "Odessa school". In the 1930s, Paustovsky visited various constructions sites and wrote in praise of the industrial transformation of the country. To that period belong the novels Kara-Bugaz and Kolkhida. Kara-Bugaz won particular praise, it is a tale of adventure and exploration in the region around Kara-Bugaz Bay, where the air is mysteriously heavy. It begins in 1847 and moves to the Russian Civil War period when a group of Red Guards is abandoned to near-certain death on a desolate island; some of them, though do survive and are rescued by an explorer and stay on to help in the exploration and study of the natural wealth of the region. Paustovsky continued to explore historical themes in Severnaya Povest. In this tale, after the anti-Tsarist Decembrist uprising in Saint Petersburg, a wounded officer who had taken part in the uprising and a sailor try to make it by foot across the ice to Sweden but are captured in a sequence of dramatic events.
Years in Leningrad in the 1930s, the great-grandsons of the participants unexpectedly meet. In the late 1930s, Russian nature emerged as a central theme for Paustovsky, for example, in Letniye Dni and Meshcherskaya Storona in which he treats nature was a many-faceted splendor in which man can free himself from daily cares and regain his spiritual equilibrium; this focus on nature drew comparisons with Mikhail Prishvin. Prishvin himself wrote in his diary, "If I were not Prishvin, I would like to write like Paustovsky." During World War II Paustovsky served as a war correspondent on the southern front. In 1943 he produced a screenplay for the Gorky Film Studio production of "Lermontov", directed by Albert Gendelshtein. Another work of note is Tale of the Woods; this story opens in a remote forest in the 1890s. The young daughter of a local forester brings Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky berries. Half a century the daughter of this girl is a laboratory technician working in the local forest station. From 1948 until 1955, Paustovsky taught at the Maxim Gorky Literature Institute.
He edited literary collections including Literary Moscow and Pages from Tarusa, in which he sought to bring new writers to the public's attention and to publish writers suppressed during the Joseph Stalin years. Other major works include Crossing Ships. Paustovsky was the author of several plays and fairy tales, including "Steel Ring" and of Zolotaya Rosa "The Golden Rose", in which he discusses the process of literary creation. Paustovsky's most famous work is his autobiography “Povest o Zhizni”, it is not a histor
A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs. Lagoons are divided into coastal lagoons and atoll lagoons, they have been identified as occurring on mixed-sand and gravel coastlines. There is an overlap between bodies of water classified as coastal lagoons and bodies of water classified as estuaries. Lagoons are common coastal features around many parts of the world. Lagoons are shallow elongated bodies of water separated from a larger body of water by a shallow or exposed shoal, coral reef, or similar feature; some authorities include fresh water bodies in the definition of "lagoon", while others explicitly restrict "lagoon" to bodies of water with some degree of salinity. The distinction between "lagoon" and "estuary" varies between authorities. Richard A. Davis Jr. restricts "lagoon" to bodies of water with little or no fresh water inflow, little or no tidal flow, calls any bay that receives a regular flow of fresh water an "estuary". Davis does state that the terms "lagoon" and "estuary" are "often loosely applied in scientific literature."
Timothy M. Kusky characterizes lagoons as being elongated parallel to the coast, while estuaries are drowned river valleys, elongated perpendicular to the coast; when used within the context of a distinctive portion of coral reef ecosystems, the term "lagoon" is synonymous with the term "back reef" or "backreef", more used by coral reef scientists to refer to the same area. Coastal lagoons are classified as inland bodies of water. Many lagoons do not include "lagoon" in their common names. Albemarle and Pamlico sounds in North Carolina, Great South Bay between Long Island and the barrier beaches of Fire Island in New York, Isle of Wight Bay, which separates Ocean City, Maryland from the rest of Worcester County, Banana River in Florida, Lake Illawarra in New South Wales, Montrose Basin in Scotland, Broad Water in Wales have all been classified as lagoons, despite their names. In England, The Fleet at Chesil Beach has been described as a lagoon. In Latin America, the term laguna in Spanish, which lagoon translates to, may be used for a small fresh water lake in a similar way a creek is considered a small river.
However, sometimes it is popularly used to describe a full-sized lake, such as Laguna Catemaco in Mexico, the third largest lake by area in the country. The brackish water lagoon may be thus explicitly identified as a "coastal lagoon". In Portuguese the same usage is found: lagoa may be a body of shallow sea water, or a small freshwater lake not linked to the sea. Lagoon is derived from the Italian laguna, which refers to the waters around Venice, the Lagoon of Venice. Laguna is attested in English by at least 1612, had been Anglicized to "lagune" by 1673. In 1697 William Dampier referred to a "Lake of Salt water" on the coast of Mexico. Captain James Cook described an island "of Oval form with a Lagoon in the middle" in 1769. Atoll lagoons form as coral reefs grow upwards while the islands that the reefs surround subside, until only the reefs remain above sea level. Unlike the lagoons that form shoreward of fringing reefs, atoll lagoons contain some deep portions. Coastal lagoons form along sloping coasts where barrier islands or reefs can develop off-shore, the sea-level is rising relative to the land along the shore.
Coastal lagoons do not form along steep or rocky coasts, or if the range of tides is more than 4 metres. Due to the gentle slope of the coast, coastal lagoons are shallow, they are sensitive to changes in sea level due to global warming. A relative drop in sea level may leave a lagoon dry, while a rise in sea level may let the sea breach or destroy barrier islands, leave reefs too deep under water to protect the lagoon. Coastal lagoons are young and dynamic, may be short-lived in geological terms. Coastal lagoons are common. In the United States, lagoons are found along more than 75 percent of the Gulf coasts. Coastal lagoons are connected to the open ocean by inlets between barrier islands; the number and size of the inlets, precipitation and inflow of fresh water all affect the nature of the lagoon. Lagoons with little or no interchange with the open ocean, little or no inflow of fresh water, high evaporation rates, such as Lake St. Lucia, in South Africa, may become saline. Lagoons with no connection to the open ocean and significant inflow of fresh water, such as the Lake Worth Lagoon in Florida in the middle of the 19th century, may be fresh.
On the other hand, lagoons with many wide inlets, such as the Wadden Sea, have strong tidal currents and mixing. Coastal lagoons tend to accumulate sediments from inflowing rivers, from runoff from the shores of the lagoon, from sediment carried into the lagoon through inlets by the tide. Large quantities of sediment may be be deposited in a lagoon when storm waves overwash barrier islands. Mangroves and marsh plants can facilitate the accumulation of sediment in a lagoon. Benthic organisms may destabilize sediments. River-mouth lagoons on mixed sand and gravel beaches form at the river-coast interface where a braided, although sometimes meandering, river interacts with a coastal environment, affected by longshore drift; the lagoons which form on the MSG coastlines are common on the east coast of the South Island of New Zealand and have long been referred to as hapua by the Māori. This classification differentiates hapua from similar lagoons located on the N
Water is a transparent, tasteless and nearly colorless chemical substance, the main constituent of Earth's streams and oceans, the fluids of most living organisms. It is vital for all known forms of life though it provides no calories or organic nutrients, its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds. Water is the name of the liquid state of H2O at standard ambient pressure, it forms precipitation in the form of rain and aerosols in the form of fog. Clouds are formed from suspended droplets of its solid state; when finely divided, crystalline ice may precipitate in the form of snow. The gaseous state of water is water vapor. Water moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation, condensation and runoff reaching the sea. Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface in seas and oceans. Small portions of water occur as groundwater, in the glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, in the air as vapor and precipitation.
Water plays an important role in the world economy. 70% of the freshwater used by humans goes to agriculture. Fishing in salt and fresh water bodies is a major source of food for many parts of the world. Much of long-distance trade of commodities and manufactured products is transported by boats through seas, rivers and canals. Large quantities of water and steam are used for cooling and heating, in industry and homes. Water is an excellent solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances. Water is central to many sports and other forms of entertainment, such as swimming, pleasure boating, boat racing, sport fishing, diving; the word water comes from Old English wæter, from Proto-Germanic *watar, from Proto-Indo-European *wod-or, suffixed form of root *wed-. Cognate, through the Indo-European root, with Greek ύδωρ, Russian вода́, Irish uisce, Albanian ujë; the identification of water as a substance Water is a polar inorganic compound, at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue.
This simplest hydrogen chalcogenide is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" for its ability to dissolve many substances. This allows it to be the "solvent of life", it is the only common substance to exist as a solid and gas in normal terrestrial conditions. Water is a liquid at the pressures that are most adequate for life. At a standard pressure of 1 atm, water is a liquid between 0 and 100 °C. Increasing the pressure lowers the melting point, about −5 °C at 600 atm and −22 °C at 2100 atm; this effect is relevant, for example, to ice skating, to the buried lakes of Antarctica, to the movement of glaciers. Increasing the pressure has a more dramatic effect on the boiling point, about 374 °C at 220 atm; this effect is important in, among other things, deep-sea hydrothermal vents and geysers, pressure cooking, steam engine design. At the top of Mount Everest, where the atmospheric pressure is about 0.34 atm, water boils at 68 °C. At low pressures, water cannot exist in the liquid state and passes directly from solid to gas by sublimation—a phenomenon exploited in the freeze drying of food.
At high pressures, the liquid and gas states are no longer distinguishable, a state called supercritical steam. Water differs from most liquids in that it becomes less dense as it freezes; the maximum density of water in its liquid form is 1,000 kg/m3. The density of ice is 917 kg/m3. Thus, water expands 9% in volume as it freezes, which accounts for the fact that ice floats on liquid water; the details of the exact chemical nature of liquid water are not well understood. Pure water is described as tasteless and odorless, although humans have specific sensors that can feel the presence of water in their mouths, frogs are known to be able to smell it. However, water from ordinary sources has many dissolved substances, that may give it varying tastes and odors. Humans and other animals have developed senses that enable them to evaluate the potability of water by avoiding water, too salty or putrid; the apparent color of natural bodies of water is determined more by dissolved and suspended solids, or by reflection of the sky, than by water itself.
Light in the visible electromagnetic spectrum can traverse a couple meters of pure water without significant absorption, so that it looks transparent and colorless. Thus aquatic plants and other photosynthetic organisms can live in water up to hundreds of meters deep, because sunlight can reach them. Water vapour is invisible as a gas. Through a thickness of 10 meters or more, the intrinsic color of water is visibly turquoise, as its absorption spectrum has
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water, called saline water. This is measured in g salt k g sea water. Salinity is an important factor in determining many aspects of the chemistry of natural waters and of biological processes within it, is a thermodynamic state variable that, along with temperature and pressure, governs physical characteristics like the density and heat capacity of the water. A contour line of constant salinity is called an isohaline, or sometimes isohale. Salinity in rivers and the ocean is conceptually simple, but technically challenging to define and measure precisely. Conceptually the salinity is the quantity of dissolved salt content of the water. Salts are compounds like sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, potassium nitrate, sodium bicarbonate which dissolve into ions; the concentration of dissolved chloride ions is sometimes referred to as chlorinity. Operationally, dissolved matter is defined as that which can pass through a fine filter.
Salinity can be expressed in the form of a mass fraction, i.e. the mass of the dissolved material in a unit mass of solution. Seawater has a mass salinity of around 35 g/kg, although lower values are typical near coasts where rivers enter the ocean. Rivers and lakes can have a wide range of salinities, from less than 0.01 g/kg to a few g/kg, although there are many places where higher salinities are found. The Dead Sea has a salinity of more than 200 g/kg. Rainwater before touching the ground has a TDS of 20 mg/L or less. Whatever pore size is used in the definition, the resulting salinity value of a given sample of natural water will not vary by more than a few percent. Physical oceanographers working in the abyssal ocean, are concerned with precision and intercomparability of measurements by different researchers, at different times, to five significant digits. A bottled seawater product known as IAPSO Standard Seawater is used by oceanographers to standardize their measurements with enough precision to meet this requirement.
Measurement and definition difficulties arise because natural waters contain a complex mixture of many different elements from different sources in different molecular forms. The chemical properties of some of these forms depend on pressure. Many of these forms are difficult to measure with high accuracy, in any case complete chemical analysis is not practical when analyzing multiple samples. Different practical definitions of salinity result from different attempts to account for these problems, to different levels of precision, while still remaining reasonably easy to use. For practical reasons salinity is related to the sum of masses of a subset of these dissolved chemical constituents, rather than to the unknown mass of salts that gave rise to this composition. For many purposes this sum can be limited to a set of eight major ions in natural waters, although for seawater at highest precision an additional seven minor ions are included; the major ions dominate the inorganic composition of most natural waters.
Exceptions include some pit waters from some hydrothermal springs. The concentrations of dissolved gases like oxygen and nitrogen are not included in descriptions of salinity. However, carbon dioxide gas, which when dissolved is converted into carbonates and bicarbonates, is included. Silicon in the form of silicic acid, which appears as a neutral molecule in the pH range of most natural waters, may be included for some purposes; the term'salinity' is, for oceanographers associated with one of a set of specific measurement techniques. As the dominant techniques evolve, so do different descriptions of salinity. Salinities were measured using titration-based techniques before the 1980s. Titration with silver nitrate could be used to determine the concentration of halide ions to give a chlorinity; the chlorinity was multiplied by a factor to account for all other constituents. The resulting'Knudsen salinities' are expressed in units of parts per thousand; the use of electrical conductivity measurements to estimate the ionic content of seawater led to the development of the scale called the practical salinity scale 1978.
Salinities measured using PSS-78 do not have units. The suffix psu or PSU is sometimes added to PSS-78 measurement values. In 2010 a new standard for the properties of seawater called the thermodynamic equation of seawater 2010 was introduced, advocating absolute salinity as a replacement for practical salinity, conservative temperature as a replacement for potential temperature; this standard includes. Absolute salinities on this scale are expressed as a mass fraction, in grams per kilogram of solution. Salinities on this scale are determined by combining electrical conductivity measurements with other information that can account for regional changes in the composition of seawater, they can be determined by making direct density measurements. A sample of seawater from most locations with a chlorinity of 19.37 ppt will have a Knudsen salinity of 35.00 ppt, a PSS-78 practical
A ridge or a mountain ridge is a geological feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance. The sides of the ridge slope away from narrow top on either side; the line along the crest formed by the highest points, with the terrain dropping down on either side, is called the ridgeline. Ridges are termed hills or mountains as well, depending on size. There are several main types of ridges: Dendritic ridge: In typical dissected plateau terrain, the stream drainage valleys will leave intervening ridges; these are by far the most common ridges. These ridges represent more erosion resistant rock, but not always – they remain because there were more joints where the valleys formed or other chance occurrences; this type of ridge is somewhat random in orientation changing direction often with knobs at intervals on the ridge top. Stratigraphic ridge: In places such as the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, long straight ridges are formed because they are the uneroded remaining edges of the more resistant dipping strata that were folded laterally.
Similar ridges have formed in places such as the Black Hills, where the ridges form concentric circles around the igneous core. Sometimes these ridges are called "hogback ridges". Oceanic spreading ridge: In tectonic spreading zones around the world, such as at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the volcanic activity forms new land between tectonic boundaries creating volcanic ridges at the spreading zone. Isostatic settling and erosion reduces the elevations moving away from the zone. Crater ridges: Large meteorite strikes form large impact craters bordered by circular ridges. Volcanic crater/caldera ridges: Large volcanoes leave behind a central crater/caldera bordered by circular ridges. Fault ridges: Faults form escarpments. Sometimes the tops of the escarpments form not plateaus but slope back so that the edges of the escarpments form ridges. Dune ridges: In areas of large-scale dune activity, certain types of dunes result in sand ridges. Moraines and eskers: Glacial activity may leave ridges in the form of moraines and eskers.
An arête is a thin ridge of rock, formed by glacial erosion. Volcanic subglacial ridges: Many subglacial volcanoes create ridge-like formations when lava erupts through a thick glacier or ice sheet. Shutter ridges: A shutter ridge is a ridge which has moved along a fault line, blocking or diverting drainage. A shutter ridge creates a valley corresponding to the alignment of the fault that produces it. Pressure ridges: Also known as a tumuli develops in lava flows when slow-moving lava beneath a solidified crust wells upward; the brittle crust buckles to accommodate the inflating core of the flow, thus creating a central crack along the length of the tumulus. An Ice pressure ridge develops in an ice cover as a result of a stress regime established within the plane of the ice. Tectonic uplift – The portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean earth surface, not attributable to an isostatic response to unloading Mountain range – A geographic area containing several geologically related mountains Mountain chain Hill chain Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Volume 69 Universitetsforlaget, 1989 page 40 https://books.google.com/books?id=dXK7AAAAIAAJ Physical Geography: Introduction To Earth page 164 https://books.google.com/books?id=dC7qhGQpBYkC