Boris is a Japanese experimental band formed in 1992 in Tokyo and composed of drummer Atsuo Mizuno, guitarist/bassist Takeshi Ohtani and guitarist/keyboardist Wata. All three members participate in vocal performance; the band is named after a song of the same name on the Melvins' 1991 album Bullhead. Their debut album Absolutego was released in 1996 on their own record label Fangs Anal Satan, followed by 24 more studio albums on various labels around the world. Boris was a four-piece band, with Nagata on drums. Nagata departed in 1996 leaving Atsuo to take over drumming duties, the band has remained a three-piece since. In Japan, Boris release most of their music on the indie label Inoxia Records. Though unknown in their home country, a recent series of reissues on US label Southern Lord Records has seen their popularity in North America increase even gaining them widespread recognition in the mainstream music press. Many of Boris' vinyl releases feature similar artwork for the inner label of the record.
This is a parody of the original Roger Dean artwork that Virgin Records used for many of their releases. 2005's Pink was met with considerable critical praise and a strong response from music fans when reissued in the US on Southern Lord Records. Blender magazine and SPIN magazine both named it one of 2006's best albums; the album topped the metal section of Canadian magazine Exclaim's 2006 Reader's Poll, was in the top 10 of Pitchfork Media's Top 50 Records of 2006. Boris focus a lot of their time on touring. In an interview, Atsuo said: "That we tour so much and release so many albums, I think it is representative of what we’re about. Direct communication is something we've lost in this age. It’s a shame – interviews are over phone. I think it's important to see people face to face – that's why it's so important to go on tour. It's something basic to humans that we’ve lost lately." Boris opened for Nine Inch Nails on part of the fall 2008 segment of the Lights in the Sky tour. They appeared on the avant-garde metal soundtrack to Jim Jarmusch's film The Limits of Control.
Regarding Boris, Jarmusch said that "what's remarkable is when they play live they're in the mode, in a way, of jazz musicians, not structurally or musically, but the way they listen to what the others are doing and build on it. Each time they play something it's different, every time."Boris played the ATP New York 2010 music festival in Monticello, New York where they performed Altar in collaboration with Sunn O))) On May 29, 2010, Boris performed a cover of The Doors song "The End" with Ian Astbury at Vivid Festival on Sydney. Boris and Astbury released a four-song EP in September 2010 on Southern Lord and Daymare Records that contains four tracks entitled Teeth and Claws, We are Witches, Magickal Child. In 2011, Boris released three albums: New Album, their first major release with a major producer on AVEX/Tearbridge label, Heavy Rocks a sequel to the album with the same name, Attention Please; the latter two albums were released on the label Sargent House. In 2014, Boris announced the release of CDs of archival material under the names Archive I and Archive II and on April 8, they announced the album Noise to be released once again through Sargent House.
On May 9, 2017, Boris announced the album Dear with an international release date of July 14 through Sargent House. Throughout their career, Boris have made deliberate efforts to avoid a strong association with any musical style. In particular, they do not consider themselves a heavy metal band despite being categorized as such. In an interview, drummer Atsuo stated: "Having some kind of preconceived message or theme is boring to me, it becomes a crutch. Just say what you want to say." Key genres they have been associated with include experimental music, experimental rock, noise music, noise rock, experimental/avant-garde metal, doom metal, post-metal, drone metal, sludge metal, psychedelic music, psychedelic rock, psychedelic metal, stoner rock. While they emerged as a sludge metal band with strong hardcore punk influences, their subsequent releases employed elements of a wide variety of genres, including drone music, old-school industrial music, ambient music, acid rock, garage rock, dream pop, J-pop, crust punk.
While the band's debut album, featured a "65-minute track of oozing, slow motion, Melvins-inspired drone rock/metal," its follow-up Amplifier Worship incorporated psychedelia and jam band influences to this sound. Their third album Flood incorporated elements from drone. 2005's Akuma no Uta and Pink engaged in different stylistic varieties, including shoegazing and post-rock. Vein was released with a "hardcore" and a "drone" version, whereas 2011's released albums New Album, Attention Please and Heavy Rocks incorporated shoegazing and heavy metal influences, respectively. Noise featured elements from grunge music. During their career, Boris has collaborated with various artists of different musical genres, including Merzbow, Sunn O))), Keiji Haino and Ian Astbury. Atsuo has named Earth as an influence; the variety of their music dictates that their setup in a live environment be equipped with many different effects pedals and other guitar accessories. Wata uses an E-bow to manipulate feedback.
Wata's live effects setup has been centered on the Roland Space Echo and the Electro-Harmonix Big Muff. Takeshi plays a double-necked bass/guitar live, which allows him to drone away on the guitar du
A nightclub, music club or club, is an entertainment venue and bar that operates late into the night. A nightclub is distinguished from regular bars, pubs or taverns by the inclusion of a stage for live music, one or more dance floor areas and a DJ booth, where a DJ plays recorded music; the upmarket nature of nightclubs can be seen in the inclusion of VIP areas in some nightclubs, for celebrities and their guests. Nightclubs are much more than pubs or sports bars to use bouncers to screen prospective clubgoers for entry; some nightclub bouncers do not admit people with informal clothing or gang apparel as part of a dress code. The busiest nights for a nightclub are Saturday night. Most clubs or club nights cater to certain music genres, such as hip hop. Many clubs have recurring club nights on different days of the week. Most club nights focus on a particular sound for branding effects. From about 1900 to 1920, working class Americans would gather at honky tonks or juke joints to dance to music played on a piano or a jukebox.
Webster Hall is credited as the first modern nightclub, being built in 1886 and starting off as a "social hall" functioning as a home for dance and political activism events. During Prohibition in the United States, nightclubs went underground as illegal speakeasy bars, with Webster Hall staying open, with rumors circulating of Al Capone's involvement and police bribery. With the repeal of Prohibition in February 1933, nightclubs were revived, such as New York's 21 Club, Copacabana, El Morocco, the Stork Club; these nightclubs featured big bands. In Germany, the first discothèque on record that involved a disc jockey was Scotch-Club, which opened in 1959. In Occupied France and bebop music, the jitterbug dance were banned by the Nazis as "decadent American influences", so as an act of resistance, people met at hidden basements called discothèques where they danced to jazz and swing music, played on a single turntable when a jukebox was not available; these discothèques were patronized by anti-Vichy youth called zazous.
There were underground discothèques in Nazi Germany patronized by anti-Nazi youth called the swing kids. In Harlem, Connie's Inn and the Cotton Club were popular venues for white audiences. Before 1953 and some years thereafter, most bars and nightclubs used a jukebox or live bands. In Paris, at a club named Whisky à Gogo, founded in 1947, Régine in 1953 laid down a dance-floor, suspended coloured lights and replaced the jukebox with two turntables that she operated herself so there would be no breaks between the music; the Whisky à Gogo set into place the standard elements of the modern post World War II discothèque-style nightclub. At the end of the 1950s, several of the coffee bars in Soho introduced afternoon dancing and the most famous was Les Enfants Terribles at 93 Dean St; these original discothèques were nothing like the night clubs, as they were unlicensed and catered to a young public—mostly made up of French and Italians working illegally in catering, to learn English as well as au pair girls from most of western Europe.
While the discothèque swept Europe throughout the 1960s, it did not reach the United States until the 1970s, where the first rock and roll generation preferred rough and tumble bars and taverns to nightclubs until the disco era. In the early 1960s, Mark Birley opened a members-only discothèque nightclub, Annabel's, in Berkeley Square, London. In 1962, the Peppermint Lounge in New York City became popular and is the place where go-go dancing originated. Sybil Burton opened the "Arthur" discothèque in 1965 on East 54th Street in Manhattan on the site of the old El Morocco nightclub and it became the first and hottest disco in New York City through 1969; the first large-scale discothèque in Germany opened in 1967 as the club Blow Up in Munich, which because of its extravagance and excesses gained international reputation. Disco has its roots in the underground club scene. During the early 1970s in New York City, disco clubs were places where oppressed or marginalized groups such as homosexuals, Latinos, Italian-Americans, Jews could party without following male to female dance protocol or exclusive club policies.
Discoteques had a law. This shifted the idea of this post-heterosexist community, as women could be seen as a kind of gateway for men to advance their own experience without fear of being arrested under the male-to-male dancing law; the women sought these experiences to seek safety in a venue that embraced the independent woman — with an eye to one or more of the same or opposite sex or none. Although the culture that surrounded disco was progressive in dance couples, cross-genre music, a push to put the physical over the rational, the role of female bodies looked to be placed in the role of safety net, it brought together people from different backgrounds. These clubs acted as safe havens for homosexual partygoers to dance in peace and away from public scrutiny. By the late 1970s many major U. S. cities had thriving disco club scenes centered on discothèques and private loft parties where DJs would play disco hits through powerful PA systems for the dancers. The DJs played "... a smooth mix of long single records to keep people'dancing all night long'".
Some of the most prestigious clubs had elaborate lighting systems that throbbed to the beat of the music. The genre of disco has changed through the years, it is classified both as a nightclub. This club culture that originated in downtown New York, was attended by a variety of different ethnicities and economic backgrounds, it was an inex
Chicago house refers to house music produced during the mid to late 1980s within Chicago. The term is used to refer to the first house music productions, which were by Chicago-based artists in the 1980s. Following Chicago's Disco Demolition Night in mid-1979, disco music's mainstream popularity fell into decline. In the early 1980s, fewer and fewer disco records were being released, but the genre remained popular in some Chicago nightclubs and on at least one radio station, WBMX-FM. In this era, Chicago radio jocks The Hot Mix 5, club DJs Ron Hardy and Frankie Knuckles played various styles of dance music, including older disco records, newer Italo disco and electro funk tracks, B-boy hip hop music by Man Parrish, Jellybean Benitez, Arthur Baker and John Robie as well as electronic pop music by Kraftwerk and Yellow Magic Orchestra; some of these DJs made and played their own edits of their favorite songs on reel-to-reel tape, focusing on the portions of songs which worked well on the dancefloor.
Some mixed in effects, drum machines, other rhythmic electronic instrumentation in an effort to give songs more appeal. These edits and remixes were released to the public, then were available only on pressed vinyl records or on mixtapes. One DJ, Jesse Saunders, ran a vanity record label through which he released original dance music productions which emulated various popular styles of the day. In 1984, the label released, on 12-inch single, a song called "On and On". Saunders composed the track with Vince Lawrence in order to replace a record, stolen from Saunders' collection, the "On & On" bootleg disco megamix by Mach; that megamix, a pastiche of loops from several electronic disco records the bassline from Player One's "Space Invaders", had been Saunders' "signature" tune as a DJ. Saunders & Lawrence added hypnotic lyrics and electronic instruments, utilizing a Roland TR-808 drum machine as electronic percussion as well as a Korg Poly-61 synthesizer and Roland TB-303 bass synthesizer. In a 2010 interview, Saunders claimed the song sought to capture the essence of the style of disco that other local DJs were playing at the time, a style which he says was known locally as "house".
Saunders' success with the unpolished "On & On" inspired other Chicago DJs to try their hand at producing and releasing original songs in a similar style, using electronic instrumentation. Early such recordings included Jamie Principle and Frankie Knuckles' "Your Love"; these producers were aided in their efforts by the availability of affordable, mass-produced electronic music instruments, including synthesizers, compact sequencers, drum machines and bass modules. Although there are conflicting accounts of the term's etymology, by 1985, "house music" was synonymous with these homegrown dance music productions; as with other dance music, DJs and local club-goers were the primary audience for this noncommercial music, more conceptual and longer than the music played on commercial radio. Mainstream record stores did not carry it, as the records were not available through the major record distributors. In Chicago, only record stores such as Importes Etc. State Street Records, JR's Music shop and Gramaphone Records were the primary suppliers of this music.
Despite the music's limited commercial availability, house records sold in the tens of thousands, the music was further popularized via radio station 102.7 WBMX-FM, where Program Director Lee Michaels gave airtime to the station's resident DJ team, the Hot Mix 5. The Hot Mix 5 shows started with the station's launch in 1981, was listened to by DJs and dance music fans in Chicago as well as visiting DJs and producers from Detroit. Many of the songs that defined the Chicago house music sound were released on vinyl by the labels DJ International Records and Trax Records, both of which had distribution outside of Chicago, leading to house's popularity in other cities, including New York and London. Trends in house music soon became subgenres, such as the lush, slower-tempo deep house, the stark hypnotic acid house. Deep house's origins can be traced to Chicago producer Mr Fingers's jazzy, soulful recordings "Mystery of Love" and "Can You Feel It?", according to author Richie Unterberger, moved house music away from its "posthuman tendencies back towards the lush" soulful sound of early disco music.
Acid house arose from Chicago artists' experiments with the squelchy Roland TB-303 bass synthesizer, the style's earliest release on vinyl is cited as Phuture's "Acid Tracks". Phuture, a group founded by Nathan "DJ Pierre" Jones, Earl "Spanky" Smith Jr. and Herbert "Herb J" Jackson, is credited with having been the first to use the TB-303 in the house music context. The group's 12-minute "Acid Tracks" was recorded to tape and was played by DJ Ron Hardy at the Music Box, where Hardy was resident DJ. Hardy once played it four times over the course of an evening; the track utilized a Roland TR-707 drum machine. Several house tracks became #1 hits on the UK Singles Chart, starting with Chicago musician Steve "Silk" Hurley's "Jack Your Body". Music was being licensed to UK Labels by DJ International, Tracks, KMS and the Transmat rec
Post-disco is a term to describe an aftermath in popular music history circa 1979–1986, imprecisely beginning with an unprecedented backlash against disco music in the United States, leading to civil unrest and a riot in Chicago known as the Disco Demolition Night on July 12, 1979, indistinctly ending with the mainstream appearance of house music in the late 1980s. Disco during its dying stage displayed an electronic character that soon served as a stepping stone to new wave, old-school hip hop, euro disco and was succeeded by an underground club music called hi-NRG, its direct continuation. An underground movement of disco music, "stripped-down", featuring "radically different sounds" took place on the East Coast that "was neither disco and neither R&B", This scene known as post-disco catering to New York metropolitan area, was led by urban contemporary artists in response to the over-commercialization and artistic downfall of disco culture. Developed from the rhythm and blues sound as perfected by Parliament-Funkadelic, the electronic side of disco, dub music techniques, other genres.
Post-disco was typified by New York City music groups like "D" Train and Unlimited Touch who followed a more urban approach while others, like Material and ESG, a more experimental one. Post-disco was, like disco, singles-driven market controlled by independent record companies that generated a cross-over chart success all through the early-to-mid 1980s. Most creative control was in the hands of record producers and club DJs, a trend that outlived the dance-pop era. Other musical styles that emerged in the post-disco era include dance-pop and Italo disco and led to the development of the early alternative dance, club-centered house and techno music. Drum machines, sequencers were either or dominant in a composition or mixed up with various acoustic instruments, depending on the artist and on the year. Electronic instruments became more and more prevalent for each year during the period and dominated the genre by the mid 1980s. Darryl Payne arguing about the minimal approach of post-disco Producers are using a lot more sounds and a lot less instruments: the'Forget Me Nots' and'Don't Make Me Wait tracks' are empty, but there's a sophistication people can get into.
The main force in post-disco was the 12" single format and short-lived collaborations while indie record producers were instrumental in the musical direction of what the scene was headed to. The music that catered to dance and urban audiences managed to influence more popular and mainstream acts like Madonna, New Order or Pet Shop Boys; the music tended to be technology-centric, keyboard-laden, with funk-oriented bass lines, synth riffs, dub music aesthetics, background jazzy or blues-y piano layers. For strings and brass sections, synthesizer sounds were preferred to the lush orchestration heard on many disco tracks, although such arrangements would resurface in some house music. Soulful female vocals, remained an essence of post-disco. Bridging the so-called death of disco and the birth of house, all this early-to-mid-'80s music lacks a name beyond drably functional and neutral terms like "dance" or "club music." The term "post-disco" was used as early as 1984 by Cadence magazine when defining post-disco soul as "disco without the loud bass-drum thump."
New York Magazine used the word in an article appearing in the December 1985 issue. AllMusic states that the term denotes a music genre in the era between the indistinct "end" of disco music and the indistinct emergence of house music. In other historical instances the term had been used in a derisive manner. Spy implicitly mocked the usage of both the terms "post-punk" and "post-disco" in their Spy's Rock Critic-o-Matic article, whereas spoofing various music reviews published by Rolling Stone, The Village Voice and Spin. Cuban-American writer Elías Miguel Muñoz in his 1989 novel Crazy Love, in a passage where musicians after moving to America discuss what their "style" may be, used the term in a satirical manner. Midwesterners didn't want that intimidating style shoved down their throats Shortly after the "Disco Sucks" movement of disco bashing throughout the United States, American radio stations began to pay attention to other popular formats of music such as reggae, punk rock or new wave while top mainstream labels and record companies like Casablanca, TK Records or RSO went bankrupt.
Since disco music had been on the way of electronic progression, it split itself into subscenes and styles like Hi-NRG, Italo disco and boogie. The last one is associated with post-disco more than any other offshoots of post-disco. Brazilian record producer and fusion jazz pioneer Eumir Deodato, well aware of current trends in American underground music, turned around the career of a failing funk music group Kool & the Gang by adopting and pursuing a light pop–post-disco sound that not only revitalized the band's image but turned out to be the most successful hits in their entire career. B. B. & Q. Band and Change acts' creator Jacques Fred Petrus, a French-Italian hi-NRG Italo disco music record producer, reflects on his decision to shift from conventional disco music to post-disco " sound changed to more of a funky dance/R&B style to reflect the times." French-born songwriting duo Henri Belolo and Jacques Morali, creators of the successful Village People act, moved their former disco act Ritchie Family to RCA Victor to release their
House music is a genre of electronic dance music created by club DJs and music producers in Chicago in the early 1980s. Early house music was characterized by repetitive 4/4 beats, rhythms provided by drum machines, off-beat hi-hat cymbals, synthesized basslines. While house displayed several characteristics similar to disco music, which preceded and influenced it, as both were DJ and record producer-created dance music, house was more electronic and minimalistic; the mechanical, repetitive rhythm of house was one of its main components. Many house compositions were instrumental, with no vocals. House music developed in Chicago's underground dance club culture in the early 1980s, as DJs from the subculture began altering the pop-like disco dance tracks to give them a more mechanical beat and deeper basslines; as well, these DJs began to mix synth pop, rap and jazz into their tracks. Latin music salsa clave rhythm, became a dominating riff of house music, it was pioneered by Chicago DJs such as Steve Hurley.
It was influenced by Chicago DJ and record producer Frankie Knuckles, the Chicago acid-house electronic music group Phuture, the Tennessee DJ/producer Mr. Fingers; the genre was associated with the Black American LGBT subculture but has since spread to the mainstream. From its beginnings in the Chicago club and local radio scene, the genre spread internationally to London to American cities such as New York City and Detroit, globally. Chicago house music acts from the early to mid-1980s found success on the US dance charts on various Chicago independent record labels that were more open to sign local house music artists; these same acts experienced some success in the United Kingdom, garnering hits in that country. Due to this success, by the late 1980s, Chicago house music acts found themselves being offered major label deals. House music proved to be a commercially successful genre and a more mainstream pop-based variation grew popular. Since the early to mid-1990s, house music has been infused into mainstream pop and dance music worldwide.
In the 2010s, the genre, while keeping several of its core elements, notably the prominent kick drum on most beats, varies in style and influence, ranging from soulful and atmospheric to the more minimalistic microhouse. House music has fused with several other genres creating fusion subgenres, such as euro house, tech house, electro house and jump house. One subgenre, acid house, was based around the squelchy, deep electronic tones created by Roland's TB-303 bass synthesizer. Major acts such as Madonna, Janet Jackson, Paula Abdul, Martha Wash, CeCe Peniston, Robin S. Steps, Kylie Minogue, Björk, C+C Music Factory were influenced by House music in the 1990s and beyond. After enjoying significant success which started in the late 1980s, house music grew larger during the second wave of progressive house; the genre has remained popular and fused into other popular subgenres, notably ghetto house, deep house, future house and tech house. As of today, house music remains popular on radio and in clubs while retaining a foothold on the underground scenes across the globe.
House music is created by DJs, record producers, music artists with contributions from other performers on synthesizer and other electronic instruments. The structure of house music songs involves an intro, a chorus, various verse sections, a midsection and an outro; some songs do not have a verse, repeating the same cycle. The drum beat is one of the more important elements within the genre and is always provided by an electronic drum machine Roland's TR-808 or TR-909, rather than by a live drummer; the drum beats of house are "four on the floor", with bass drums played on every beat and they feature off-beat drum machine hi-hat sounds. House music is based on bass-heavy loops or basslines produced by a synthesizer and/or from samples of disco or funk songs. One subgenre, acid house, was based around the squelchy, deep electronic tones created by Roland's TB-303 bass synthesizer; the tempo of most house songs is between 115 BPM and 132 BPM. Various disco songs incorporated sounds produced with synthesizers and electronic drum machines, some compositions were electronic.
As well, the audio mixing and editing techniques earlier explored by disco, garage music and post-disco DJs, record producers, audio engineers such as Walter Gibbons, Tom Moulton, Jim Burgess, Larry Levan, Ron Hardy, M & M, others was important. These artists produced longer, more repetitive, percussive arrangements of existing disco recordings. Early house producers such as Frankie Knuckles created similar compositions from scratch, using samplers, synthesizers and drum machines; the electronic instrumentation and minimal arrangement of Charanjit Singh's Synthesizing: Ten Ragas to a Disco Beat, an album of Indian ragas performed in a disco style, anticipated the sounds of acid house music, but it is not known to have had any influence on the genre prior to the album's rediscovery in the 21st century. Rachel Cain, co-founder of influential dance label Trax Records, was involved in the burgeoning punk scene. Ca
Club Zanzibar was a dance club that opened in 1979 at 430 Broad Street in Newark, New Jersey. Its presence in Downtown Newark, several blocks from what is today the headquarters of Audible, was noted for its influence on house music and garage house genres and scene. Club Zanzibar, along with other gay and straight clubs in the era, was both a straight and mixed black and Latino nightlife destination. DJ Tony Humphries began his residency at the club in 1982 and, along with others, helped "spawn the sometimes raw but always soulful, gospel-infused subgenre" of house music known as the Jersey Sound; the club scene gave rise to the ball culture scene in Newark hotels and nightclubs. New Jersey artists like Jomanda found success on the house music scene. Abigail Adams's house-music record label and store, Movin’ Records in adjacent East Orange, New Jersey was another contributor to the sound. Well-known deep house DJ Kerri Chandler was a resident DJ at the club, his girlfriend was brutally attacked and killed by another man outside the club in a horrific attack in the 1980s.
Some have said. Because of Zanzibar.”The sound was exported to London during the era and eagerly devoured by house music enthusiasts across the pond. The music video for K-YZE's "Stomp" was filmed at the Zanzibar in 1989; the club opened in 1979. The sound system was developed and installed by Richard Long of Richard Long & Associates; the club transitioned to hip-hop in the 1990s, rebranding as Brick City, closed. In 1988, Paris Dupree held her famous Paris Is Burning ball at the club, namesake to the famous film. Newark-area annual summer events like the Roselle House Music Festival in Warinanco Park and the Lincoln Park Music Festival serve as unofficial "Zans" reunions. Notable performers who have played "the Zanzibar" include: Larry Levan Jomanda Tony Humphries François Kevorkian Tee Scott David Morales Grace Jones Kool & the Gang Whitney Houston Patti LaBelle Fonda Rae Gloria Gaynor Vicki Sue Robinson Linda Clifford Crystal Waters Jocelyn Brown CeCe Rogers Millie Jackson Sharon Redd Kerri Chandler Loleatta Holloway Thelma Houston Sugarhill Gang Gwen Guthrie Chaka Khan Sylvester Paris Dupree The Weather Girls Central Line Blaze Five Star Modern Romance Aly-Us The Lincoln Motel, which housed Club Zanzibar, was torn down in 2007 as one contemporary developer called it a “ blemished, rat-infested drug-haven eyesore."
It had degenerated into a notorious hotspot for crime, drug abuse, prostitution and violence. Its owner, Miles Berger of the Berger Organization, was the owner of a number of welfare hotels at the time throughout the city. "For a time, arrests were so common that a motel floor plan graced the wall of the public defender’s office to assist lawyers juggling cases. Then-Mayor Cory Booker manned the bulldozer that began the building's demolition in 2007. In the 1980s, Mr. Berger had turned its 200 rooms into a haven for welfare recipients, earning about $1,000 a month per person." Berger's Berger Organization has expressed interest in building a casino on the site. Jersey club - Newark musical genre Tony Humphries McDonald's Gospelfest in Newark Lincoln Park Music Festival in Newark Institute of Jazz Studies in Newark Newark Black Film Festival Aly-Us Newark Arts High School Sparky J's and Key Club Geraldine R. Dodge Poetry Festival in Newark Grammy Museum Experience in Newark Afro Beat Fest in Newark Newark Symphony Hall List of electronic dance music venues
Disco is a music genre and subculture that emerged in the 1970s from the United States' urban nightlife scene. The music, the fashion, many song lyrics and other cultural phenomena associated with disco were focused on having a good time on the dance floor of a discotheque to the loud sounds of records being played by a DJ enhanced by coloured lighting effects. Disco started as a mixture of music from venues popular with African Americans and Latino Americans, Italian Americans, LGBT people, psychedelic hippies in Philadelphia and New York City during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Disco can be seen as a reaction to both the dominance of rock music and the stigmatization of dance music by the counterculture during this period. Several dance styles were developed during the period of disco's popularity in the United States, including the Bump and the Hustle; the disco sound is typified by "four-on-the-floor" beats, syncopated basslines, string sections, electric piano and electric rhythm guitars.
Lead guitar features less in disco than in rock. Well-known disco artists include Donna Summer, Gloria Gaynor, the Bee Gees, Chic, KC and the Sunshine Band, Thelma Houston and the Village People. While performers and singers garnered public attention, record producers working behind the scenes played an important role in developing the genre. Films such as Saturday Night Fever and Thank God It's Friday contributed to disco's mainstream popularity. By the late 1970s, most major U. S. cities had thriving disco club scenes, DJs would mix dance records at clubs such as Studio 54 in New York City, a venue popular among celebrities. Discothèque-goers wore expensive and sexy fashions. There was a thriving drug subculture in the disco scene for drugs that would enhance the experience of dancing to the loud music and the flashing lights, such as cocaine and Quaaludes, the latter being so common in disco subculture that they were nicknamed "disco biscuits". Disco clubs were associated with promiscuity as a reflection of the sexual revolution of this era in popular history.
Disco was the last popular music movement driven by the baby boom generation. It began to decline in the United States during 1979-80, by 1982 it had lost nearly all popularity there. Disco Demolition Night, an anti-disco protest held in Chicago on July 12, 1979, remains the most well-known of several "backlash" incidents across the country that symbolized disco's declining fortune. Disco was a key influence in the development of electronic dance house music, it has had several revivals, such as Madonna's successful 2005 album Confessions on a Dance Floor, again in the 2010s, entering the pop charts in the US and the UK. The term "disco" is shorthand for the word discothèque, a French word for "library of phonograph records" derived from "bibliothèque"; the word "discothèque" was current in the same meaning in English in the 1950s."Discothèque" became in use in French as a term for a type of nightclubs in Paris after these had resorted to playing records during the Nazi occupation in the early 1940s.
Some clubs used it as their proper name. In 1960 it was used to describe a Parisian nightclub in an English magazine. In the summer of 1964 a short sleeveless dress called "discotheque dress" was popular in the United States for a short time; the earliest known use for the abbreviated form "disco" described this dress and has been found in the Salt Lake Tribune of 12 July 1964, but Playboy magazine used it soon after to describe Los Angeles nightclubs in September of the same year. Vince Aletti was one of the first to describe disco as a music genre, he wrote the feature article "Discoteque Rock Paaaaarty" that appeared in Rolling Stone magazine in September 1973. The music layered soaring, often-reverberated vocals doubled by horns, over a background "pad" of electric pianos and "chicken-scratch" rhythm guitars played on an electric guitar. "The'chicken scratch' sound is achieved by pressing the strings against the fretboard and quickly releasing them just enough to get a muted scratching while strumming close to the bridge."
Other backing keyboard instruments include the piano, electric organ, string synth, electromechanical keyboards such as the Fender Rhodes electric piano, Wurlitzer electric piano, Hohner Clavinet. Synthesizers are fairly common in disco in the late 1970s; the rhythm is laid down by prominent, syncopated basslines played on the bass guitar and by drummers using a drum kit, African/Latin percussion, electronic drums such as Simmons and Roland drum modules. The sound was enriched with solo lines and harmony parts played by a variety of orchestral instruments, such as harp, viola, trumpet, trombone, flugelhorn, French horn, English horn, flute, piccolo and synth strings, string section or a full string orchestra. Most disco songs have a steady four-on-the-floor beat, a quaver or semi-quaver hi-hat pattern with an open hi-hat on the off-beat, a heavy, syncopated bass line. Other Latin rhythms such as the rhumba, the samba and the cha-cha-cha are found in disco recordings, Latin polyrhythms, such as a rhumba beat layered over a merengue, are commonplace.
The quaver pattern is supported by other instruments such as the rhythm guitar and may be implied rather than explicitly present. Songs use syncopation, the accenting of unexpected beats. In general, the d