Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Juan de Garay
Juan de Garay was a Spanish conquistador. Garay's birthplace is disputed; some say it was in the Castile city of Junta de Villalba de Losa, while others argue he was born in the area of Orduña. There's no birth certification whatsoever, though Juan De Garay regarded himself as somebody from Biscay, he served in the Viceroyalty of Peru. He was governor of Asunción and founded a number of cities in present-day Argentina, many near the Paraná River area, including the second foundation of Buenos Aires, in 1580. In 1543 he sailed to Peru with his uncle Pedro de Zárate in Viceroy Blasco Núñez Vela's first expedition. In 1561 he took part in the foundation of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. In 1568 he moved to Asunción; the governor of Asunción sent him in April 1573, with a company of eighty men, on an expedition to the Paraná River, during which he founded the city of Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz. In 1576 he was appointed governor of Asunción; as governor, he attempted to avoid bloodshed by bringing civilization to the natives.
To achieve these goals, he established local governments. In 1580, having attained the rank of Capitan General of the Viceroyalty, he re-founded the city on the banks of the Río de la Plata, first established by Pedro de Mendoza in 1536 under the name of Nuestra Señora del Buen Ayre, but was destroyed by the natives. Garay founded Buenos Aires a second time on June 11 in the year 1580, he landed on the riverbank in the location of Plaza de Mayo, calling the city Ciudad de la Trinidad and its port Santa Maria de Buenos Ayres. Buenos Aires would become the main city in its most important port, he went on an expedition in search for the legendary City of the Caesars. Juan de Garay died near the Río de la Plata, while travelling from Buenos Aires to Santa Fe on March 20, 1583, his group of 40 men, a Franciscan priest and a few women entered an unknown lagoon and decided to spend the night on the banks of the Carcarañá River, near the ancient Sancti Spíritus Fort; the group was ambushed by Querandíes natives who killed Garay, the priest, a woman, twelve of the soldiers.
He was made King. Garay had a daughter, Jerónima de Contreras, who married Hernando Arias de Saavedra, the governor of Rio de la Plata. In the oldest part of the town of Garay in Biscay is located a palace-baserri named Garatikua and built by Juan de Garay. In the 19th century, it was called "Garay-Goitia". According to García Carraffa, the Garay's coat of arms indicates an origin from the noble Garay Family of Tudela mentioned in the thirteenth century. Juan de Garay as a Biscayan had the title of knight, a title the "Fueros" granted to all the Vizcayans; the family had a certain economic and cultural level, it should be kept in mind that his uncle was appointed Judge and "Alcalde Mayor" of Segovia and his cousin attended the University of Salamanca. Juan joined the family of his uncle, made by Pedro Ortiz de Zárate, his wife Catalina Uribe and Salazar and his cousins: Pedro Ortiz de Zárate, Ana Salazar and the youngest of the brothers Francisco Uribe; the three children bear different surnames, only the firstborn retains that of the father, while the others adopt the mother's surname.
He had a family relationship with Juan Ortiz de Zárate, third "Adelantado" of the Rio de la Plata. On his doubtful birth place Biography Fundación Vasco Argentina Biografía
Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. Spain's provincial system was recognized in its 1978 constitution but its origin dates back to 1833. Ceuta and the Plazas de soberanía are not part of any provinces; the layout of Spain's provinces follows the pattern of the territorial division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the subdivision of the Canary Islands into two provinces rather than one; the provinces served as transmission belts for policies enacted in Madrid, as Spain was a centralised state for most of its modern history. The importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy, they remain electoral districts for national elections and as geographical references: for instance in postal addresses and telephone codes. A small town would be identified as being in, Valladolid province rather than the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The provinces were the "building-blocks". No province is divided between more than one of these communities. Most of the provinces—with the exception of Álava, Biscay, Guipúzcoa, Balearic Islands, La Rioja, Navarra — are named after their principal town. Only two capitals of autonomous communities — Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia — are not the capitals of provinces. Seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province each: Asturias, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid and Navarra; these are sometimes referred to as "uniprovincial" communities. The table below lists the provinces of Spain. For each, the capital city is given, together with an indication of the autonomous community to which it belongs and a link to a list of municipalities in the province; the names of the provinces and their capitals are ordered alphabetically according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish language names are the same.
List of Spanish provinces by population List of Spanish provinces by area Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces Autonomous communities of Spain Comarcas of Spain ISO 3166-2:ESGeneral: Political divisions of Spain Maps of the provinces of Spain Maps of Spain's Provinces List of municipalities of Spain listed by province from the Spanish INE
Basauri is a major municipality of Biscay, in the Basque Country, an Autonomous Community in northern Spain. The town is a part of the Greater Bilbao conurbation, it is an industrial town that includes monuments such as the tower-house of Ariz. It holds the only prison in the province, located where the rivers Ibaizabal meet; the municipality has 42,971 inhabitants. Basauri is located in the metropolitan region of the Greater Bilbao, on both sides of the river Nervión and the lower valley of the river Nervión and Ibaizabal. Basauri is located at joining point of the two most important rivers of Biscay, forming a small river plain a series of meanders have been built, now engaged in their most industrial facilities. Basauri joins the roads coming from Orduña-Urduña and Durango following the course of the two rivers. A neighborhood took its name from the joining of both paths: Bidebieta. From the river area where the municipality was born, the land rises culminating in the mountain Malmasín of clayey nature, in the border with Arrigorriaga.
Bordered on the north by Bilbao and Galdakao, on the south and west by Arrigorriaga and on the east Galdakao and Zaratamo. Basauri is in an oceanic climate zone and humid. Rainfall is well distributed throughout the year. Temperatures are moderate throughout the year, with small thermal fluctuations. Several elements influenced. Being a communications hub, Basauri was a important factor to consider, its proximity to the mines of Ollargan Morro and Miravilla and the Basauri-Galdakao Group's mines caused an increase of population for the municipality. The conversion of the mills into baking industry contributed to this increase, but the element that most contributed to the population development was the installation in 1892 of the first major industry, "La Basconia". The rapid growth that underwemt the municipality, made its population multiplied by 24.6 in the period 1900-1975. But the largest increases in population started in the 1950s with the installation of new industries which created between 1950 and 1960 a population growth of the 97%, which continued in the next decade with an increase of the 80%.
In 1984 it started a slow but progressive population decline, although it had declined in 1979 with the industrial crisis, the year in which it was indicated the historical maximum population of 55,648 inhabitants. In the last estimate by the NSI, 16 September 2007, the population of Basauri rose to 43,250 inhabitants. Basauri became independent from Arrigorriaga in 1510 or at least, is the date taken as official, because there is no document to verify that at that date any meetings were held between mayors of both towns. Basauri did not get representation in the General Assembly of Guernica until 1858. Since it remained the largest population center and town hall in the neighborhood of San Miguel de Basauri until 1902, when it was approved the transfer of the town hall to Arizgoiti, as this area of growing population and equidistant from the two furthest points of the municipality: Finaga. Basauri was until the end of the 19th century a predominantly rural people, until that time when the factory of Basconia came and with it the industrialization of the town, which went in 50 years from a few thousands of inhabitants to having 55,000 in 1978.
Thousands of families from all regions of Spain nurtured Basauri with new people and buildings, radically changing its image and urbanism. The name Basauri means'population in the forest.' Basa, meaning'forest' and uri,'population'. The only town with the same name known today is called Bajauri in the County of Treviño; some place names of Basauri are: Ariz, Arizgoiti and Arizbarren Basozelai, Sarratu, Bizkotxalde Pozokoetxe, Iruaretxeta, Abaroa, Gaztañabaltza, Errekalde, Arteaga, Uribarri and Bidebieta (which appear as Dos Caminos at the train station and made many think that it was the original name of the town. The district now called Kalero, it is Calero and although some authors have seen in the name the Castilian translation of Kareaga, it refers to the fact that in this place it was located a holding of limestone for the manufacture of lime and those places in Spanish are called'Calero'. There are two areas or neighborhoods called Kareaga: Kareaga Goikoa and Kareaga Behekoa and now called'El Calero', since in both areas had lime plants.
Moreover, there are Soloarte, Kantarazarra, Iturrigorri and others. The festivities of San Fausto in October are the patron saint festivities of the municipality; every major neighborhood forming Basauri, celebrates each year their festivities but the most popular festivals in this town are those held in honor of San Fausto every, taking as an amulet the Escarabillera, zurracapote as typical drink, prepared by the fifteen crews belonging to Herriko Taldeak, served in a jug to anyone coming to them. Zurracapote is a drink similar to sangria as it is made with red wine, cinnamon, some kind of liquor, sugar and, according to the legend, so shameful condiments that many would not want to know; the Escarabillera is a character based on women and men in Basauri would dress in times of greatest need at the beginning of century. Those clothes were worn to walk along tracks where steam trains as they circulated or heaps of smelters
Bermeo is a town and municipality in the comarca of Busturialdea. It is in the province of Biscay, part of the autonomous region of the Basque Country in northern Spain. With a population of 17,159, it is the most important fishing port in the Basque Country; the town was founded in 1236, is the largest in Busturialdea. Bermeo was the provincial capital of Biscay from 1476 to 1602. Tourist attractions include the island of Gaztelugatxe, the Ercilla Tower, San Juan Gate and the port. Bermeo is connected by Euskotren BizkaiBus to Bilbao, it has a number of neighbourhoods: Arana, Agirre, San Andres, Arronategi, San Migel, Demiku, Mañu and San Pelaio. Bermeo's history dates back to the monastery of San Juan of Gaztelugatxe in 1051. In 1082, it is mentioned by Don Lope lñiguez as "Sancti Michaelis Arcangeli in Portu of Vermelio". Ferdinand II of Aragon named the town the capital of Biscay on 31 July 1476, a position it held until 1602. Many documents have been destroyed by fire; the founding of Bilbao in 1300 coincided with decline in Bermeo.
The town has an oceanic climate, with heavy rains in spring and late fall. The average annual minimum temperature is about 9 °C, the maximum is about 19 °C; the record maximum temperature is 45 °C, the record minimum is -9 °C. As a result of increased immigration due to industrialisation during the 1960s, the population grew rapidly. Although it began to decline during the 1990s, the population has increased again since 2000. Bermeo's economy is based on fishing, its port is the town's chief source of revenue, it has a fleet of deep-sea vessels, Bermeo's coastal fisheries are among the region's most important. In addition to fishing, diesel engines and generators are manufactured and the commercial port receives raw materials. Bermeo has connections with the timber and undersea-gas industries. Bermeo is connected by road to Mungia by the BI-631 road and to Gernika-Lumo by the BI-2235; the BI-3101 connects the town with Bakio, 12 km away. The capital, Bilbao, is reached by the BI-631 and the BI-2235.
BizkaiBus connects Bermeo with Guernica, Amorebieta-Etxano, Bilbao and Bakio. Euskotren Trena connects the town directly with Bilbao, Amorebieta-Etxano and Gipuzkoa. Bermeo has taxi and Bermibusa service. On the road to Bakio is the lighthouse of Matxitxako, on the cape of the same name. Further along is Akatz Island, next to Gaztelugatxe. During the 14th century a castle topped the island, replaced by the monastery. On 29 August a mass celebrates the feast of San Juan; the island is a protected area. Akatz Island, a small island next to Gaztelugatxe, has little vegetation but a significant nesting-bird population. On its cape is the Matxitxako lighthouse, which has good views of the coast and from which cetaceans may be seen. Izaro Island is part of the Urdaibai Reserve. Bermeo's old town has many houses painted in narrow streets with squares. Aritzatxu is a small beach. Ercilla Tower is the only remaining tower of 30 towers. In the old port, it was housed the Ercilla family. In addition to its military use, it housed warehoused fish.
It was renovated in 1948 with Gothic arches as the Fisherman's Museum. Bermeo's town hall, in Sabino Arana Goiri Square, was built in 1732. With two clocks on its facade, it is one of the town's Artistic Historical Monuments; the Kikunbera house, in Basque Rationalist style, was designed to resemble a ship and has been an Artistic Historical Monument since 1995. Batzoki is a modernist building by Pedro Ispizua. BERMEO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Town council Tourist information Fishermen Museum
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers, stems, leaves and seeds; the alternate definition of the term vegetable is applied somewhat arbitrarily by culinary and cultural tradition. It may exclude foods derived from some plants that are fruits and cereal grains, but include fruits from others such as tomatoes and courgettes and seeds such as pulses. Vegetables were collected from the wild by hunter-gatherers and entered cultivation in several parts of the world during the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC, when a new agricultural way of life developed. At first, plants which grew locally would have been cultivated, but as time went on, trade brought exotic crops from elsewhere to add to domestic types. Nowadays, most vegetables are grown all over the world as climate permits, crops may be cultivated in protected environments in less suitable locations.
China is the largest producer of vegetables and global trade in agricultural products allows consumers to purchase vegetables grown in faraway countries. The scale of production varies from subsistence farmers supplying the needs of their family for food, to agribusinesses with vast acreages of single-product crops. Depending on the type of vegetable concerned, harvesting the crop is followed by grading, storing and marketing. Vegetables can be eaten either raw or cooked and play an important role in human nutrition, being low in fat and carbohydrates, but high in vitamins and dietary fiber. Many nutritionists encourage people to consume plenty of fruit and vegetables, five or more portions a day being recommended; the word vegetable was first recorded in English in the early 15th century. It comes from Old French, was applied to all plants, it derives from Medieval Latin vegetabilis "growing, flourishing", a semantic change from a Late Latin meaning "to be enlivening, quickening". The meaning of "vegetable" as a "plant grown for food" was not established until the 18th century.
In 1767, the word was used to mean a "plant cultivated for food, an edible herb or root". The year 1955 saw the first use of the shortened, slang term "veggie"; as an adjective, the word vegetable is used in scientific and technical contexts with a different and much broader meaning, namely of "related to plants" in general, edible or not—as in vegetable matter, vegetable kingdom, vegetable origin, etc. The exact definition of "vegetable" may vary because of the many parts of a plant consumed as food worldwide—roots, leaves, flowers and seeds; the broadest definition is the word's use adjectivally to mean "matter of plant origin". More a vegetable may be defined as "any plant, part of, used for food", a secondary meaning being "the edible part of such a plant". A more precise definition is "any plant part consumed for food, not a fruit or seed, but including mature fruits that are eaten as part of a main meal". Falling outside these definitions are edible fungi and edible seaweed which, although not parts of plants, are treated as vegetables.
In the latter-mentioned definition of "vegetable", used in everyday language, the words "fruit" and "vegetable" are mutually exclusive. "Fruit" has a precise botanical meaning, being a part that developed from the ovary of a flowering plant. This is different from the word's culinary meaning. While peaches and oranges are "fruit" in both senses, many items called "vegetables", such as eggplants, bell peppers, tomatoes, are botanically fruits; the question of whether the tomato is a fruit or a vegetable found its way into the United States Supreme Court in 1893. The court ruled unanimously in Nix v. Hedden that a tomato is identified as, thus taxed as, a vegetable, for the purposes of the Tariff of 1883 on imported produce; the court did acknowledge, that, botanically speaking, a tomato is a fruit. Before the advent of agriculture, humans were hunter-gatherers, they foraged for edible fruit, stems, leaves and tubers, scavenged for dead animals and hunted living ones for food. Forest gardening in a tropical jungle clearing is thought to be the first example of agriculture.
Plant breeding through the selection of strains with desirable traits such as large fruit and vigorous growth soon followed. While the first evidence for the domestication of grasses such as wheat and barley has been found in the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, it is that various peoples around the world started growing crops in the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC. Subsistence agriculture continues to this day, with many rural farmers in Africa, South America, elsewhere using their plots of land to produce enough food for their families, while any surplus produce is used for exchange for other goods. Throughout recorded history, the rich have been able to afford a varied diet including meat and fruit, but for poor people, meat was a luxury and the food they ate was dull comprising some staple product made from rice, barley, millet or maize; the addition of vegetable matter provided some variety to the diet. The staple diet of the Aztecs in Central America was maize and they cultivated tomatoes, beans, pumpkins, squashes and amaranth seeds to supplement their tortillas and porridge.
In Peru, the Incas subsisted on maize in the lowla
An hórreo is a typical granary from the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, built in wood or stone, raised from the ground by pillars ending in flat staddle stones to prevent access by rodents. Ventilation is allowed by the slits in its walls. Similar buildings on staddle stones are found in Southern England. In some areas, hórreos are known as hórreu, horriu, hurriu, hórreo, canastro, cabazo, canastro, caniço, hôrreo, garaia, orri, serender. Hórreos are found in the Northwest of Spain and Northern Portugal. There are two main types of hórreo, rectangular-shaped, the more extended found in Galicia and coastal areas of Asturias; the oldest document containing an image of an hórreo is the Cantigas de Santa Maria by Alfonso X "El Sabio" from the 13th century. In this depiction, three rectangular hórreos of gothic style are illustrated. There are several types of Asturian hórreo, according to the characteristics of the roof, the materials used for the pillars or the decoration; the oldest still standing date from the 15th century, nowadays they are built ex novo.
There are an estimated 18,000 hórreos and paneras in Asturias, some are poorly preserved but there is a growing awareness from owners and authorities to maintain them in good shape. The longest hórreo in Galicia is 35 m long. Other similar granary structures include Asturian paneras, trojes or trojs in Castile or silos. Similar granaries were common throughout Atlantic Europe: Northwest Iberian Peninsula, the British Isles, Scandinavia. There are canastros in northern Portugal. French Savoy has its regard encountered in the Swiss Valais and the Italian Aosta Valley. Norway has its stabbur, Sweden its härbre or more stolphärbre or stolpbod. Hambars are found in the Balkans, serender in northern Turkey. Härbren exist throughout Sweden, but the more hórreo-like härbren, raised from the ground by pillars, are only found in the central and northern parts of the country; the church härbre in Älvdalen, built c. 1285, is one of the oldest surviving religious wooden buildings in Sweden. Raccard Hambar Horreum Hórreo de Carnota Asturian Hórreo Galician hórreos Horreos in English es:Archivo:Santa fe navarra horreo jpg Nice collection of images of horreos.
Large collection of images of staddle stones/pillars