A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a parish priest, who might be assisted by one or more curates, who operates from a parish church. A parish covered the same geographical area as a manor, its association with the parish church remains paramount. By extension the term parish refers not only to the territorial entity but to the people of its community or congregation as well as to church property within it. In England this church property was technically in ownership of the parish priest ex-officio, vested in him on his institution to that parish. First attested in English in the late, 13th century, the word parish comes from the Old French paroisse, in turn from Latin: paroecia, the latinisation of the Ancient Greek: παροικία, translit. Paroikia, "sojourning in a foreign land", itself from πάροικος, "dwelling beside, sojourner", a compound of παρά, "beside, by, near" and οἶκος οἶκος, "house".
As an ancient concept, the term "parish" occurs in the long-established Christian denominations: Catholic, Anglican Communion, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Lutheran churches, in some Methodist, Congregationalist and Presbyterian administrations. The eighth Archbishop of Canterbury Theodore of Tarsus appended the parish structure to the Anglo-Saxon township unit, where it existed, where minsters catered to the surrounding district. Broadly speaking, the parish is the standard unit in episcopal polity of church administration, although parts of a parish may be subdivided as a chapelry, with a chapel of ease or filial church serving as the local place of worship in cases of difficulty to access the main parish church. In the wider picture of ecclesiastical polity, a parish see. Parishes within a diocese may be grouped into a deanery or vicariate forane, overseen by a dean or vicar forane, or in some cases by an archpriest; some churches of the Anglican Communion have deaneries as units of an archdeaconry.
The Church of England geographical structure uses the local parish church as its basic unit. The parish system survived the Reformation with the Anglican Church's secession from Rome remaining untouched, thus it shares its roots with the Catholic Church's system described above. Parishes may extend into different counties or hundreds and many parishes comprised extra outlying portions in addition to its principal district being described as'detached' and intermixed with the lands of other parishes. Church of England parishes nowadays all lie within one of 44 dioceses divided between the provinces of Canterbury, 30 and York, 14; each parish has its own parish priest and supported by one or more curates or deacons - although as a result of ecclesiastical pluralism some parish priests might have held more than one parish living, placing a curate in charge of those where they do not reside. Now, however, it is common for a number of neighbouring parishes to be placed under one benefice in the charge of a priest who conducts services by rotation, with additional services being provided by lay readers or other non-ordained members of the church community.
A chapelry was a subdivision of an ecclesiastical parish in England, parts of Lowland Scotland up to the mid 19th century. It had a similar status to a township but was so named as it had a chapel which acted as a subsidiary place of worship to the main parish church. In England civil parishes and their governing parish councils evolved in the 19th century as ecclesiastical parishes began to be relieved of what became considered to be civic responsibilities, thus their boundaries began to diverge. The word "parish" acquired a secular usage. Since 1895, a parish council elected by public vote or a parish meeting administers a civil parish and is formally recognised as the level of local government below a district council; the traditional structure of the Church of England with the parish as the basic unit has been exported to other countries and churches throughout the Anglican Communion and Commonwealth but does not continue to be administered in the same way. The parish is the basic level of church administration in the Church of Scotland.
Spiritual oversight of each parish church in Scotland is responsibility of the congregation's Kirk Session. Patronage was regulated in 1711 and abolished in 1874, with the result that ministers must be elected by members of the congregation. Many parish churches in Scotland today are "linked" with neighbouring parish churches served by a single minister. Since the abolition of parishes as a unit of civil government in Scotland in 1929, Scottish parishes have purely ecclesiastical significance and the boundaries may be adjusted by the local Presbytery; the church in Wales is made up of six dioceses. Parishes were civil administration areas until communities were established in 1974. Although they are more simply called congregations and have no geographic boundaries, in the United Methodist Church congregations are called parishes. A prominent example of this usage comes in The Book of Discipline of The United Methodist Church, in which the committee of every local congregation that handles staff support is referred to as the committee on Pastor-Parish Relations.
This committee gives recommendations to the bishop on behalf of the parish/congregation since it is the United Methodist Bishop of the episcopal area who appoints a pastor to each congregation. The same is true in the Af
Lublin is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland. It is the capital and the center of Lublin Voivodeship with a population of 349,103. Lublin is the largest Polish city east of the Vistula River and is 170 kilometres to the southeast of Warsaw by road. One of the events that contributed to the city's development was the Polish-Lithuanian Union of Krewo in 1385. Lublin thrived as a centre of trade and commerce due to its strategic location on the route between Vilnius and Kraków; the Lublin Parliament session of 1569 led to the creation of a real union between the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, thus creating the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Lublin witnessed the early stages of Reformation in the 16th century. A Calvinist congregation was founded and groups of radical Arians appeared in the city, making it an important global centre of Arianism. At the turn of the centuries, Lublin was recognized for hosting a number of outstanding poets and historians of the epoch.
Until the partitions at the end of the 18th century, Lublin was a royal city of the Crown Kingdom of Poland. Its delegates and nobles had the right to participate in the Royal Election. In 1578 Lublin was chosen as the seat of the Crown Tribunal, the highest appeal court in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, for centuries the city has been flourishing as a centre of culture and higher learning, with Kraków, Poznań and Lwów. Although Lublin was not spared from severe destruction during World War II, its picturesque and historical Old Town has been preserved; the district is one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments, as designated May 16, 2007, tracked by the National Heritage Board of Poland. The city is viewed as an attractive location for foreign investment and the analytical Financial Times Group has found Lublin to be one of the best cities for business in Poland; the Foreign Direct Investment ranking placed Lublin second among larger Polish cities in the cost-effectiveness category.
Lublin is noted for a high standard of living. Archaeological finds indicate a long presence of cultures in the area. A complex of settlements started to develop on the future site of Lublin and in its environs in the 6th-7th centuries. Remains of settlements dating back to the 6th century were discovered in the center of today's Lublin on Czwartek Hill; the period of the early Middle Ages was marked by intensification of habitation in the areas along river valleys. The settlements were centered around the stronghold on Old Town Hill, one of the main centers of Lendians tribe; when the tribal stronghold was destroyed in the 10th century, the center shifted to the northeast, to a new stronghold above Czechówka valley and, after the mid-12th century, to Castle Hill. At least two churches are presumed to have existed in Lublin in the early medieval period. One of them was most erected on Czwartek Hill during the rule of Casimir the Restorer in the 11th century; the castle became the seat of a Castellan, first mentioned in historical sources from 1224 but was quite present from the start of the 12th or 10th century.
The oldest historical document mentioning Lublin dates from 1198, so the name must have come into general use some time earlier. The location of Lublin at the eastern borders of the Polish lands gave it military significance. During the first half of the 13th century, Lublin was a target of attacks by Mongols and Lithuanians, which resulted in its destruction, it was ruled by Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia between 1289 and 1302. Lublin was founded as a town by Władysław I the Elbow-high or between 1258 and 1279 during the rule of prince Bolesław V the Chaste. Casimir III the Great, appreciating the site's strategic importance, built a masonry castle in 1341 and encircled the city with defensive walls. From 1326, if not earlier, the stronghold on Castle Hill included a chapel in honor of the Holy Trinity. A stone church dated to the years 1335-1370 exists to this day. In 1392, the city received an important trade privilege from king Władysław II Jagiełło. With the coming of peace between Poland and Lithuania, it developed into a trade centre, handling a large portion of commerce between the countries.
In 1474 the area around Lublin was carved out of Sandomierz Voivodeship and combined to form the Lublin Voivodeship, the third voivodeship of Lesser Poland. During the 15th century and 16th century the town grew rapidly; the largest trade fairs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were held in Lublin. During the 16th century the noble parliaments were held in Lublin several times. On 26 June 1569, one of the most important proclaimed the Union of Lublin, which united Poland and Lithuania; the Lithuanian name for the city is Liublinas. Lublin was one of the most influential cities of the state enjoyed voting rights during the royal elections in Poland; some of the artists and writers of the 16th century Polish renaissance lived and worked in Lublin, including Sebastian Klonowic and Jan Kochanowski, who died in the city in 1584. In 1578 the Crown Tribunal, the highest court of the Lesser Poland region, was established in Lublin. Since the second half of the 16th century, Protestant Reformation movements devolved in Lublin, a large congregation of Polish Brethren was present in the city.
One of Poland's most important Jewish communities was established in Lublin around this time. Jews established a respected yeshiva, Jewish hospital, synagogue and education centre and built the Grodzka Gate (known as the Jewish
Łuków is a city in eastern Poland with 30,727 inhabitants. Since 1999, it has been situated in the Lublin Voivodeship it had belonged to the Siedlce Voivodeship, it is the capital of Łuków County. The town has an area of 35.75 km2, of which forests make up 13%. Łuków is located on the Southern Krzna river, at 160 meters above sea level. The name of the town first appeared in documents in 1233. Łuków comes from Old Slavic word łuk, which means "a place located in a wetland". For 500 years Łuków, together with neighboring towns Siedlce and Radzyń Podlaski, was part of Lesser Poland, was located in the extreme northeastern corner of the province. After Partitions of Poland, it belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland; some time in the 19th century, it became associated with another historical region of Poland, Podlasie. Łuków was established as a grod, around the year 1233. It guarded eastern border of the Sandomierz Land, against warring tribes from the East including the Yotvingians and the Lithuanians.
In the first half of the 13th century, Łuków was the seat of Lesser Poland's castellany, positioned in a strategic corner of the province. After prince of Kraków and Sandomierz Bolesław V the Chaste brought here the Knights Templar, a Roman Catholic Diocese of Łuków was established here, it existed for a short time, was closed after protests of the Teutonic Knights. In the late Middle Ages Łuków was invaded and destroyed by the Old Prussians, Yotvingians and Tatars; the city life improved only after 1385, when Lithuania became allies. In 1403 Łuków was granted a charter, codifying its legal status; the town belonged to the Sandomierz Voivodeship, but in 1474, it became part of the Lublin Voivodeship. Łuków burned. Its period of prosperity in the first half of the 17th century came to an end after the Swedish invasion of Poland, when it was ransacked and burned by the invaders. In the second half of the 18th century Łuków had some 3,000 residents; the town began a slow recovery, but in 1782, in a great fire, it completely burned, as a result, its population was cut by half.
At that time, Łuków was one of the prominent centers of education. In 1701, Piarist monks opened a college here. During the Partitions of Poland, Łuków was annexed by the Austrian Empire, but since 1815, it was part of Russian-controlled Congress Poland, its inhabitants took active role in Polish uprisings of the 19th century. Russian discriminatory policies brought an end to education in the town, as the high school was moved to Siedlce. In the Second Polish Republic, Łuków belonged to Lublin Voivodeship, it was home to a military garrison with several mounted units stationed there. Jews made about 50% of the population. All of them perished in the Holocaust. In May 1941 a large Jewish ghetto was formed by German administration, it was fenced-out in mid-September 1942, liquidated before the end of the same year. The number of inmates was nearly 12,000. Deportations took place on the 5th and 8 October, the 7th and 8 November. Around 9,000 Jews were sent to Treblinka extermination camp. 2,200 inmates were shot locally into execution pits.
On 28 October more Jews were brought in from Adamów, Wojcieszków, Kock and Trzebieszów, about 4,500 in total. Many were executed locally. After the wave of deportations and transfers, the ghetto was rearranged as a slave labor camp for Jewish workers employed in the Gestapo warehouses. In December 1942 500 of them were shot dead. Five months on May 2, 1943 the remaining 3,000–4,000 Jews were transported to Treblinka extermination camp. Only about 150 Jews of Łuków survived the Holocaust in the USSR, they migrated to Israel, Western Europe and USA. Łuków was an important center of anti-German resistance. On 4 September 1939 the German Luftwaffe bombed Łuków's train station causing many civilian deaths as a result. After the war two large factories were built in town: the "Lukbut" shoe factory, a meat plant owned by Henryk Stokłosa. Today jews slaughter meat in lukow with the highest standard of kosher and export to israel Among the popular points of interest are: Bernardine church and monastery Late Baroque Collegiate Church 19th century railway station several monuments Łuków railway station is an important railroad junction, located on the strategic east-west line from Brest-Litovsk to Warsaw and Berlin.
Other lines stemming from Łuków are the connections to Skierniewice. 1 Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Tadeusza Kościuszki Zespół Szkół Nr 4 im. Jana Pawła II Wyższa Szkoła Biznesu i Administracji Zespół. Henryka Sienkiewicza Zespół Szkół Nr 3 im. Władyslawa Stanisława Reymonta History of the Jews in Łuków Konstantin Petrzhak, a Soviet physicist, born in Łuków Town Official website
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
Lublin Voivodeship, or Lublin Province, is a voivodeship, or province, located in southeastern Poland. It was created on January 1, 1999, out of the former Lublin, Chełm, Zamość, Biała Podlaska and Tarnobrzeg and Siedlce Voivodeships, pursuant to Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998; the province is named after its largest city and regional capital and its territory is made of four historical lands: the western part of the voivodeship, with Lublin itself, belongs to Lesser Poland, the eastern part of Lublin Area belongs to Red Ruthenia, the northeast belongs to Polesie and Podlasie. Lublin Voivodeship borders Subcarpathian Voivodeship to the south, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship to the south-west, Masovian Voivodeship to the west and north, Podlaskie Voivodeship along a short boundary to the north and Ukraine to the east; the province's population as of 2006 was 2,175,251. It covers an area of 25,155 square kilometres; the Polish historical region that encompasses Lublin, approximates Lublin Voivodeship as it was before the Partitions of Poland, is known as Lubelszczyzna.
Provinces centred on Lublin have existed throughout much of Poland's history. The region was, before World War II, one of the world's leading centres of Judaism. Before the middle of the 16th century, there were few Jews in the area, concentrated in Lublin, Kazimierz Dolny, Chełm. Since these new towns competed with the existing towns for business, there followed a low-intensity, long-lasting feeling of resentment, with failed attempts to limit the Jewish immigration; the Jews tended to settle in the cities and towns, with only individual families setting up businesses in the rural regions. By the middle of the 18th century, Jews were a significant part of the population in Kraśnik, Lubartów and Łęczna. By the 20th century, Jews represented greater than 70% of the population in eleven towns and close to 100% of the population of Laszczów and Izbica. From this region came both religious figures such as Mordechai Josef Leiner of Izbica, Chaim Israel Morgenstern of Puławy, Motele Rokeach of Biłgoraj, as well as famous secular authors Israel Joshua Singer.
Israel's brother, the Nobel prize winner Isaac Bashevis Singer, was not born in Biłgoraj but lived part of his life in the city. The "Old Town" of the city of Lublin contained a famous yeshiva, Jewish hospital, synagogue and kahal, as well as the Grodzka Gate. Before the war, there were 300,000 Jews living in the region, which became the site of the Majdanek concentration camp and Bełżec extermination camp as well as several labour camps which produced military supplies for the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe); this was once one of the biggest forced labour centres in occupied Europe, with 45,000 Jewish prisoners. As well, the Sobibór extermination camp was located in the Lublin Voivodeship. After the war, the few surviving Jews left the area; the voivodeship contains 42 towns. These are listed below in descending order of population (according to official figures for 2006: Lublin Voivodeship is divided into 24 counties: 4 city counties and 20 land counties; these are further divided into 213 gminas. The counties are listed in the following table.
Protected areas in Lublin Voivodeship include 17 Landscape Parks. These are listed below. Polesie National Park Roztocze National Park Chełm Landscape Park Janów Forests Landscape Park Kazimierz Landscape Park Kozłówka Landscape Park Krasnobród Landscape Park Krzczonów Landscape Park Łęczna Lake District Landscape Park Podlaskie Bug Gorge Landscape Park Polesie Landscape Park Puszcza Solska Landscape Park Skierbieszów Landscape Park Sobibór Landscape Park South Roztocze Landscape Park Strzelce Landscape Park Szczebrzeszyn Landscape Park Wieprz Landscape Park Wrzelowiec Landscape Park Wójcik: 12,937 Mazurek: 9,644 Mazur: 8,019 Lublin Voivodeship was an administrative region of the Kingdom of Poland created in 1474 out of parts of Sandomierz Voivodeship and lasting until the Partitions of Poland in 1795, it was part of the prowincja of Lesser Poland. Lublin Voivodeship was one of the voivodeships of Congress Poland, it was formed in 1816 from Lublin Department, in 1837 was transformed into Lublin Governorate.
Lublin Voivodeship was one of the administrative regions of the interwar Second Polish Republic. In early 1939 its area was 26,555 square kilometres and its population was 2,116,200. According to the 1931 census, 85.1% of its population was Polish, 10.5% Jewish, 3% Ukrainian. Lublin Voivodeship was an administrative region of Poland between 1945 and 1975. In 1975 it was transformed into Chełm, Zamość, Biała Podlaska, Tarnobrzeg and
The Kościuszko Uprising was an uprising against the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia led by Tadeusz Kościuszko in the Commonwealth of Poland and the Prussian partition in 1794. It was a failed attempt to liberate the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from Russian influence after the Second Partition of Poland and the creation of the Targowica Confederation. By the early 18th century, the magnates of Poland and Lithuania controlled the state – or rather, they managed to ensure that no reforms would be carried out that might weaken their privileged status. Through the abuse of the liberum veto rule which enabled any deputy to paralyze the Sejm proceedings, deputies bribed by magnates or foreign powers or those content to believe they were living in an unprecedented "Golden Age", paralysed the Commonwealth's government for over a century; the idea of reforming the Commonwealth gained traction since the mid-17th century. It was, viewed with suspicion not only by its magnates but by neighboring countries, which were content with the deterioration of the Commonwealth and abhorred the thought of a resurgent and democratic power on their borders.
With the Commonwealth Army reduced to around 16,000, it was easy for its neighbors to intervene directly. A major opportunity for reform presented itself during the "Great Sejm" of 1788–92. Poland's neighbors were unable to intervene forcibly in Polish affairs. Russia and Austria were engaged in hostilities with the Ottoman Empire. A new alliance between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Prussia seemed to provide security against Russian intervention, on 3 May 1791 the new constitution was read and adopted to overwhelming popular support. With the wars between Turkey and Russia and Sweden and Russia having ended, Empress Catherine was furious over the adoption of the new constitution, which she believed threatened Russian influence in Poland. Russia had viewed Poland as a de facto protectorate. "The worst possible news has arrived from Warsaw: the Polish king has become sovereign" was the reaction of one of Russia's chief foreign policy authors, Alexander Bezborodko, when he learned of the new constitution.
Prussia was strongly opposed to the new constitution, Polish diplomats received a note that the new constitution changed the Polish state so much that Prussia did not consider its obligations binding. Just like Russia, Prussia was concerned that the newly strengthened Polish state could become a threat and the Prussian foreign minister, Friedrich Wilhelm von Schulenburg-Kehnert and with rare candor told the Poles that Prussia did not support the constitution and refused to help the Commonwealth in any form as a mediator, as it was not in Prussia's state interest to see the Commonwealth strengthened as it could threaten Prussia in the future; the Prussian statesman Ewald von Hertzberg expressed the fears of European conservatives: "The Poles have given the coup de grâce to the Prussian monarchy by voting a constitution", elaborating that a strong Commonwealth would demand the return of the lands Prussia acquired in the First Partition. The Constitution was not adopted without dissent in the Commonwealth itself, either.
Magnates who had opposed the constitution draft from the start, namely Franciszek Ksawery Branicki, Stanisław Szczęsny Potocki, Seweryn Rzewuski, Szymon and Józef Kossakowski, asked Tsaritsa Catherine to intervene and restore their privileges such as the Russian-guaranteed Cardinal Laws abolished under the new statute. To that end these magnates formed the Targowica Confederation; the Confederation's proclamation, prepared in St. Petersburg in January 1792, criticized the constitution for contributing to, in their own words, "contagion of democratic ideas" following "the fatal examples set in Paris", it asserted that "The parliament... has broken all fundamental laws, swept away all liberties of the gentry and on the third of May 1791 turned into a revolution and a conspiracy." The Confederates declared an intention to overcome this revolution. We "can do nothing but turn trustingly to Tsarina Catherine, a distinguished and fair empress, our neighboring friend and ally", who "respects the nation's need for well-being and always offers it a helping hand", they wrote.
The Confederates asked her for military intervention. On 18 May 1792 the Russian ambassador to Poland, Yakov Bulgakov, delivered a declaration of war to Polish Foreign Minister Joachim Chreptowicz. Russian armies entered Poland and Lithuania on the same day, starting the Polish–Russian War of 1792; the war ended without any decisive battles, with a capitulation signed by Polish King Stanisław August Poniatowski, who hoped that a diplomatic compromise could be worked out. King Poniatowski's hopes that the capitulation would allow an acceptable diplomatic solution to be worked out were soon dashed. With new deputies bribed or intimidated by the Russian troops, a new session of parliament, known as the Grodno Sejm, took place, in fall 1793. On 23 November 1793, it concluded its deliberations under duress, annulling the constitution and acceding to the Second Partition. Russia took 250,000 square kilometres, while Prussia took 58,000 square kilometres of the Commonwealth's territory; this event reduced Poland's population to only one-third of what it was before the partitions began in 1772.
The rump state was garrisoned by Russian troops and its independence was curtailed. Such an outc
Odrowąż coat of arms
Odrowąż is a Polish coat of arms of Moravian origin. It was used by many noble families known as szlachta in Polish in medieval Poland and under the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, branches of the original medieval Odrowążowie family as well as families connected with the Clan by adoption. Okolski tells that the progenitor of this clan cut off both halves of the moustache of an adversary at a jousting match, the flesh with it, with the arrow. Bogdan Balbin in notes to Epitome "Rerum Bohemicarum", chapter 15, calls the arms of the Odrowaz family Sagitta circumflexa, adds that some of the earliest houses in Bohemia bore these arms, of whom Tobias was Bishop of Prague, during the times of Premysl Otakar II. In German the arms are known as a "Bartausreisser" Arms: Gules, an arrow in pale point to chief, the base double sarcelled and counter embowed, Argent. Out of a crest coronet a panache of peacock plumes proper, charged with the arms in fess; the shield is red, upon, a silver arrow pointing upward, the bottom is divided and curved on both ends.
Out of a helmeted crown is a display of peacock plumes, upon which can be seen lying on its side the device as pictured on the shield. The tinctures are: azure = blue. In heraldry all charges on a shield are assumed to be facing dexter. Notable bearers of this coat of arms include: House of Odrowąż Jacek Odrowąż Czesław Odrowąż Iwo Odrowąż Jan Odrowąż from Sprowa Zofia Odrowąż Stanisław Odrowąż Andrzej Odrowąż Joachim Chreptowicz Eugen Ritter von Sypniewski-Odrowaz Sypniewski Bonifacius Sypniewski Stanisław Sypniewski Feliks Sypniewski Felicjan Sypniewski Jan Chryzostom Pieniążek House of Szydłowiecki Jakub Szydłowiecki Elżbieta Szydłowiecka Krzysztof Szydłowiecki Zofia Szydłowiecka Maciej Szukiewicz Wojciech Szukiewicz Władysław Starewicz Zygmunt Pacanowski Polish heraldry Heraldic family List of Polish nobility coats of arms Tadeusz Gajl: Herbarz polski od średniowiecza do XX wieku: ponad 4500 herbów szlacheckich 37 tysięcy nazwisk 55 tysięcy rodów. L&L, 2007. ISBN 978-83-60597-10-1. J. Lyčkoŭski.
"Belarusian Nobility Coats of Arms". Odrowaz Coat of Arms and the bearers