The Cramps were an American punk rock band formed in 1976 and active until 2009. The band split after the death of lead singer Lux Interior, their line-up rotated during their existence, with the husband-and-wife duo of Interior and lead guitarist and occasional bass guitarist Poison Ivy comprising the only ever-present members. The addition of guitarist Bryan Gregory and drummer Pam Balam resulted in the first complete lineup in April 1976, they were part of the early CBGB punk rock movement. The Cramps were one of the first punk bands, widely recognized as one of the prime innovators of psychobilly, their music is in rockabilly form, played at varying tempos, with a minimal drumkit. An integral part of the early Cramps sound was dual guitars, without a bassist; the focus of their songs' lyrical content and their image was camp humor, sexual double-entendre, retro horror/sci-fi b-movie iconography. Their sound was influenced by early rockabilly and blues, rock and roll like Link Wray and Hasil Adkins, 1960s surf music acts such as The Ventures and Dick Dale, 1960s garage rock artists like The Standells, The Trashmen, The Green Fuz and The Sonics, as well as the post-glam/early punk scene from which they emerged, as well as citing Ricky Nelson as being an influence during numerous interviews.
They were influenced to a degree by the Ramones and Screamin' Jay Hawkins, who were an influence for their style of theatrical horror-blues. In turn, The Cramps have influenced countless subsequent bands in the garage and revival rockabilly styles, helped create the psychobilly genre. "Psychobilly" was a term coined1 by The Cramps, although Lux Interior maintained that the term did not describe their own style. Lux Interior and Poison Ivy met in Sacramento, California in 1972. In light of their common artistic interests and shared devotion to record collecting, they decided to form The Cramps. Lux took his stage name from a car ad, Ivy claimed to have received hers in a dream. In 1973, they moved to Akron, to New York in 1975, soon entering into CBGB's early punk scene with other emerging acts like Suicide, the Ramones, Patti Smith, Blondie, Talking Heads, Mink DeVille; the lineup in 1976 was Poison Ivy Rorschach, Lux Interior, Bryan Gregory, his sister Pam "Balam" Gregory. In a short period of time, the Cramps changed drummers twice.
In the late 1970s, the Cramps shared a rehearsal space with The Fleshtones, performed in New York at clubs such as CBGB and Max's Kansas City, releasing two independent singles produced by Alex Chilton at Ardent Studios in Memphis in 1977 before being signed by Miles Copeland III to the young I. R. S. Records label, their first tour of Great Britain was as supporting act to The Police on that band's first UK tour promoting Outlandos d'Amour. In June 1978, they gave a landmark free concert for patients at the California State Mental Hospital in Napa, recorded on a Sony Portapak video camera by the San Francisco collective Target Video and released as Live at Napa State Mental Hospital. Once back to the east coast, they played the revamped 1940s swing club "The Meadowbrook" in New Jersey, which had a huge stage and dance floor; the Cramps were the featured act, with opening set by Nozon and The Smiths. Next they recorded two singles in New York City, which were re-released on their 1979 Gravest Hits EP, before Chilton brought them back that year to Memphis to record their first full-length album, Songs The Lord Taught Us, at Phillips Recording, operated by former Sun Records label owner Sam Phillips.
The Cramps hired guitarist Kid Congo Powers of The Gun Club. While recording their second LP, Psychedelic Jungle, the band and Miles Copeland began to dispute royalties and creative rights; the ensuing court case prevented them from releasing anything until 1983, when they recorded Smell of Female live at New York's Peppermint Lounge. Mike Metoff of The Pagans was the final second guitarist – albeit only live – of the Cramps' pre-bass era, he accompanied them on an extensive European tour in 1984 which included four sold out nights at the Hammersmith Palais. They recorded performances of "Thee Most Exalted Potentate of Love" and "You Got Good Taste" which were broadcast on'The Midsummer Night's Tube 1984.' Smell of Female peaked at No. 74 in the UK Albums Chart. The band appears in the 1982 film Urgh! A Music War. In 1985 the Cramps recorded a one-off track for the horror movie The Return of the Living Dead called "Surfin' Dead", on which Ivy played bass as well as guitar. With the release of 1986's A Date With Elvis, the Cramps permanently added a bass guitar to the mix, but had trouble finding a suitable player, so Ivy temporarily filled in as the band's bassist.
Fur joined them on the world tour to promote the album. Their popularity in the UK was at its peak as evidenced by the six nights at Hammersmith in London, three at the Odeon and three at the Palais when they returned from the continent; each night of the tour opened with the band coming on one at a time each: Knox, Fur and Lux before launching into their take on Elvis' "Heartbreak Hotel". The album featured w
Vigilante 8 is a vehicular combat video game developed by Luxoflux and published by Activision for PlayStation, Nintendo 64 and Game Boy Color. It is a spin-off of the Interstate'76 series, featuring several of its theme concepts. Players do combat over a number of stages located all over the western United States, whether in Story or Arcade Mode; each stage has interactive features, such as ballistic missiles and launching Aurora planes for the Area 51 level. Every vehicle is equipped with a machine gun by default, but players can add up to three out of five available weapons - mines, auto-cannons, rocket pods and homing missiles, plus a special weapon unique to the vehicle. Three types of special attacks can be made using each of the five standard weapons, at a bigger cost in ammunition, by performing fighting game-style movements and button presses on the control pad; these attacks may be performed during normal play or to eliminate nearly-destroyed cars in a method called "Totaling." In line with the fighting-game style element, players can score up to six combo hits called Whammies.
There are special icons scattered across the playing field. Certain objectives in Story Mode must be completed to help unlock the game's secret characters and stages; the PlayStation version offers players the option to play standard music CDs during a match. The Nintendo 64 version includes a story mode for Y The Alien and a fantasy stage called Super Dreamland 64, as well as three multiplayer modes to take advantage of the system's four control ports, a two-player Story Mode, it requires the Nintendo 64 Expansion Pack to improve the graphics and access bonus content. The Game Boy Color version features five levels, each one from the console versions: Casino City, Hoover Dam, Oil Fields, Ski Resort, Valley Farms; the game features five game modes, each one identical, with only minor changes. The game's main story mode, Road Trip, takes the player through each level; the game features three difficulty levels. The player can choose from five different weapons, as well as a unique weapon assigned to each character.
The game features digitized audio and voiceovers, as well as a two-player mode made possible with the use of a Game Link Cable. Unlike the console versions and buildings cannot be blown up in the GBC version; the game cartridge features a rumble feature. The game is set in an alternate 1975, where a global oil crisis occurs and the United States is on the verge of an economic breakdown. A rampant crime wave in the cities prompts the deployment of more security forces, leaving the hinterlands with little or no law and order. A multinational oil consortium, the Oil Monopoly Alliance Regime, is determined to control the global petroleum market and wants the destruction of the US to ensure the success of their plan; the game's protagonists are the Vigilantes, a group of residents from various southwestern US states who band together to preserve law and order in light of the chaos gripping the country. Their leader is an old cowboy driving a semi truck, he is accompanied in the fight by his niece Sheila, Las Vegas high-roller John Torque, alien-obsessed hippie Dave, Torque's friend Slick Clyde and FBI agent Chassey Blue, assigned to investigate reports of gunbattles in the region.
The game's antagonists are the Coyotes, a group of hitmen recruited to carry out OMAR's scheme by terrorizing commercial installations throughout the region using weaponry stolen from the ultra-secret Site 4 base at Papoose Lake in Nevada. Their founder is known Australian terrorist Sid Burn, his cohorts are disco mentally-disturbed S4 test pilot Loki. An extraterrestrial being named Y; each character has his or her own ending, part of a bigger story. Molo passes the Coyotes' initiation, only to be mocked as he is made to wash Sid's car. Sid receives his payoff money from OMAR for his services, but is left stranded in the middle of nowhere because he is out of gas. John Torque stashes him in his trunk. Houston breaks free of OMAR's mind control and goes away with Convoy, who detaches the machineguns from his truck. Sheila misses them at a gas station and is forced to walk on the road, where Convoy and Houston pick her up. Clyde wears Houston's mind-control emerges as the Coyotes' new leader. Chassey Blue embarks on a Hollywood career, releasing her self-titled movie based on the adventures of the Vigilantes.
An alien ship abducts Dave in the middle of the night - and he beats his alien host in a round of checkers. The police arrest Boogie and he is convicted on a number of charges. Beezwax is elated at having acquired two nuclear warheads, but dies when a stray bee lands on one warhead's fuse, triggering an explosion. Loki finds a UFO and is eager to fly it, but it crashes and he is mistaken for a live alien UFO pilot. In the N64 version of the game, the ship Loki crashed is revealed to be that of Y The Alien, seeking extra fuel and parts for his ship after being stranded on Earth for some time looking for his friends. Vigilante 8 was developed with a team of only five people - Peter Morawiec, Adrian Stephens, David Goodrich, Jeremy Engleman, Edward Toth. A commercial for the N64 version was
Songs the Lord Taught Us
Songs the Lord Taught Us is the first album by the American psychobilly band The Cramps. It was released in May 1980 on I. R. S. Records in America and Illegal Records in England. Writing credits adapted from the album's liner notes. Lux Interior – vocals Poison Ivy Rorschach – guitar Bryan Gregory – guitar Nick Knox – drums Booker C – organ on "Fever" Alex Chilton – producer John Hampton – engineer Carl Grasso – art direction The Cramps – sleeve concept, mixing David Arnoff – photography Songs the Lord Taught Us at Radio3Net
A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name. Pseudonyms include stage names and user names, ring names, pen names, aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, regnal names of emperors and other monarchs, they have taken the form of anagrams and Latinisations, although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name. Pseudonyms are "part-time" names, used only in certain contexts – to provide a more clear-cut separation between one's private and professional lives, to showcase or enhance a particular persona, or to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers' pen names, graffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters' or terrorists' noms de guerre, computer hackers' handles. Actors, voice-over artists and other performers sometimes use stage names, for example, to better channel a relevant energy, gain a greater sense of security and comfort via privacy, more avoid troublesome fans/"stalkers", or to mask their ethnic backgrounds.
In some cases, pseudonyms are adopted because they are part of a cultural or organisational tradition: for example devotional names used by members of some religious institutes, "cadre names" used by Communist party leaders such as Trotsky and Lenin. A pseudonym may be used for personal reasons: for example, an individual may prefer to be called or known by a name that differs from their given or legal name, but is not ready to take the numerous steps to get their name changed. A collective name or collective pseudonym is one shared by two or more persons, for example the co-authors of a work, such as Carolyn Keene, Ellery Queen, Nicolas Bourbaki. Or James S. A. Corey; the term is derived from the Greek ψευδώνυμον "false name", from ψεῦδος, "lie, falsehood" and ὄνομα, "name". A pseudonym is distinct from an allonym, the name of another person, assumed by the author of a work of art; this may occur when someone is ghostwriting a book or play, or in parody, or when using a "front" name, such as by screenwriters blacklisted in Hollywood in the 1950s and 1960s.
See pseudepigraph, for falsely attributed authorship. Sometimes people change their name in such a manner that the new name becomes permanent and is used by all who know the person; this is not an alias or pseudonym, but in fact a new name. In many countries, including common law countries, a name change can be ratified by a court and become a person's new legal name. For example, in the 1960s, black civil rights campaigner Malcolm Little changed his surname to "X", to represent his unknown African ancestral name, lost when his ancestors were brought to North America as slaves, he changed his name again to Malik El-Shabazz when he converted to Islam. Some Jews adopted Hebrew family names upon immigrating to Israel, dropping surnames, in their families for generations; the politician David Ben-Gurion, for example, was born David Grün in Poland. He adopted his Hebrew name in 1910, when he published his first article in a Zionist journal in Jerusalem. Many transgender people choose to adopt a new name around the time of their social transitioning, to resemble their desired gender better than their birth name.
Businesspersons of ethnic minorities in some parts of the world are sometimes advised by an employer to use a pseudonym, common or acceptable in that area when conducting business, to overcome racial or religious bias. Criminals may use aliases, fictitious business names, dummy corporations to hide their identity, or to impersonate other persons or entities in order to commit fraud. Aliases and fictitious business names used for dummy corporations may become so complex that, in the words of the Washington Post, "getting to the truth requires a walk down a bizarre labyrinth" and multiple government agencies may become involved to uncover the truth. A pen name, or "nom de plume", is a pseudonym adopted by an author; some female authors used male pen names, in particular in the 19th century, when writing was a male-dominated profession. The Brontë family used pen names for their early work, so as not to reveal their gender and so that local residents would not know that the books related to people of the neighbourhood.
The Brontës used their neighbours as inspiration for characters in many of their books. Anne Brontë published The Tenant of Wildfell Hall under the name Acton Bell. Charlotte Brontë published Jane Eyre under the name Currer Bell. Emily Brontë published Wuthering Heights as Ellis Bell. A well-known example of the former is Mary Ann Evans. Another example is Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin, a 19th-century French writer who used the pen name George Sand. In contrast, some twentieth and twenty first century male romance novelists have used female pen names. A few examples of male authors using female pseudonyms include Brindle Chase, Peter O'Donnell and Christopher Wood. A pen name may be used if a writer's real name is to be confused with the name of another writer or notable individual, or if their real name is deemed to be unsuitable. Authors who write both fiction and non-fiction, or in different genres, may use
Unidentified flying object
An unidentified flying object is an object observed in the sky, not identified. Most UFOs are identified as conventional objects or phenomena; the term is used for claimed observations of extraterrestrial spacecraft. The term "UFO" was coined in 1953 by the United States Air Force to serve as a catch-all for all such reports. In its initial definition, the USAF stated that a "UFOB" was "any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object." Accordingly, the term was restricted to that fraction of cases which remained unidentified after investigation, as the USAF was interested in potential national security reasons and/or "technical aspects". During the late 1940s and through the 1950s, UFOs were referred to popularly as "flying saucers" or "flying discs"; the term UFO became more widespread during the 1950s, at first in technical literature, but in popular use.
UFOs garnered considerable interest during the Cold War, an era associated with a heightened concern for national security, more in the 2010s, for unexplained reasons. Various studies have concluded that the phenomenon does not represent a threat to national security, nor does it contain anything worthy of scientific pursuit; the Oxford English Dictionary defines a UFO. The first published book to use the word was authored by Donald E. Keyhoe; the acronym "UFO" was coined by Captain Edward J. Ruppelt, who headed Project Blue Book the USAF's official investigation of UFOs, he wrote, "Obviously the term'flying saucer' is misleading when applied to objects of every conceivable shape and performance. For this reason the military prefers the more general, if less colorful, name: unidentified flying objects. UFO for short." Other phrases that were used and that predate the UFO acronym include "flying flapjack", "flying disc", "unexplained flying discs", "unidentifiable object". The phrase "flying saucer" had gained widespread attention after the summer of 1947.
On June 24, a civilian pilot named Kenneth Arnold reported seeing nine objects flying in formation near Mount Rainier. Arnold estimated the speed of discs to be over 1,200 mph. At the time, he claimed he described the objects flying in a saucer-like fashion, leading to newspaper accounts of "flying saucers" and "flying discs". Ufo's were referred to colloquially, as a "Bogey" by military personal and pilots during the cold war; the term "bogey" was used to report anomalies in radar blips, to indicate possible hostile forces that might be roaming in the area. In popular usage, the term UFO came to be used to refer to claims of alien spacecraft, because of the public and media ridicule associated with the topic, some ufologists and investigators prefer to use terms such as "unidentified aerial phenomenon" or "anomalous phenomena", as in the title of the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena. "Anomalous aerial vehicle" or "unidentified aerial system" are sometimes used in a military aviation context to describe unidentified targets.
Studies have established that the majority of UFO observations are misidentified conventional objects or natural phenomena—most aircraft, noctilucent clouds, nacreous clouds, or astronomical objects such as meteors or bright planets with a small percentage being hoaxes. Between 5% and 20% of reported sightings are not explained, therefore can be classified as unidentified in the strictest sense. While proponents of the extraterrestrial hypothesis suggest that these unexplained reports are of alien spacecraft, the null hypothesis cannot be excluded that these reports are other more prosaic phenomena that cannot be identified due to lack of complete information or due to the necessary subjectivity of the reports. Instead of accepting the null hypothesis, UFO enthusiasts tend to engage in special pleading by offering outlandish, untested explanations for the validity of the ETH; these violate Occam's razor. No scientific papers about UFOs have been published in peer-reviewed journals. There was, in the past, some debate in the scientific community about whether any scientific investigation into UFO sightings is warranted with the general conclusion being that the phenomenon was not worthy of serious investigation except as a cultural artifact.
UFOs have been the subject of investigations by various governments who have provided extensive records related to the subject. Many of the most involved government-sponsored investigations ended after agencies concluded that there was no benefit to continued investigation; the void left by the lack of institutional or scientific study has given rise to independent researchers and fringe groups, including the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena in the mid-20th century and, more the Mutual UFO Network and the Center for UFO Studies. The term "Ufology" is used to describe the collective efforts of those who study reports and associated evidence of unidentified flying objects. UFOs have become a prevalent theme in modern culture, the social phenomena have been the subject of academic research in sociology and psychology. Unexplained aerial observations have been reported throughout history; some were undoubtedly astronomical in nature: comets, bright meteors, one or more of the five planets that can be readily
Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock, they produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; the term "punk rock" was first used by certain American rock critics in the early 1970s to describe 1960s garage bands and subsequent acts perceived as stylistic inheritors. Between 1974 and 1976 the movement now called. By late 1976, bands such as Television and the Ramones in New York City, the Sex Pistols, the Clash, the Damned in London, the Saints in Brisbane were recognized as forming its vanguard; as 1977 approached, punk became a major and controversial cultural phenomenon in the UK. It spawned a punk subculture expressing youthful rebellion through distinctive styles of clothing and adornment and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.
In 1977 the influence of the music and subculture became more pervasive. It took root in a wide range of local scenes that rejected affiliation with the mainstream. In the late 1970s, punk experienced a second wave as new acts that were not active during its formative years adopted the style. By the early 1980s, faster and more aggressive subgenres such as hardcore punk, street punk and anarcho-punk became the predominant modes of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk pursued other musical directions, giving rise to spinoffs such as post-punk, new wave, indie pop, alternative rock, noise rock. By the 1990s, punk re-emerged in the mainstream with the success of punk rock and pop punk bands such as Green Day, The Offspring, Blink-182; the first wave of punk rock was "aggressively modern" and differed from what came before. According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, "In its initial form, a lot of stuff was innovative and exciting. What happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away.
Soon you had endless solos. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock'n' roll." John Holmstrom, founding editor of Punk magazine, recalls feeling "punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans and roll meant this wild and rebellious music." In critic Robert Christgau's description, "It was a subculture that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of hippie myth." Technical accessibility and a Do. UK pub rock from 1972-1975 contributed to the emergence of punk rock by developing a network of small venues, such as pubs, where non-mainstream bands could play. Pub rock introduced the idea of independent record labels, such as Stiff Records, which put out basic, low-cost records. Pub rock bands put out small pressings of their records. In the early days of punk rock, this DIY ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands.
Musical virtuosity was looked on with suspicion. According to Holmstrom, punk rock was "rock and roll by people who didn't have many skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music". In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns published a now-famous illustration of three chords, captioned "This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. Now form a band"; the title of a 1980 single by the New York punk band Stimulators, "Loud Fast Rules!", inscribed a catchphrase for punk's basic musical approach. Some of British punk rock's leading figures made a show of rejecting not only contemporary mainstream rock and the broader culture it was associated with, but their own most celebrated music predecessors: "No Elvis, Beatles or the Rolling Stones in 1977", declared the Clash song "1977"; the previous year, when the punk rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural "Year Zero". As nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan "No Future".
While "self-imposed alienation" was common among "drunk punks" and "gutter punks", there was always a tension between their nihilistic outlook and the "radical leftist utopianism" of bands such as Crass, who found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer's outlook, "Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. We're meant to be able to do what we want to do."The issue of authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term "poseur" is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Scholar Daniel S. Traber argues that "attaining authenticity in the punk identity can be difficult".
In insurance claims, a total loss or write-off is a situation where the lost value, repair cost or salvage cost of a damaged property exceeds its insured value. Such a loss may be an "actual total loss" or a "constructive total loss". Constructive total loss considers further incidental expenses beyond repair, such as force majeure. In a total loss, the insurer must indemnify the assured in full, ownership of the insured item thereby passes to the insurer under the legal process of "subrogation". Although the policy determines the level at which the loss becomes total rather than partial the assured has the final say as to whether he wishes to make a partial or total claim. If the insured item is, say, a car or a house, the policy will give it a "market value" which may be less than the assured had in mind. In marine insurance, policies may be unvalued. In the absence of fraud, the Marine Insurance Act 1906 states the agreed value in a valued policy is conclusive, except in cases of constructive total loss, as in the Costa Concordia and The Bamburi.
Written off properties are demolished or torn down, scrapped, or recycled for parts after their policies are settled. Policies covering homes and other non-investment assets subject to depreciation may indemnify the insured to much less than the full replacement cost, so that the insured items may become "total losses" despite some residual value. About one in seven car accident claims results in a "total". Except in extreme circumstances, a vehicle, written off will not be worthless; this is because such a vehicle will still contain salvageable used parts, or at a bare minimum will still have value as scrap metal. All, required for a vehicle to be a write-off is that it would cost more to return to marketable condition than the market value it would have. So a vehicle of low value may be written off when roadworthy, for example due to damage to paintwork or upholstery. In many jurisdictions a vehicle designated as a total loss is sold by insurance companies to general public, auto dealers, auto brokers, or auto wreckers.
The metrics insurance companies use to make the decision include the cost of the repairs needed plus the value of the remaining parts, added to the cost of reimbursing the driver for a rental while the car in question is repaired. If this figure exceeds the value of the car after it is repaired, the vehicle is deemed a total loss. In most jurisdictions, a decision by an insurer to write off a vehicle results in vehicle title branding, marking the car as "salvage" or "rebuilt". If the vehicle is not damaged, however, it can be restored to its original condition. After a government approved inspection, the vehicle can be put back on the road; the inspection process may not attempt to assess the quality of the repairs. This function will be relegated to inspector. However, if the vehicle is damaged as per standards set by state or provincial governments, the vehicle is dismantled by an auto wrecker and is sold as parts or scrapped. Once a vehicle has been written off and repaired the vehicle may still lose value.
Diminished value is the reduction in a vehicle's market value occurring after a vehicle is wrecked and repaired, otherwise called accelerated depreciation. To collect diminished value after a car accident, insurance companies ask for a diminished value report. In Canada, this is more called accelerated depreciation. In some US states, insurance companies acknowledge diminished value and provide this coverage direct to their consumers. In Canada, in order to recuperate the lost value after an accident, a person needs to retain legal counsel and order an acceleration depreciation report on their car for the court's use. In marine insurance, conventional marine insurers such as Lloyds will issue policies covering hull & machinery, or cargo, whereas P&I clubs cover third-party risks, pollution risks, war risks; the term "total loss" can refer to any of these risks, but involves a loss of the hull or cargo. Total losses may be constructive. An actual total loss of a vessel occurs when repair is physically or impossible.
A total loss may be presumed when a ship disappears and no news is received within a reasonable time. Some legal authorities do not consider it an actual total loss if repair costs are prohibitive, while others include cases where the cost of repair would exceed the cost of the vessel. In any case, the term "legally impossible" covers instances where reconstruction would be so extensive that the resulting craft would be considered a new vessel. A constructive total loss is a situation where the cost of repairs plus the cost of salvage equal or exceed the value of the vessel, it covers cases where the vessel has been abandoned in the reasonable belief that a total loss is inevitable. The calculation can be affected by environmental cleanup costs. If the policy is a "valued" policy in the absence of fraud, the agreed value is conclusive, but only for an actual total loss. In a constructive total loss, the agreed value is NOT conclusive. In aviation, the term "hull loss" is used in aviatio