Somali Civil War
The Somali Civil War is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia. It grew out of resistance to the military junta led by Siad Barre during the 1980s. By 1988–90, the Somali Armed Forces began engaging various armed rebel groups, including the Somali Salvation Democratic Front in the northeast, the Somali National Movement in the northwest, the United Somali Congress in the south; the clan-based armed opposition groups managed to overthrow the Barre government in 1991. Various armed factions began competing for influence in the power vacuum and turmoil that followed in the south. In 1990–92 customary law temporarily collapsed due to the fighting; this precipitated the arrival of UNOSOM I UN military observers in July 1992, followed by larger peacekeeping forces. Factional fighting continued in the south. In the absence of a central government, Somalia became a "failed state"; the UN withdrew in 1995, having incurred significant casualties, but no central authority had yet been reestablished.
After the collapse of the central government, there was some return to customary and religious law in most regions. In 1991 and 1998, two autonomous regional governments were established in the northern part of the country; this led to a relative decrease in the intensity of the fighting, with SIPRI removing Somalia from its list of major armed conflicts for the years 1997 and 1998. In 2000, the Transitional National Government was established, followed by the Transitional Federal Government in 2004; the trend towards reduced conflict halted in 2005, sustained and destructive conflict took place in the south in 2005–07. However, the fighting was of intensity than in the early 1990s. In 2006, Ethiopian troops seized most of the south from the newly formed Islamic Courts Union; the ICU splintered into more radical groups, notably Al-Shabaab, which have since been fighting the Somali government and the AU-mandated AMISOM peacekeeping force for control of the country. Somalia topped the annual Fragile States Index for six years between 2008 and 2013.
In October 2011, following preparatory meetings, Kenyan troops entered southern Somalia to fight Al-Shabaab, to establish a buffer zone inside Somalia. Kenyan troops were formally integrated into the multinational force in February 2012; the Federal Government of Somalia was established in August 2012, constituting the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war. International stakeholders and analysts have subsequently begun to describe Somalia as a "fragile state", making some progress towards stability. In May 1986, Mohamed Siad Barre suffered serious injuries in an automobile accident near Mogadishu, when the car, transporting him smashed into the back of a bus during a heavy rainstorm, he was treated in a hospital in Saudi Arabia for head injuries, broken ribs and shock over a period of a month. Lieutenant General Mohamed Ali Samatar Vice President, subsequently served as de facto head of state for the next several months. Although Barre managed to recover enough to present himself as the sole presidential candidate for re-election over a term of seven years on December 23, 1986, his poor health and advanced age led to speculation about who would succeed him in power.
Possible contenders included his son-in-law General Ahmed Suleiman Abdille, at the time the Minister of the Interior, in addition to Samatar. In an effort to hold on to power, Barre's ruling Supreme Revolutionary Council became totalitarian and arbitrary; this caused opposition to his government to grow. Barre in turn tried to quell the unrest by abandoning appeals to nationalism, relying more and more on his own inner circle, exploiting historical clan animosities. By the mid-1980s, more resistance movements supported by Ethiopia's communist Derg administration had sprung up across the country. Barre responded by ordering punitive measures against those he perceived as locally supporting the guerrillas in the northern regions; the clampdown included bombing of cities, with the northwestern administrative center of Hargeisa, a Somali National Movement stronghold, among the targeted areas in 1988. In 1990, as fighting intensified, Somalia's first President Aden Abdullah Osman Daar and about 100 other Somali politicians signed a manifesto advocating reconciliation.
A number of the signatories were subsequently arrested. Barre's heavy-handed tactics further strengthened the appeal of the various rebel movements, although these groups' only common goal was the overthrow of his government, it played a major role in developing piracy in Somalia. By mid 1990, United Somali Congress rebels had captured most towns and villages surrounding Mogadishu, which prompted some to give Barre the ironic title'Mayor of Mogadishu.' In December the USC entered Mogadishu. Four weeks of battle between Barre's remaining troops and the USC ensued, over the course of which the USC brought more forces into the city. By January 1991, USC rebels had managed to defeat the Red Berets, in the process toppling Barre's government; the remainder of the government's forces finally collapsed. Some became irregular regional forces and clan militias. After the USC's victory over Barre's troops, the other rebel groups declined to cooperate with it, as each instead drew primary support from their own constituencies.
Among these other opposition movements were the Somali Patriotic Movement and Somali Democratic Alliance, a Gadabuursi group, formed in the northwest to counter the Somali National Movement Isaaq militia. For its part, the SNM refused to accept the legitimacy of the provisio
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory, granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state. In exchange for this, the protectorate accepts specified obligations, which may vary depending on the real nature of their relationship. Therefore, a protectorate remains an autonomous part of a sovereign state, they are different from colonies as they have local rulers and people ruling over the territory and experience rare cases of immigration of settlers from the country it has suzerainty of. However, a state which remains under the protection of another state but still retains independence is known as a protected state and is different from protectorates. In amical protection, the terms are very favorable for the protectorate; the political interest of the protector is moral or countering a rival or enemy power. This may involve a weak protectorate surrendering control of its external relations.
Amical protection was extended by the great powers to other Christian states and to smaller states that had no significant importance. In the post-1815 period, non-Christian states provided amical protection towards other much weaker states. In modern times, a form of amical protection can be seen as an important or defining feature of microstates. According to the definition proposed by Dumienski: "microstates are modern protected states, i.e. sovereign states that have been able to unilaterally depute certain attributes of sovereignty to larger powers in exchange for benign protection of their political and economic viability against their geographic or demographic constraints". Examples of microstates understood as modern protected states include Andorra, Liechtenstein, San Marino, Niue, the Cook Islands, Palau. Conditions regarding protection are much less generous for areas of colonial protection; the protectorate was reduced to a de facto condition similar to a colony, but using the pre-existing native state as an agent of indirect rule.
A protectorate was established by or exercised by the other form of indirect rule: a chartered company, which becomes a de facto state in its European home state, allowed to be an independent country which has its own foreign policy and its own armed forces. In fact, protectorates were declared despite not being duly entered into by the traditional states being protected, or only by a party of dubious authority in those states. Colonial protectors decided to reshuffle several protectorates into a new, artificial unit without consulting the protectorates, a logic disrespectful of the theoretical duty of a protector to help maintain its protectorates' status and integrity; the Berlin agreement of February 26, 1885 allowed European colonial powers to establish protectorates in Black Africa by diplomatic notification without actual possession on the ground. This aspect of history is referred to as the Scramble for Africa. A similar case is the formal use of such terms as colony and protectorate for an amalgamation, convenient only for the colonizer or protector, of adjacent territories over which it held sway by protective or "raw" colonial logic.
In practice, a protectorate has direct foreign relations only with the protecting power, so other states must deal with it by approaching the protector. The protectorate takes military action on its own, but relies on the protector for its defence; this is distinct from annexation, in that the protector has no formal power to control the internal affairs of the protectorate. Protectorates differ from League of Nations mandates and their successors, United Nations Trust Territories, whose administration is supervised, in varying degrees, by the international community. A protectorate formally enters into the protection through a bilateral agreement with the protector, while international mandates are stewarded by the world community-representing body, with or without a de facto administering power. Han dynasty: Protectorate of the Western RegionsTang dynasty: Protectorate General to Pacify the West Protectorate General to Pacify the North Protectorate General to Pacify the EastYuan dynasty: Goryeo Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten Various sultanates in the Dutch East Indies Trumon Sultanate, Langkat Sultanate, Deli Sultanate, Asahan Sultanate, Siak Sultanate and Indragiri Sultanate in Sumatra Jogjakarta Sultanate, Mataram Empire and Surakarta Sunanate, Duchy of Mangkunegara and Duchy of Paku Alaman in Java.
Sumbawa Sultanate and Bima Sultanate in Lesser Sunda Islands. Pontianak Sultanate, Sambas Sultanate, Kubu Sultanate, Landak Sultanate, Mempawah Sultanate, Matan Sultanate, Sanggau Sultanate, Sekadau Sultanate, Simpang Sultanate, Sintang Sultanate, Sukadana Sultanate, Kota Waringin Sultanate, Kutai Kertanegara Sultanate
The Jubba River is a river in southern Somalia. It begins at the border with Ethiopia, where the Dawa and Ganale Dorya rivers meet, flows directly south to the Somali Sea, where it empties at the Goobweyn juncture; the Jubba River has a rich history of a once-booming sophisticated civilization and trade network conducted by the powerful Somalis that held sway over the Jubba river. During the Middle Ages Jubba river was under the Ajuran Empire of the Horn of Africa which utilized the Jubba River for its plantations and was the only hydraulic empire in Africa. A hydraulic empire that rose in the 13th century AD, Ajuran monopolized the water resources of the Jubba River and Shebelle. Through hydraulic engineering, it constructed many of the limestone wells and cisterns of the state that are still operative and in use today, its rulers developed new systems for agriculture and taxation, which continued to be used in parts of the Horn of Africa as late as the 19th century. Through their control of the region's wells, the Garen rulers held a monopoly over their nomadic subjects as they were the only hydraulic empire in Africa during their reign.
Large wells made out of limestone were constructed throughout the state, which attracted Somali nomads with their livestock. The centralized regulations of the wells made it easier for the nomads to settle disputes by taking their queries to government officials who would act as mediators. Long distance caravan trade, a long-time practice in the Horn of Africa, continued unchanged in Ajuran times. Today, numerous ruined and abandoned towns throughout the interior of Somalia and the Horn of Africa are evidence of a once-booming inland trade network dating from the medieval period. With the centralized supervision of the Ajuran, farms in Afgooye and other areas in the Jubba and Shebelle valleys increased their productivity. A system of irrigation ditches known locally as Kelliyo fed directly from the Shebelle River and Jubba River into the plantations where sorghum, beans and cotton were grown during the gu and xagaa seasons of the Somali calendar; this irrigation system was supported by numerous dams.
To determine the average size of a farm, a land measurement system was invented with moos and guldeed being the terms used. The urban centers of Mogadishu, Barawa and Hobyo and other respective ports became profitable trade outlets for commodities originating from the interior of the State; the Somali farming communities of the hinterland from Jubba and Shebelle valleys brought their crops to the Somali coastal cities, where they were sold to local merchants who maintained a lucrative foreign commerce with ships sailing to and coming from Arabia, India, Egypt, as far away as Java and China. Over two centuries passed until Baron Karl Klaus von der Decken ascended the lower reaches of the river on the small steamship Welf in 1863, he wrecked the steamship in the rapids above Baardheere, where the party was attacked by local Somalis, ending in the deaths of the Baron and three others in his party. The first European to explore and the course of the river was the Italian explorer Vittorio Bottego attended by Commander F.
G. Dundas British Navy. Bottego and his expedition sailed 400 miles of the river in 1891. During his exploration Vittorio Bottego changed the name of the main affluent of Jubba -the Ganale river- in Ganale Doria after the famous Italian naturalist Giacomo Doria; the Jubba basin region is savanna, is, ecologically speaking, the richest part of the country due to its fertile farmland. Native wild life include giraffes, lions, hyenas, hippopotamus, oryx, camels, ostriches and wild donkeys; the Jubba River gives its name to the Somali administrative regions of Middle Juba and Lower Juba, as well as to the larger historical region of Jubaland. Major cities which the Jubba River passes by include Doollow, Buurdhuubo, Baardheere, Buale and Goobweyn near Kismaayo. Shebelle River Map of the Jubba River basin at Water Resources eAtlas
Kismayo is a port city in the southern Lower Juba province of Somalia. It is the commercial capital of the autonomous Jubaland region; the city is situated 528 kilometres southwest of Mogadishu, near the mouth of the Jubba River, where the waters empty into the Somali Sea. According to the UNDP, the city of Kismayo has a population of around 89,333 in 2005. During the Middle Ages and its surrounding area was part of the Ajuran Empire that governed much of southern Somalia and eastern Ethiopia, with its domain extending from Hobyo in the north, to Qelafo in the west, to Kismayo in the south. In the early modern period, Kismayo was ruled by the Geledi Sultanate and by the 1800s, the Boqow dynasty; the kingdom was incorporated into Italian Somaliland in 1910 after the death of the last Sultan Osman Ahmed. After independence in 1960, the city was made the center of the official Kismayo District. Kismayo was the site of numerous battles during the civil war. In late 2006, Islamist militants gained control of most of the city.
To reclaim possession of the territory, a new autonomous regional administration dubbed Azania was announced in 2010 and formalized in 2011. In September 2012, the Somali National Army and AMISOM troops re-captured the city from the Al-Shabaab insurgents; the Juba Interim Administration was subsequently established and recognized in 2013. During antiquity. Kismayo was part of the Somali city-states that in engaged in a lucrative trade network connecting Somali merchants with Phoenicia, Ptolemic Egypt, Parthian Persia, Saba and the Roman Empire. Somali sailors used the ancient Somali maritime vessel known as the beden to transport their cargo; the Kismayo area was a small fishing settlement. During the Middle Ages, the region came under the rule of the influential Ajuran Sultanate, which utilized the Jubba River for its plantations. After the collapse of this polity, the House of Gobroon was established and the Sultanate of the Geledi held sway over the area; the dynasty reached its apex under the successive reigns of Sultan Yusuf Mahamud Ibrahim, who consolidated Gobroon power during the Bardera wars, Sultan Ahmed Yusuf, who forced regional powers such as the Omani Empire to submit tribute.
In the latter half of the 19th century, Somali pastoralists from the northern Harti Darod clan settled in Kismayo's interior. By the turn of the 20th century, they had established a southern Harti royal house in Kismayo with the Boqow dynasty that with Huseen Boqow continued through both the British and Italian colonial period although its influence declined upon Somali independence; the city subsequently evolved into a major hub of the livestock trade. The main Harti representatives to establish themselves in Kismayo were Majeerteen traders from the northeastern Ras Hafun promontory, who were referred to as Hafuuni. In the first two decades of the 20th century, during Mohammed Abdullah Hassan's Dervish resistance, members of the Dhulbahante Harti sub-clan followed suit. From 1836 until 1861, Kismayo and other parts of Jubaland were claimed by the Sultanate of Muscat, when the new Sultanate of Zanzibar was split from Muscat and Oman and given control of its East African territories. On 7 November 1890, Zanzibar became a British protectorate, on 1 July 1895, the Sultanate ceded all of its coastal possessions in continental East Africa to Britain.
Together with the Zanzibar Sultanate's other former possessions in the area, Jubaland became part of the British East Africa colony. The ascendancy of the Harti merchant community crystallized under the British administration, they became the first Somali employees of the state, establishing themselves as an educated, urban professional class. In 1925 local authorities from the Harti and Ogaden Somali clans reached an agreement, with the British acting as enforcer; the signatories each had different accounts of the agreed to partition. According to the Ogaden, the pact gave their Sultan Ahmed Magan control of Jubaland at large; the Harti maintained that the agreement stipulated that the part of the city south of the Liboi–Kismayo road would remain under their control, while the Ogaden, its Mohamed Zubeir subdivision in particular, would administer the area to the north of this. The pact allowed the Mohamed Zubeir access to the port; the territory was subsequently ceded to Italy, purportedly as a reward for the Italians having joined the Allies in World War I, had a brief existence as the Italian colony of'Trans-Juba.
The Italians subsequently referred to the city as Chisimaio. Kismayo and the northern half of the Jubaland region were incorporated into neighboring Italian Somaliland on 30 June 1926; the colony had a total area of 87,000 km², with a population of 120,000 inhabitants. Britain retained control of the southern half of the partitioned Jubaland territory, called the Northern Frontier District. Under Italian administration, the Harti retained their position as the professional elite. After independence in 1960 and the establishment of a civilian administration, the 1968 parliamentary elections saw Harti MPs win all four of the seats earmarked for Kismayo. Following the breakdown of central authority that accompanied the civil war in 1991, various local militias fought for control of the city, including supporters of Mohammed Said Hersi, Col. Barre Adan Shire Hiiraale Somali National Front on known as the Juba Valley Alliance; as well of Col. Omar Jess' Somali Patriotic Movement. In March 1993, a United States Marine amphibious group arrived in the city in an attempt to keep the peace as part of the United Nations intervention in Som
Al-Shabaab (militant group)
Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen, more known as al-Shabaab, is a jihadist fundamentalist group based in East Africa. In 2012, it pledged allegiance to the militant Islamist organization Al-Qaeda. In February 2012, some of the group's leaders quarreled with Al-Qaeda over the union, lost ground. Al-Shabaab's troop strength was estimated at 7,000 to 9,000 militants in 2014; as of 2015, the group has retreated from the major cities, however al-Shabaab still controls rural parts of southern Somalia. Al-Shabaab began as the armed wing of the Islamic Courts Union, which splintered into several smaller factions after its defeat in 2006 by Somalia's Transitional Federal Government and the TFG's Ethiopian military allies; the group describes itself as waging jihad against "enemies of Islam", is engaged in combat against the Federal Government of Somalia and the African Union Mission to Somalia. Al-Shabaab has been designated as a terrorist organization by Australia, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States.
As of June 2012, the US State Department has open bounties on several of the group's senior commanders. In early August 2011, the Transitional Federal Government's troops and their AMISOM allies managed to capture all of Mogadishu from the al-Shabaab militants. An ideological rift within the group's leadership emerged, several of the organization's senior commanders were assassinated. Due to its Wahhabi roots, al-Shabaab is hostile to Sufi traditions and has clashed with the militant Sufi group Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a; the group has been suspected of having links with Al-Qaeda in Islamic Maghreb and Boko Haram. It attracted some members from western countries, including Samantha Lewthwaite and Abu Mansoor Al-Amriki. In August 2014, the Somali government-led Operation Indian Ocean was launched to clean up the remaining insurgent-held pockets in the countryside. On 1 September 2014, a US drone strike carried out as part of the broader mission killed al-Shabaab leader Ahmed Abdi Godane known as Mukhtar Abu Zubair.
U. S. authorities hailed the raid as a major symbolic and operational loss for al-Shabaab, the Somali government offered a 45-day amnesty to all moderate members of the militant group. The group remains nonetheless strong and active, has been responsible for exceptionally deadly terrorist attacks such as the Westgate shopping mall attack and the 14 October Mogadishu bombings. Al-Shabaab is known as Ash-Shabaab, Hizbul Shabaab, Popular Resistance Movement in the Land of the Two Migrations. For short, the organization is referred to as HSM, which stands for "Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen"; the term Shabaab means "youth" in Arabic, the group should not be confused with named groups. Al-Shabaab's composition is multiethnic, with its leadership positions occupied by Afghanistan- and Iraq-trained ethnic Somalis and foreigners. According to the National Counterterrorism Center, the group's rank-and-file members hail from disparate local groups, sometimes recruited by force. Unlike most of the organization's top leaders, its foot soldiers are concerned with nationalist and clan-related affairs as opposed to the global jihad.
They are prone to infighting and shifting alliances. According to the Jamestown Foundation, al-Shabaab seeks to exploit these vulnerabilities by manipulating clan networks in order to retain power; the group itself is not immune to local politics. More Muslim converts from neighbouring countries have been conscripted to do undesirable or difficult work. Although al-Shabaab's leadership falls upon al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri, the internal leadership is not clear, with foreign fighters trickling out of the country, its structure is decentralized. Ahmed Abdi Godane was publicly named as emir of al-Shabaab in December 2007. In August 2011, Godane was criticized by al-Shabaab cofounder Hassan Dahir Aweys and others for not letting aid into the hunger-stricken parts of southern Somalia. Although not formally announced, Shabaab was split up into a "foreign legion," led by Godane, a coalition of factions forming a "national legion" under Aweys; the latter group refused to take orders from Godane and the two groups hardly talked to each other.
In February 2012, Godane made an oath of allegiance, to al-Qaeda. With it, he hoped to reclaim and extend his authority and to encourage foreign fighters to stay; this move will further complicate the cooperation with the "national legion" of al-Shabaab. Godane was killed in a U. S. drone strike in Somalia on September 1, 2014. Ahmad Umar was named Godane's successor on 6 September 2014, he is believed to have played a role in al-Shabaab's internal secret service known as Amniya. Ahmad Umar Moktar Ali Zubeyr "Godane" – Somali sub-clan of northern Isaaq clan Other leaders: Mukhtar Robow "Abu Mansoor" – Second Deputy Leader and regional commander in charge of Bay and Bakool. Fuad Mohammed Khalaf "Shangole" – third-most important leader after "Abu Mansoor". In charge of public affairs. Hassan Dahir Aweys – spiritual leader Hussein Ali Fidow – political chief and Wasiir Ali Mohamud Raghe "Dheere" a.k.a. Shei
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.