Houston is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles, Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States, it is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties. Houston was founded by land speculators on August 30, 1836, at the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou and incorporated as a city on June 5, 1837.
The city is named after former General Sam Houston, president of the Republic of Texas and had won Texas' independence from Mexico at the Battle of San Jacinto 25 miles east of Allen's Landing. After serving as the capital of the Texas Republic in the late 1830s, Houston grew into a regional trading center for the remainder of the 19th century; the arrival of the 20th century saw a convergence of economic factors which fueled rapid growth in Houston, including a burgeoning port and railroad industry, the decline of Galveston as Texas' primary port following a devastating 1900 hurricane, the subsequent construction of the Houston Ship Channel, the Texas oil boom. In the mid-20th century, Houston's economy diversified as it became home to the Texas Medical Center—the world's largest concentration of healthcare and research institutions—and NASA's Johnson Space Center, where the Mission Control Center is located. Houston's economy has a broad industrial base in energy, manufacturing and transportation.
Leading in healthcare sectors and building oilfield equipment, Houston has the second most Fortune 500 headquarters of any U. S. municipality within its city limits. The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled and second in total cargo tonnage handled. Nicknamed the "Space City", Houston is a global city, with strengths in culture and research; the city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community. Houston is the most diverse metropolitan area in Texas and has been described as the most racially and ethnically diverse major metropolis in the U. S, it is home to many cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. Houston has an active visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District and offers year-round resident companies in all major performing arts; the Allen brothers—Augustus Chapman and John Kirby—explored town sites on Buffalo Bayou and Galveston Bay.
According to historian David McComb, "he brothers, on August 26, 1836, bought from Elizabeth E. Parrott, wife of T. F. L. Parrott and widow of John Austin, the south half of the lower league granted to her by her late husband, they paid $5,000 total, but only $1,000 of this in cash. They lobbied the Republic of Texas Congress to designate Houston as the temporary capital, agreeing to provide the new government with a capital building. About a dozen persons resided in the town at the beginning of 1837, but that number grew to about 1,500 by the time the Texas Congress convened in Houston for the first time that May. Houston was granted incorporation with James S. Holman becoming its first mayor. In the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County. In 1839, the Republic of Texas relocated its capital to Austin; the town suffered another setback that year when a yellow fever epidemic claimed about one life out of every eight residents. Yet it persisted as a commercial center, forming a symbiosis with Galveston.
Landlocked farmers brought their produce to Houston, using Buffalo Bayou to gain access to Galveston and the Gulf of Mexico. Houston merchants profited from selling staples to farmers and shipping the farmers' produce to Galveston; the great majority of slaves in Texas came with their owners from the older slave states. Sizable numbers, came through the domestic slave trade. New Orleans was the center of this trade in the Deep South. Thousands of enslaved blacks lived near the city before the American Civil War. Many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations, while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. In 1840, the community established a chamber of commerce in part to promote shipping and navigation at the newly created port on Buffalo Bayou. By 1860, Houston had emerged as a commercial and railroad hub for the export of cotton. Railroad spurs from the Texas inland converged in Houston, where they met rail lines to the ports of Galveston and Beaumont.
During the American Civil War, Houston served as a headquarters for General John Magruder, who used the city as an organization point for the Battle of Galveston. After the Civil War, Houston businessmen initia
A charter school is a school that receives government funding but operates independently of the established state school system in which it is located. Charter schools are an example of public asset privatization. There is ongoing debate on whether charter schools ought to be described as private schools or state schools. Advocates of the charter model state that they are public schools because they are open to all students and do not charge tuition, while critics cite charter schools' private operation and loose regulations regarding public accountability and labor issues as arguments against the concept. All Australian private schools have received some federal government funding since the 1970s. Since they have educated 30% of high school students. None of them is a charter school. Since 2009, the Government of Western Australia has been trialling the Independent Public School Initiative; these public schools could be regarded as akin to ` charter' Schools. The Canadian province of Alberta enacted legislation in 1994 enabling charter schools.
The first charter schools under the new legislation were established in 1995: New Horizons Charter School, Suzuki Charter School, the Centre for Academic and Personal Excellence. As of 2015, Alberta remains the only Canadian province. There are 23 charter school campuses operated by 13 Alberta charter schools; the number of charter schools is limited to a maximum of 15. Chile has a long history of private subsidized schooling, akin to charter schooling in the United States. Before the 1980s, most private subsidized schools were religious and owned by churches or other private parties, but they received support from the central government. In the 1980s, the government of Augusto Pinochet promoted neoliberal reforms in the country. In 1981 a competitive voucher system in education was adopted; these vouchers could be used in private subsidized schools. After this reform, the share of private subsidized schools, many of them secular, grew from 18.5% of schools in 1980 to 32.7% of schools in 2001. As of 2012, nearly 60% of Chilean students study in charter schools.
Colombia, like Chile, has a long tradition of private schools. With the economic crisis of religious orders, different levels of the state have had to finance these schools to keep them functioning. In some cities such as Bogotá, there are programs of private schools financed by public resources, giving education access to children from poor sectors; these cases, are small and about 60% of children and young people study in private schools paid for by their families. Moreover, private schools have higher quality than public ones; the United Kingdom established grant-maintained schools in England and Wales in 1988. They allowed individual schools; when they were abolished in 1998, most turned into foundation schools, which are under their local district authority but still have a high degree of autonomy. Prior to the 2010 general election, there were about 200 academies in England; the Academies Act 2010 aims to vastly increase this number. Due to Art. 7 of the Grundgesetz, private schools may only be set up if they do not increase the segregation of pupils by their parents' income class.
In return, all private schools are supported financially by government bodies, comparable to charter schools. The amount of control over school organization, curriculum etc. taken over by the state differs from state to state and from school to school. Average financial support given by government bodies was 85% of total costs in 2009. Academically, all private schools must lead their students to the ability to attain standardized, government-provided external tests such as the Abitur; some private schools in Hong Kong receive government subsidy under the Direct Subsidy Scheme. DSS schools are free to design their curriculum, select their own students, charge for tuition. A number of DSS schools were state schools prior to joining the scheme. Charter schools in New Zealand, labelled as Partnership schools | kura hourua, were allowed for after an agreement between the National Party and the ACT Party following the 2011 general election; the controversial legislation passed with a five-vote majority.
A small number of charter schools started in 2013 and 2014. All cater for students. Most of the students have issues with drugs, poor attendance and achievement. Most of the students are Pacific Islander. One of the schools is set up as a military academy. One of the schools ran into major difficulties within weeks of starting, it is now being run by an executive manager from Child and Family, a government social welfare organization, together with a commissioner appointed by the Ministry of Education. 36 organizations have applied to start charter schools. As in Sweden, the publicly funded but run charter schools in Norway are named friskoler and was formally instituted in 2003, but dismissed in 2007. Private schools have since medieval times been a part of the education system, is today consisting of 63 Montessori and 32 Steiner charter schools, some religious schools and 11 non-governmental funded schools like the Oslo International School, the German School Max Tau and the French School Lycée Français, a total of 195 schools.
All charter schools can have a list of admission priorities, but only the non-governmental funded schools are allowed to select their students and to make a profit. The charter schoo
Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land is the fifth-most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States, encompassing nine counties along the Gulf Coast in southeastern Texas. With a population of 6,490,180 people as of the 2010 United States Census, the MSA is the second-most populous in Texas after the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. Colloquially referred to as Greater Houston, the 10,000-square-mile region centers on Harris County, the third-most populous county in the nation, which contains the city of Houston—the largest economic and cultural center of the South—with a population of 2.3 million. Greater Houston is part of the Texas Triangle megaregion along with the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, Greater Austin, Greater San Antonio. Houston has been among the fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the United States; the area grew 25.2% between 1990 and 2000—adding more than 950,000 people—while the nation's population increased only 13.2% over the same period, from 2000 to 2007 alone, the area added over 910,000 people.
The Greater Houston Partnership projects the metropolitan area will add between 4.1 and 8.3 million new residents between 2010 and 2050. Greater Houston has the sixth-highest metropolitan-area gross domestic product in the United States, valued at $526 billion in 2016. A major trade center anchored by the Port of Houston, Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land has the second-highest trade export value of all MSAs, at over $84 billion in 2016, accounting for 42% of the total exports of Texas. Metropolitan Houston is home to the headquarters of 21 Fortune 500 companies, ranking fourth among all MSAs. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan statistical area has a total area of 10,062 square miles, of which 8,929 sq mi is land and 1,133 sq mi is water; the region is smaller than the state of Massachusetts and larger than New Jersey. The Office of Management and Budget combines the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugarland MSA with four micropolitan statistical areas to form the Houston–The Woodlands, TX Combined Statistical Area.
The metropolitan area is located in the Gulf Coastal Plains biome, its vegetation is classified as temperate grassland. Much of the urbanized area was built on forested land, swamp, or prairie, remnants of which can still be seen in surrounding areas. Of particular note is the Katy Prairie to the west, the Big Thicket to the northeast, the Galveston Bay ecosystem to the south. Additionally, the metropolitan region is crossed by a number of creeks and bayous which provide essential drainage during rainfall events; the upper drainage basin of Buffalo Bayou is impounded by two large flood control reservoirs, Barker Reservoir and Addicks Reservoir, which provide a combined 400,000 acre-feet of storage during large rainfall events and cover a total land area of 26,100 acres. Greater Houston's flat topography, susceptibility to high-intensity rainfall events, high level of impervious surface, inadequately-sized natural drainage channels make it susceptible to catastrophic flooding events. Underpinning Houston's land surface are unconsolidated clays, clay shales, poorly cemented sands up to several miles deep.
The region's geology developed from stream deposits formed from the erosion of the Rocky Mountains. These sediments consist of a series of sands and clays deposited on decaying organic matter that, over time, transformed into oil and natural gas. Beneath these tiers is a water-deposited layer of a rock salt; the porous layers were forced upward. As it pushed upward, the salt dragged surrounding sediments into dome shapes trapping oil and gas that seeped from the surrounding porous sands; this thick, rich soil provides a good environment for rice farming in suburban outskirts into which the city continues to grow near Katy. Evidence of past rice farming is still evident in developed areas as an abundance of rich, loamy top soil exists; the Houston region is earthquake-free. While the city of Houston contains over 150 to 300 active surface faults with an aggregate length of up to 310 miles, the clay below the surface precludes the buildup of friction that produces ground-shaking in earthquakes; these faults move at a smooth rate in what is termed "fault creep".
A number of tropical storms and hurricanes have hit the area, including: 1900 Galveston Hurricane, which devastated Galveston and was the deadliest natural disaster in United States history, killing between 8,000 and 12,000. Hurricane Carla, the most recent Category 4 hurricane to strike Texas until Harvey in 2017. Hurricane Alicia, which struck the area as a Category 3, was at the time, the costliest Atlantic hurricane. Tropical Storm Allison, until Harvey, brought the worst flooding in Houston history and was the first tropical storm to be retired. Hurricane Rita, which triggered one of the largest evacuations in United States history in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Tropical Storm Erin, a minor tropical storm that struck Texas, but brought severe impacts to Oklahoma. Hurricane Ike, which brought devastating storm surge to the coast and wind damage into the city. Hurricane Harvey, which brought devastating flooding that resulted in excess of $100 billion in damages to the region; as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, the m
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was a German-American architect. He was referred to as Mies, his surname. Along with Alvar Aalto, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius and Frank Lloyd Wright, he is regarded as one of the pioneers of modernist architecture. Mies was a director of a seminal school in modern architecture. After Nazism's rise to power, with its strong opposition to modernism, Mies went to the United States, he accepted the position to head the architecture school at the Armour Institute of Technology, in Chicago. Mies sought to establish his own particular architectural style that could represent modern times just as Classical and Gothic did for their own eras, he created his own twentieth-century architectural style, stated with extreme clarity and simplicity. His mature buildings made use of modern materials such as industrial steel and plate glass to define interior spaces, as conducted by other modernist architects in the 1920's and 1930's such as Richard Neutra. Mies strove toward an architecture with a minimal framework of structural order balanced against the implied freedom of unobstructed free-flowing open space.
He called his buildings "bones" architecture. He sought an objective approach that would guide the creative process of architectural design, but was always concerned with expressing the spirit of the modern era, he is associated with his fondness for the aphorisms, "less is more" and "God is in the details". Mies was born March 1886 in Aachen, Germany, he worked in his father's stone carving shop and at several local design firms before he moved to Berlin, where he joined the office of interior designer Bruno Paul. He began his architectural career as an apprentice at the studio of Peter Behrens from 1908 to 1912, where he was exposed to the current design theories and to progressive German culture, he worked alongside Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius, also involved in the development of the Bauhaus. Mies served as construction manager of the Embassy of the German Empire in Saint Petersburg under Behrens. Ludwig Mies renamed himself as part of his transformation from a tradesman's son to an architect working with Berlin's cultural elite, adding "van der" and his mother's maiden name "Rohe" and using the Dutch "van der", because the German form "von" was a nobiliary particle restricted to those of genuine aristocratic lineage.
He began his independent professional career designing upper-class homes. In 1913, Mies married the daughter of a wealthy industrialist; the couple separated in 1918, after having three daughters: Dorothea, an actress and dancer, known as Georgia and Waltraut, a research scholar and curator at the Art Institute of Chicago. During his military service in 1917, Mies fathered a son out of wedlock. In 1925 Mies began a relationship with designer Lilly Reich that ended when he moved to the United States. Mies carried on a romantic relationship with sculptor and art collector Mary Callery for whom he designed an artist's studio in Huntington, Long Island, New York, he was rumored to have a brief relationship with Edith Farnsworth, who commissioned his work for the Farnsworth House. Marianne's son Dirk Lohan studied under, worked for, Mies. After World War I, Mies began, while still designing traditional neoclassical homes, a parallel experimental effort, he joined his avant-garde peers in the long-running search for a new style that would be suitable for the modern industrial age.
The weak points of traditional styles had been under attack by progressive theorists since the mid-nineteenth century for the contradictions of hiding modern construction technology with a facade of ornamented traditional styles. The mounting criticism of the historical styles gained substantial cultural credibility after World War I, a disaster seen as a failure of the old world order of imperial leadership of Europe; the aristocratic classical revival styles were reviled by many as the architectural symbol of a now-discredited and outmoded social system. Progressive thinkers called for a new architectural design process guided by rational problem-solving and an exterior expression of modern materials and structure rather than what they considered the superficial application of classical facades. While continuing his traditional neoclassical design practice, Mies began to develop visionary projects that, though unbuilt, rocketed him to fame as an architect capable of giving form, in harmony with the spirit of the emerging modern society.
Boldly abandoning ornament altogether, Mies made a dramatic modernist debut in 1921 with his stunning competition proposal for the faceted all-glass Friedrichstraße skyscraper, followed by a taller curved version in 1922 named the Glass Skyscraper. He continued with a series of pioneering projects, culminating in his two European masterworks: the temporary German Pavilion for the Barcelona exposition in 1929 and the elegant Villa Tugendhat in Brno, Czech Republic, completed in 1930, he joined the German avant-garde, working with the progressive design magazine G, which started in July 1923. He developed prominence as architectural director of the Werkbund, organizing the influential Weissenhof Estate prototype modernist housing exhibition, he was one of the founders of the architectural association De
Colonial Revival architecture
Colonial Revival architecture was and is a nationalistic design movement in the United States and Canada. Part of a broader Colonial Revival Movement embracing Georgian and Neoclassical styles, it seeks to revive elements of architectural style, garden design, interior design of American colonial architecture; the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 reawakened Americans to their colonial past. This movement gained momentum in the 1890s and was accelerated by the early 20th century due to the invention of the automobile, which expanded the ability of ordinary Americans to visit sites connected with their heritage. Successive waves of revivals of British colonial architecture have swept the United States since 1876. In the 19th century, Colonial Revival took a formal style. Public interest in the Colonial Revival style in the early 20th century helped popularize books and atmospheric photographs of Wallace Nutting showing scenes of New England. Historical attractions such as Colonial Williamsburg helped broaden exposure in the 1930s.
In the post-World War II era, Colonial design elements were merged with the popular ranch-style house design. In the early part of the 21st century, certain regions of the United States embraced aspects of Anglo-Caribbean and British Empire styles. Colonial Revival sought to follow American colonial architecture of the period around the Revolutionary War, which drew from Georgian architecture of Great Britain. Structures are two stories with the ridge pole running parallel to the street, have a symmetrical front facade with an accented doorway, evenly spaced windows on either side of it. Features borrowed from colonial period houses of the early 19th century include elaborate front doors with decorative crown pediments and sidelights, symmetrical windows flanking the front entrance in pairs or threes, columned porches. Colonial Revival garden Dutch Colonial Revival architecture Mission Revival Style architecture New Classical architecture Spanish Colonial Revival architecture Alan Axelrod, ed.
The Colonial Revival in America. New York: W. W. Norton, 1985. William Butler, Another City Upon a Hill: Litchfield and the Colonial Revival Karal Ann Marling, George Washington Slept Here: Colonial Revivals and American Culture, 1876–1986, 1988. Richard Guy Wilson and Noah Sheldon, The Colonial Revival House, 2004. Richard Guy Wilson, Shaun Eyring and Kenny Marotta, Re-creating the American Past: Essays on the Colonial Revival, 2006. Photo Gallery of Colonial Revival houses Examples of Colonial Revival in Buffalo, New York 1876 Centennial Information Colonial Style Homes Exude Tradition – Patriotic
Houston Fire Department
City of Houston Fire Department is the agency that provides fire protection and emergency medical services for the city of Houston, United States, the fourth largest city in the United States. HFD is responsible for preserving life and property for a population of more than 2 million in an area totaling 654 square miles; the department is the largest fire department in the state of Texas. The administrative offices of HFD are located on the 7th floor of 1801 Smith in Downtown Houston, they were located at the City of Houston Fire Department Logistical Center & Maintenance Depot. The Houston Fire Department got its start in 1838 with one station known as Protection Company No. 1. By 1859, the volunteer department had grown to three stations. After 57 years of service, Houston converted the department over to all paid members. On May 31, 2013, the Southwest Inn fire broke out in an Indian restaurant in Southwest Houston before spreading to an adjoining hotel; the fire claimed the biggest casualty loss for the Houston Fire Department since its inception.
Four firefighters were killed and 13 others were injured while fighting the five-alarm fire at the Southwest Inn. "Iron" Bill Dowling, who lost his legs and damaged his brain in the fire, died in Colorado on March 7, 2017, after a short hospitalization for pneumonia and cellulitis, attributed to his injuries. After the spreading of a backyard fire in Spring Branch, Texas, a packaging warehouse burned down during a four-alarm fire which included exploding canisters of hazardous material. Nearly 200 firefighters were dispatched to the site over several hours; as of May 2016, the initial cause of the fire remains unknown. Below is a listing of their assigned apparatus. Houston Fire Department Houston Professional Fire Fighters Association Houston Fire Fighters Calendar Houston Fire Museum Houston Fire Fire Fighter Memorial Web Site Houston Fire Station Google Map Houston Firefighters' Bagpipe & Drummer Corps Houston Fire Station 68
The Houston Chronicle is the largest daily newspaper in Houston, United States. As of April 2016, it is the third-largest newspaper by Sunday circulation in the United States, behind only the New York Times and Los Angeles Times. With its 1995 buy-out of long-time rival the Houston Post, the Chronicle became Houston's newspaper of record; the Houston Chronicle is the largest daily paper owned and operated by the Hearst Corporation, a held multinational corporate media conglomerate with $10 billion in revenues. The paper employs nearly 2,000 people, including 300 journalists and photographers; the Chronicle has bureaus in Washington, D. C. and Austin. It reports; the publication serves as the "newspaper of record" of the Houston area. Headquartered in the Houston Chronicle Building at 801 Texas Avenue, Downtown Houston, the Houston Chronicle is now located at 4747 Southwest Freeway, it has two websites: houstonchronicle.com. Chron.com is free and has breaking news, traffic, pop culture, events listings, city guides.
Houstonchronicle.com, launched in 2012 and accessible after subscription purchase, contains analysis, reporting and everything found in the daily newspaper. From its inception, the practices and policies of the Houston Chronicle were shaped by strong-willed personalities who were the publishers; the history of the newspaper can be best understood. The Houston Chronicle was founded in 1901 by a former reporter for the now-defunct Houston Post, Marcellus E. Foster. Foster, covering the Spindletop oil boom for the Post, invested in Spindletop and took $30 of the return on that investment — at the time equivalent to a week's wages — and used it to fund the Chronicle; the Chronicle's first edition was published on October 14, 1901 and sold for two cents per copy, at a time when most papers sold for five cents each. At the end of its first month in operation, the Chronicle had a circulation of 4,378 — one tenth of the population of Houston at the time. Within the first year of operation, the paper consolidated the Daily Herald.
In 1908, Foster asked Jesse H. Jones, a local businessman and prominent builder, to construct a new office and plant for the paper, "and offered half-interest in the newspaper as a down payment, with twenty years to pay the remainder. Jones agreed, the resulting Chronicle Building was one of the finest in the South."Under Foster, the paper's circulation grew from about 7,000 in 1901 to 75,000 on weekdays and 85,000 on Sundays by 1926. Foster continued to write columns under the pen name Mefo, drew much attention in the 1920s for his opposition to the Ku Klux Klan, he sold the rest of his interest to Jesse H. Jones on June 1926 and promptly retired. In 1911, City Editor George Kepple started Goodfellows. On a Christmas Eve in 1911, Kepple passed a hat among the Chronicle's reporters to collect money to buy toys for a shoe-shine boy. Goodfellows continues today through donations made by its readers, it has grown into a citywide program that provides needy children between the ages of two and ten with toys during the winter holidays.
In 2003, Goodfellows distributed 250,000 toys to more than 100,000 needy children in the Greater Houston area. In 1926, Jesse H. Jones became the sole owner of the paper, he had approached Foster about selling, Foster had answered, "What will you give me?". Jones described the buyout of Foster as follows: Wanting to be liberal with Foster if I bought him out, since he had created the paper and owned most of the stock, had made a success of it, I thought for a while before answering and asked him how much he owed, he replied,'On real estate and everything about 200,000 dollars.' I said to him that I would give him 300,000 dollars in cash, having in mind that this would pay his debts and give him 100,000 spending money. In addition, I would give him a note for 500,000 secured by a mortgage on the Chronicle Building, the note to be payable at the rate of 35,000 a year for thirty-five years, which I figured was about his expectancy. I would pay him 20,000 dollars a year as editor of the paper and 6,000 dollars a year to continue writing the daily front-page column,'MEFO,' on the condition that either of us could cancel the editorship and/or the MEFO-column contracts on six months notice, that, if I canceled both the column and the editorship, I would give him an additional 6,000 dollars a year for life.
I considered the offer more than the Chronicle was worth at the time. No sooner had I finished stating my proposition than he said,'I will take it,' and the transaction was completed accordingly. In 1937, Jesse H. Jones transferred ownership of the paper to the newly established Houston Endowment Inc. Jones retained the title of publisher until his death in 1956. According to The Handbook of Texas Online, the Chronicle represented conservative political views during the 1950s: "...the Chronicle represented the conservative political interests of the Houston business establishment. As such, it eschewed controversial political topics, such as integration or the impacts of rapid economic growth on life in the city, it did not perform investigative journalism. This resulted in a stodgy newspaper. By 1959, circulation of the rival Houston Post had pulled ahead of the Chronicle."Jones, a lifelong Democrat who organized the Democratic National Convention to be in Houston in 1928, who spent long years in public service first under the Wilson administration, helping to found the Red Cross