Seven Laws of Noah
The Seven Laws of Noah referred to as the Noahide Laws or the Noachide Laws, are a set of imperatives which, according to the Talmud, were given by God as a binding set of laws for the "children of Noah" – that is, all of humanity. According to Jewish tradition, non-Jews who adhere to these laws because they were given by Moses are said to be followers of Noahidism and regarded as righteous gentiles, who are assured of a place in Olam Haba, the final reward of the righteous; the Seven Laws of Noah include prohibitions against worshipping idols, cursing God, murder and sexual immorality, eating flesh torn from a living animal, as well as the obligation to establish courts of justice. According to the Genesis flood narrative, a deluge covered the whole world, killing every surface-dwelling creature except Noah, his wife, his sons and their wives, the animals taken aboard Noah's Ark. According to this, all modern humans are descendants of Noah, thus the name Noahide Laws is referred to the laws that apply to all of humanity.
After the flood, God sealed a covenant with Noah with the following admonitions: Flesh of a living animal: "However, flesh with its life-blood, you shall not eat." Murder and courts: "Furthermore, I will demand your blood, for your lives, I shall demand it from any wild animal. From man too, I will demand of each person's brother the blood of man, he who spills the blood of man, by man his blood shall be spilt. The Book of Jubilees dated to the 2nd century BCE, may include an early reference to Noahide Law at verses 7:20–28: And in the twenty-eighth jubilee Noah began to enjoin upon his sons' sons the ordinances and commandments, all the judgments that he knew, he exhorted his sons to observe righteousness, to cover the shame of their flesh, to bless their Creator, honour father and mother, love their neighbour, guard their souls from fornication and uncleanness and all iniquity. For owing to these three things came the flood upon the earth... For whoso sheddeth man's blood, whoso eateth the blood of any flesh, shall all be destroyed from the earth.
The Jewish Encyclopedia article on Saul of Tarsus states: According to Acts, Paul began working along the traditional Jewish line of proselytizing in the various synagogues where the proselytes of the gate and the Jews met. The article "New Testament" states: For great as was the success of Barnabas and Paul in the heathen world, the authorities in Jerusalem insisted upon circumcision as the condition of admission of members into the church, until, on the initiative of Peter, of James, the head of the Jerusalem church, it was agreed that acceptance of the Noachian Laws—namely, regarding avoidance of idolatry and the eating of flesh cut from a living animal—should be demanded of the heathen desirous of entering the Church. David Novak presents a range of theories regarding the origin of the Noachide laws, including the Bible, Hittite law, the Maccabean period, the Roman period; the seven Noahide laws as traditionally enumerated are the following: Not to worship idols. Not to curse God. To establish courts of justice.
Not to commit murder. Not to commit adultery or sexual immorality. Not to steal. Not to eat flesh torn from a living animal. According to the Talmud, the rabbis agree. However, they disagree on which laws were given to Adam and Eve. Six of the seven laws are exegetically derived from passages in Genesis, with the seventh being the establishing of courts; the earliest complete rabbinic version of the seven laws can be found in the Tosefta where they are listed as follows. Seven commandments were commanded of the sons of Noah: concerning adjudication concerning idolatry concerning blasphemy concerning sexual immorality concerning blood-shed concerning robbery concerning a limb torn from a living animal According to the Talmud, the Noahide Laws apply to all humanity. In Judaism, בני נח B'nei Noah refers to all of humankind; the Talmud states: "Righteous people of all nations have a share in the world to come". Any non-Jew who lives according to these laws is regarded as one of "the righteous among the gentiles".
The rabbis agree. However, they disagree on which laws were given to Adam and Eve. Six of the seven laws are exegetically derived from passages in Genesis; the Talmud adds extra laws beyond the seven listed in the Tosefta which are attributed to different rabbis, such as the grafting of trees and sorcery among others, Ulla going so far as to make a list of 30 laws. The Talmud expands the scope of the seven laws to cover about 100 of the 613 mitzvoth. In practice Jewish law makes it difficult to apply the death penalty. No record exists of a gentile having been put to death for violating the seven laws; some of the categories of capital punishment recorded in the Talmud are recorded as having never been carried out. It is thought that the rabbis included discussion of them in anticipation of the coming messianic age; the Talmud lists the punishment for bl
Ángel Sanz Briz
Ángel Sanz Briz was a Spanish diplomat who served under Francoist Spain during World War II. He saved the lives of some five thousand Hungarian Jews from deportation to Auschwitz. Sanz Briz is sometimes referred to as "the angel of Budapest". Sanz Briz was born on September 1910 in Zaragoza, he earned a degree in law at the Central University of Madrid, in 1933 entered the diplomatic School in Madrid. At the beginning of the Spanish Civil War he volunteered to join the Nationalist side of the struggle, serving as a truck driver in the Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí, a unit of Francisco Franco's army created in 1937 and commanded by General Juan Yagüe. After completing his studies in Madrid, his first diplomatic posting was to Cairo, he was sent to Budapest in 1942. Between June and December 1944, he and his assistants issued fake Spanish papers to 5,200 Jews, saving them from deportation to concentration camps, he received authorization to provide papers to 200 Jews, continued to enlarge this amount until he reached 5,200.
In some cases, he acquired houses in Budapest at his own cost in order to provide shelter for the refugees, which made the difference between life and death for those Jews. He convinced the Hungarian authorities that Spain, under the dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera had given Spanish citizenship to descendants of Sephardic Jews expelled from Spain in 1492. Primo de Rivera had issued such a decree on December 20, 1924 but it had been cancelled in 1930, a fact the Hungarian authorities were not aware of. Sanz Briz dutifully informed the Spanish Foreign Ministry of his actions, which were neither forbidden nor encouraged by Madrid. In 1944, as the Red Army approached Budapest, he followed government orders to leave for Switzerland, he was replaced by the Italian Giorgio Perlasca, who pretended to be a Spanish consul and continued to issue Spanish visas and to patrol the safehouse system for Jews set up by Sanz Briz. After these events, Sanz Briz continued his diplomatic career: he was posted to San Francisco and Washington, D.
C. Ambassador to Lima, Bayonne, The Hague and China. In 1976 he was sent to Rome as Ambassador of Spain to the Holy See, where he died on June 11, 1980. Sanz Briz himself tells how he was able to save the lives of so many Jews, in Federico Ysart's book Los judíos en España, he is the subject of the 2011 Spanish television series El ángel de Budapest, based on Diego Carcedo’s book Un español frente al Holocausto. In 1942 he married Adela Quijano y Secades, with whom he had four children: Adela, Paloma, Ángeles, Juan Carlos. Sanz Briz died June 1980 in Rome. In 1991, he was recognized by the Holocaust Museum Yad Vashem of the State of Israel, who gave his family the title of Righteous Among the Nations. In 1994 the Government of Hungary gave him the Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary. In 2015, a Budapest street was renamed as Angel Sanz Briz Avenue. Gilberto Bosques Saldívar The angel of Budapest - Angel Sanz Briz, by Salvo Haim Alhadeffas in the European Sephardic Institute Ángel Sanz Briz: International Raoul Wallenberg foundation Angel Sanz Briz
Johan Hendrik Weidner
Johan Hendrik Weidner was a decorated Dutch hero of World War II. Johan Hendrik Weidner Jr. was born in Brussels to Dutch parents. Although his birth name was Johan Hendrik, he used to call himself "Jean" and in the U. S. "John". He was the eldest of four children, grew up in Switzerland, near the French border at Collonges-sous-Salève - a village in the French department of Haute-Savoie, where his father taught Latin and Greek at the Seventh-day Adventist Church seminary. Following his education at French public schools, he attended basic courses at the Seventh-day Adventist Seminary in Collonges-sous-Salève, his father Johan Hendrik Weidner Sr. who studied at the University of Geneva, had been a minister for the Seventh-day Adventists in Brussels and Switzerland, hoped Jean would follow in his footsteps. To his father's regret, he decided to go into business, in 1935 he established a textile import/export business in Paris, France. Around this time he went to Geneva to attend sessions of the League of Nations, saw firsthand how ineffective that body was in preventing the outbreak of war in 1939.
At the outbreak of World War II Jean was living in Paris. With the subsequent German occupation of France he fled with several others from Paris to Lyon in the unoccupied part of France; because he had to abandon his Parisian business, he began a new business in Lyon. In 1941, Jean founded "Dutch-Paris", an underground network of which the location of his Lyonnaise textile business soon became its headquarters. In order to get passes to go in and out of the Swiss frontier zone, he set up a second textile shop in Annecy at the end of 1942. Dutch-Paris became one of the largest and most successful underground networks for people persecuted for faith or race, Allied pilots, persons of great Dutch importance to help them escape via Switzerland and Spain; this escape route was used for smuggling documents. In the Netherlands this message line was known as "The Swiss Way". In its heyday, 300 people were part of this underground network, of which about 150 people were arrested. 40 people were slain or died from the effects of captivity, including his sister who helped to coordinate escapes from Paris.
The escape route has contributed to the French Resistance, is responsible for the rescue of more than 1,080 people, including 800 Dutch Jews and more than 112 downed Allied pilots. Jean was one of the most sought after underground leaders of France, for whom the Gestapo at one time offered a reward of five million francs for his arrest. In February 1944, a young female courier was arrested by the French police and extradited to the Gestapo. Against all rules, she had a notebook with her containing names and addresses of Dutch-Paris members, she was brutally interrogated by a guard that held her head under cold water until she nearly drowned. Under torture she revealed many names of key members of the underground network; as a result, a large number of Dutch-Paris members were arrested. The name of Jean's sister Gabrielle Weidner was among the names listed in the notepad, she was arrested by the Gestapo and imprisoned at the Fresnes prison in Paris, because it was hoped for that her comrades would try to free her.
In Fresnes she was treated well, but when this ploy did not work, she was shipped to Ravensbrück concentration camp in Germany. She died of the effects of malnutrition, only a few days after liberation by the Russians. During the occupation, Jean was arrested by both French gendarmerie and French Milice, including the Swiss border police; the French gendarmerie beat him up brutally, but they had to release him due to lack of evidence. In another arrest by the Milice in Toulouse he was tortured, but he managed to escape before they could transfer him to the Gestapo; the Gestapo were never able to get a hold of him. In November 1944, after the Liberation of France Weidner was invited to London by Queen Wilhelmina, to come to tell her about the "Dutch-Paris" escape route, the situation of Dutch civilians in France and Belgium. In the same year he was made a Captain in the Dutch Armed Forces, after which he could be in charge of the Dutch Security Service based in Paris, his service was in charge of vetting all the Dutch citizens in France and Belgium to look for any that collaborated with the Germans.
The Bureau of National Security, the Department of Justice, the Dutch Embassy in Paris all claimed authority for Netherlands Security Service. Therefore, it has never become clear under whose direction he fell. In mid 1946, Jean was dismissed by the Dutch government, arguing that they needed a professional policeman on the post. After his work with the security he picked up the threads of normal life again, returned to his import/export textile business. In 1955 he emigrated to the United States settling in California where from 1958 he and his wife Naomi operated a chain of health food stores. For his War efforts, Weidner was awarded the United States Medal of Freedom with Gold Palm, made an Honorary Officer of the Order of the British Empire, an Officer in the Dutch Order of Orange-Nassau; the French Government honored him with the Croix de Guerre and Médaille de la Résistance and the Légion d'honneur. The Belgian Government made him an Officer of the Order of Leopold. At the 1993 opening of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.
C. he was one of seven persons chosen to light candles recognizing the rescuers. The Israeli government honored Weidner as one of the gentiles designated as Righteous Among the Nations at Israel's national Holocaust Memorial, Yad Vashem where a grove of trees was planted in his name on the Hill of Rem
Wilhelm Adalbert Hosenfeld a school teacher, was a German Army officer who by the end of the Second World War had risen to the rank of Hauptmann. He helped to hide or rescue several Polish people, including Jews, in Nazi-occupied Poland, helped Polish-Jewish pianist and composer Władysław Szpilman to survive, hidden, in the ruins of Warsaw during the last months of 1944, an act, portrayed in the 2002 film The Pianist, he was taken prisoner by the Red Army and died in Soviet captivity in 1952. In October 2007, Hosenfeld was posthumously honoured by the president of Poland Lech Kaczyński with a Commander’s Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta. In June 2009, Hosenfeld was posthumously recognized in Yad Vashem as one of the Righteous Among the Nations. Hosenfeld was born into the family of a pious Roman Catholic schoolmaster living near Fulda, his family life had a Catholic character, Christian charitable work was emphasized during his education. He was influenced by the Catholic Action and Church-inspired social work, but by Prussian obedience, by German patriotism, during his marriage, by the increasing pacifism of his wife, Annemarie.
He was influenced by the Wandervogel movement and its adherents. From 1914, he saw active service in the First World War, after being wounded in 1917 received the Iron Cross Second Class. Hosenfeld was drafted into the Wehrmacht in August 1939 and was stationed in Poland from mid-September 1939 until his capture by the Soviet Army on 17 January 1945, his first destination was Pabianice, where he was involved in the building and running of a POW camp. Next, he was stationed in Węgrów in December 1939, where he remained until his battalion was moved another 30 km away to Jadów at the end of May 1940, he was transferred to Warsaw in July 1940, where he spent the rest of the war, for the most part attached to Wach-Bataillon 660, part of the Wach-Regiment Warschau in which he served as a staff officer and as the battalion sports officer. A member of the Nazi Party since 1935, as time passed Hosenfeld grew disillusioned with the party and its policies as he saw how Poles, Jews, were treated, he and several fellow German Army officers felt sympathy for all peoples of occupied Poland.
Ashamed of what some of their countrymen were doing, they offered help to those they could whenever possible. Hosenfeld befriended numerous Poles and made an effort to learn their language, he attended Mass, received Holy Communion, went to confession in Polish churches though this was forbidden. His actions on behalf of Poles began as early as autumn 1939, when against regulations he allowed Polish prisoners of war access to their families and pushed for the early release of at least one. During his time in Warsaw, Hosenfeld used his position to give refuge to people, regardless of their background, including at least one politically persecuted anti-Nazi ethnic German, who were in danger of persecution arrest by the Gestapo, sometimes by getting them the papers they needed and jobs at the sports stadium, under his oversight. Hosenfeld surrendered to the Soviets at Błonie, a small Polish city about 30 km west of Warsaw, with the men of a Wehrmacht company he was leading, he was sentenced to 25 years of hard labor for alleged war crimes, on account of his unit affiliation, was tortured by the Soviet secret services, as they believed Hosenfeld had been active in the German Abwehr or the Sicherheitsdienst.
In a 1946 letter to his wife in West Germany, Hosenfeld named the Jews whom he had saved and begged her to contact them and ask them to arrange his release. In 1950, Szpilman learned the name of the German officer. After much soul searching, Szpilman sought the intercession of a man whom he considered "a bastard", Jakub Berman, the head of the Polish secret police. Several days Berman paid a visit to the Szpilman's home and said that there was nothing he could do, he added, "If your German were still in Poland we could get him out. But our comrades in the Soviet Union won't let him go, they say your officer belonged to a detachment involved in spying – so there is nothing we can do about it as Poles, I am powerless". Szpilman never believed Berman's claims of powerlessness. In an interview with Wolf Biermann, Szpilman described Berman as "all powerful by the grace of Stalin," and lamented, "So I approached the worst rogue of the lot, it did no good." Hosenfeld died in a Soviet prison camp on 13 August 1952, shortly before 10:00 in the evening, from a rupture of the thoracic aorta sustained during torture.
Szpilman's son, Andrzej Szpilman, had long called for Yad Vashem to recognize Wilm Hosenfeld as a Righteous Among the Nations, non-Jews who risked their lives to rescue Jews. Along with him, the Szpilman family and thousands of others asked that Hosenfeld be honoured in this way for his acts of kindness throughout the war. In 2002, The Pianist, a film based on Szpilman's memoirs of the same name, portrayed Hosenfeld's rescue of Władysław Szpilman. Hosenfeld was played by Thomas Kretschmann. In October 2007, Hosenfeld was posthumously honoured by the president of Poland Lech Kaczyński with a Commander’s Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta. On 16 February 2009, Yad Vashem announced that Hosenfeld would be posthumously recognized as Righteous Among the Nations. On 19 June 2009, Israeli diplomats presented Hosenfeld's son, with the award, in Berlin. On December 4, 2011, a commemorative plaque in Polish and English was unveil
Major Francis Edward Foley CMG was a British Secret Intelligence Service officer. As a passport control officer for the British embassy in Berlin, Foley "bent the rules" and helped thousands of Jewish families escape from Nazi Germany after Kristallnacht and before the outbreak of the Second World War, he is recognised as a British Hero of the Holocaust. He was the third son of Isabella and Andrew Wood Foley, a Tiverton-born railway worker, whose family may have originated from Roscommon in Ireland in the early 1800s. After attending local schools in Somerset, Foley won a scholarship to Stonyhurst College, where he was educated by the Jesuits, he went to a Catholic seminary in France to train as a priest but transferred to the Université de France in Poitiers to study Classics. While there he reconsidered his vocation for the priesthood and decided instead to pursue an academic career, he travelled extensively in Europe, becoming fluent in both German. Foley graduated from the Royal Military College and was commissioned as a second lieutenant into the Hertfordshire Regiment on 25 January 1917.
He was appointed temporary Captain on 20 September 1917, while commanding an infantry company of the 1st Battalion the Hertfordshire Regiment, was with the 2nd/6th Battalion North Staffordshire Regiment, during which time he was mentioned in despatches. The story of his escape from Germany and his language skills had been noted by someone at the War Office, he was encouraged to apply for the Intelligence Corps. On 25 July 1918 Foley was promoted Lieutenant. In July 1918 he became part of a small unit, responsible for recruiting and running networks of secret agents in France and the Netherlands. After|issue=31889|supp=y|page=5215|date=4 May 1920}}</ref> and in December 1921 retired from the Army with the rank of Captain. After the running down of the Commission, he was subsequently offered the post of passport control officer in Berlin, a cover for his main duties as head of the British Secret Intelligence Service station. During the 1920s and 30s, Foley was successful in recruiting agents and acquiring key details of German military research and development.
Foley is remembered as a "British Schindler". In his role as passport control officer, he helped thousands of Jews escape from Nazi Germany. At the 1961 trial of former ranking Nazi Adolf Eichmann, he was described as a "Scarlet Pimpernel" for the way he risked his own life to save Jews threatened with death by the Nazis. Despite having no diplomatic immunity and being liable to arrest at any time, Foley would bend the rules when stamping passports and issuing visas, to allow Jews to escape "legally" to Britain or Palestine, controlled by the British. Sometimes he went further, going into internment camps to get Jews out, hiding them in his home, helping them get forged passports. One Jewish aid worker estimated. In 1939 and 1940, he was a passport control officer in Norway until the Germans invaded, when he was attached to C-in-C Norwegian Forces in the Field, for which services he received the Norwegian Knight's Cross of the Order of St. Olaf. On 1 January 1941, he was awarded Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George as a Captain in respect of services to the Foreign Office.
In 1941, he was given the task of questioning Hitler's Deputy Rudolf Hess after Hess's flight to Scotland. After Hess was hospitalized in 1942, Foley helped coordinate MI5 and MI6 in running a network of double agents, the Double Cross System, he returned to Berlin soon after the war under the cover of Assistant Inspector General of the Public Safety Branch of the Control Commission in Germany, where he was involved in hunting for ex-SS war criminals. In 1949, Foley retired to Stourbridge and died there in 1958, he is buried in Stourbridge Cemetery. On 27 April 1961, the Daily Mail carried the story, written by his widow, of his activities to save as many Jews as he could with visas to the United Kingdom; when no excuse could be found for a visa to Britain, he contacted friends working in the embassies of other nations for their assistance in granting visas to their countries. His widow, Katharine Eva Foley, died on 17 April 1979 at her home in Devon. Mentioned in despatches for service in World War I Order of St. Olaf Knight's Cross in 1941 Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George on 1 January 1941 Righteous Among the Nations awarded in October 1999 posthumously by Israel British Hero of the Holocaust awarded posthumously in 2010 Foley was accorded the status of a Righteous Among the Nations by Israel's Yad Vashem as a direct result of testimony from "living witnesses" found by Michael Smith while researching his biography of Foley.
Lord Janner, chairman of the Holocaust Educational Trust, was instrumental in persuading Yad Vashem to look at Smith's evidence. Some members of the Yad Vashem committee that determines whether someone should be named as a "righteous gentile" were sceptical that a MI6 officer would not have diplomatic immunity but the Foreign Office historian Gill Bennett produced classified documents that demonstrated this to be the case; the cover of Smith's book features the photograph from Foley's first diplomatic passport with the date it was issued shown as 11 August 1939. In 2004 a remembrance plaque was dedicated to him at the entrance to Stourbridge's Mary Stevens Park; the following year volunteers from Highbridge, Foley's birthplace, raised money to erect their own tribute. A statue was commissioned from sculptor Jonathan Sells and unveiled on the anniversary of VE Day, w
Irena Stanisława Sendler referred to as Irena Sendlerowa in Poland, nom de guerre "Jolanta", was a Polish social worker and nurse who served in the Polish Underground during World War II in German-occupied Warsaw, from October 1943 was head of the children's section of Żegota, the Polish Council to Aid Jews. In the 1930s, Sendler conducted her social work as one of the activists connected to the Free Polish University. From 1935 to October 1943, she worked for the Department of Social Welfare and Public Health of the City of Warsaw, she pursued informal, during the war conspiratorial activities, such as rescuing Jews as part of the network of workers and volunteers from that department women. Sendler participated, with dozens of others, in smuggling Jewish children out of the Warsaw Ghetto and provided them with false identity documents and shelter with willing Polish families or in orphanages and other care facilities, including Catholic nun convents, saving those children from the Holocaust.
The German occupiers suspected Sendler's involvement in the Polish Underground and in October 1943 she was arrested by the Gestapo, but she managed to hide the list of the names and locations of the rescued Jewish children, preventing this information from falling into the hands of the Gestapo. Withstanding torture and imprisonment, Sendler never revealed anything about her work or the location of the saved children, she was sentenced to death but narrowly escaped on the day of her scheduled execution, after Żegota bribed German officials to obtain her release. In communist Poland, Sendler continued her social activism but pursued a government career. In 1965, she was recognised by the State of Israel as Righteous Among the Nations. Among the many decorations Sendler received were the Gold Cross of Merit granted her in 1946 for the saving of Jews and the Order of the White Eagle, Poland's highest honour, awarded late in Sendler's life for her wartime humanitarian efforts. Sendler was born Irena Krzyżanowska on 15 February 1910 in Warsaw, to Dr. Stanisław Krzyżanowski, a physician, his wife, Janina.
She grew up in Otwock, a town about 15 miles southeast of Warsaw, where there was a Jewish community. Her father, a humanitarian who treated the poor, including Jews, free of charge, died in February 1917 from typhus contracted from his patients. After his death, the Jewish community offered financial help for the widow and her daughter, though Janina Krzyżanowska declined their assistance. From 1927, Sendler studied law for two years and Polish literature at the University of Warsaw, interrupting her studies for several years from 1932 to 1937, she opposed the ghetto benches system practiced in the 1930s at many Polish institutions of higher learning and defaced the "non-Jewish" identification on her grade card. She reported having suffered from academic disciplinary measures because of her activities and reputation as a communist and philo-Semite. By the outbreak of World War II she submitted her magister degree thesis, but had not taken the final exams. Sendler joined the Union of Polish Democratic Youth in 1928.
She was refused employment in the Warsaw school system because of negative recommendations issued by the university, which ascribed radically leftist views to her. Sendler became associated with social and educational units of the Free Polish University, where she met and was influenced by activists from the illegal Communist Party of Poland. At Wszechnica Sendler belonged to a group of social workers led by Professor Helena Radlińska. From her social work on-site interviews Sendler recalled many cases of extreme poverty that she encountered among the Jewish population of Warsaw. Sendler was employed in a legal counseling and social help clinic, the Section for Mother and Child Assistance at the Citizen Committee for Helping the Unemployed, she published two pieces in 1934, both concerned with the situation of children born out of wedlock and their mothers. She worked in the field, crisscrossing Warsaw's impoverished neighborhoods, her clients were helpless disadvantaged women. In 1935, the government abolished the section.
Many of its members became employees of the City of Warsaw, including Sendler in the Department of Social Welfare and Public Health. Sendler married Mieczysław Sendler in 1931, he was mobilized for war, captured as a soldier in September 1939 and remained in a German prisoner of war camp until 1945. She married Stefan Zgrzembski, a Jewish friend and wartime companion, by whom she had three children, Janina and Adam. In 1957 Zgrzembski left the family. Ten years they divorced again. Soon after the German invasion, on 1 November 1939, the German occupation authorities ordered Jews removed from the staff of the municipal Social Welfare Department where Sendler worked and barred the department from providing any assistance to Warsaw's Jewish citizens. Sendler with her colleagues and activists from the department's PPS cell became involved in helping the wounded and sick Polish soldiers. On Sendler's initiative the cell began generating false medical documents, needed by the soldiers and poor families to obtain aid.
Her PPS comrades unaware, Sendler extended such assistance to her Jewish charges, who were now served only by the
Helen of Greece and Denmark
Helen of Greece and Denmark, was a queen mother of Romania during the reign of her son King Michael. She was noted for her humanitarian efforts to save Romanian Jews during World War II, which led to her being awarded with the honorary title of Righteous Among the Nations in 1993. Daughter of King Constantine I of Greece and his wife Sophia of Prussia, Princess Helen spent her childhood in Greece, Great Britain and Germany; the outbreak of World War I and the overthrow of her father by the Allies in 1917 permanently marked her and separated her from her favorite brother, the young Alexander I of Greece. Exiled in Switzerland along with most members of the royal family, Helen spent several months caring for her father, plagued by disease and depression. In 1920, the princess met Carol, crown prince of Romania, who asked her hand in marriage. Despite the bad reputation of the prince, Helen accepted and moved to Romania, where she soon gave birth to their only son, Prince Michael, in 1921; the situation of her family, continued to worry Helen, who made several trips abroad to visit her parents when they did not reside with her in Bucharest.
In doing this, she distanced herself from her husband, whose multiple affairs ended when he fell in love with Magda Lupescu in 1924. In 1925, Prince Carol abandoned his wife and renounced the throne in order to live with his mistress. Distraught, Helen tried to persuade her husband to return to her but she accepted the divorce in 1928. In the meanwhile, Helen was proclaimed "Queen Mother of Romania" in 1927, as her son Michael ascended to the throne under the regency of his uncle Prince Nicholas. However, the political situation in Romania was complicated and Carol took advantage of the increased instability to return to Bucharest in 1930 and be acclaimed as king. Soon, the new ruler forced his ex-wife into exile and only authorized her to see their son two months per year. In these circumstances, Helen moved to Villa Sparta at Tuscany. Always close to her family, she hosted her sisters Irene and Katherine and brother Paul, who stayed with her intermittently until the restoration of the Greek monarchy in 1935.
The outbreak of World War II, the deposition of Carol II and the subsequent dismemberment of Greater Romania in 1940, brought Helen back to be with her son in Bucharest. Subject to the dictatorship of General Antonescu and vigilance of Nazi Germany, the king and his mother were cautious in their dealings with the fascist regime, they did not show their opposition to the participation of Romania in the invasion of the Soviet Union and the deportation of Jews. King Michael organized a coup against Antonescu on 23 August 1944 and Romania turned against the Axis powers. For Helen and her son, the post-war period was marked by the interference of the Soviet Union in the Romanian political life. In March 1945, the king was forced to accept a communist government headed by Petru Groza while the following year, the general elections confirmed the hegemony of the PCR in the country. Michael I was forced to abdicate on 30 December 1947 and the royal family took the path of exile. Helen returned to the Villa Sparta, where she divided her time among her family and the study of Italian art.
Concerned about her finances, Helen left Italy for Switzerland in 1979 and died three years with her son at her side. The third child and eldest daughter of Crown Prince Constantine of Greece and Princess Sophia of Prussia, Helen was born on 2 May 1896 in Athens during the reign of her grandfather, King George I. From birth, she received the nickname "Sitta" as her brother Alexander failed to pronounce the English word "sister". Growing up, Helen developed a special affection for Alexander, only three years her senior. Helen spent most of her childhood in the Greek capital; every summer, the princess and her family, travelled to the Hellenic Mediterranean aboard the royal yacht Amphitrite or visited Sophia's mother, the Dowager Empress Victoria in Germany. From the age of 8, Helen began to spend part of the summer in Great Britain, in the regions of Seaford and Eastbourne; the princess grew up in an anglophile environment, among a cohort of British tutors and governesses, including Miss Nichols, who took special care of her.
On 28 August 1909 a group of Greek officers, known as the "Military League," organized a coup d'état against the government of King George I, Helen's grandfather. While declaring to be monarchists, the League members, led by Nikolaos Zorbas, asked the king to dismiss his son from military posts; this was to protect the Diadochos from the jealousy that could stem from his friendship with some soldiers. But the reality was quite different: the officers blamed Constantine for the defeat of Greece against the Ottoman Empire during the Thirty Days' War of 1897; the situation was so tense that the sons of George I were forced to resign from their military posts to save their father from the shame of their being expelled. The Diadochos decided to leave Greece with his wife and children. For several months, the family moved to the Schloss Friedrichshof at Kronberg in Germany, it was the first of many times. After much tension, the political situation subsided in Greece and Constantine and his family were allowed to return to their homeland.
In 1911, the Diadochos was restored in his military duties by the Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos. A year the First Balkan War broke out, which allowed Greece to annex large territories in Mac