Prussia was a prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19; the Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933. From 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state.
With the end of the Nazi regime, in 1945, the division of Germany into allied-occupation zones and the separation of its territories east of the Oder–Neisse line, which were incorporated into Poland and the Soviet Union, the State of Prussia ceased to exist de facto. Prussia existed de jure until its formal abolition by the Allied Control Council Enactment No. 46 of 25 February 1947. The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians. In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk, their monastic state was Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany, and, in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Second Peace of Thorn split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, the eastern part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia, a fief of the Crown of Poland up to 1657; the union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom, exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries.
During the 18th century it had a major say in many international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany", which excluded the Austrian Empire. At the Congress of Vienna, which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia acquired rich new territories, including the coal-rich Ruhr; the country grew in influence economically and politically, became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians; the Kingdom ended in 1918 along with other German monarchies that collapsed as a result of the German Revolution. In the Weimar Republic, the Free State of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. Subsequently, it was dismantled into Nazi German Gaue in 1935.
Some Prussian ministries were kept and Hermann Göring remained in his role as Minister President of Prussia until the end of World War II. Former eastern territories of Germany that made up a significant part of Prussia lost the majority of their German population after 1945 as the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union both absorbed these territories and had most of its German inhabitants expelled by 1950. Prussia, deemed a bearer of militarism and reaction by the Allies, was abolished by an Allied declaration in 1947; the international status of the former eastern territories of Germany was disputed until the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in 1990, while its return to Germany remains a topic among far right politicians, the Federation of Expellees and various political revisionists. The term Prussian has been used outside Germany, to emphasise professionalism, aggressiveness and conservatism of the Junker class of landed aristocrats in the East who dominated first Prussia and the German Empire.
The main coat of arms of Prussia, as well as the flag of Prussia, depicted a black eagle on a white background. The black and white national colours were used by the Teutonic Knights and by the Hohenzollern dynasty; the Teutonic Order wore a white coat embroidered with a black cross with gold insert and black imperial eagle. The combination of the black and white colours with the white and red Hanseatic colours of the free cities Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, as well as of Brandenburg, resulted in the black-white-red commercial flag of the North German Confederation, which became the flag of the German Empire in 1871. Suum cuique, the motto of the Order of the Black Eagle created by King Frederick I in 1701, was associated with the whole of Prussia; the Iron Cross, a military decoration created by King Frederick William III in 1813, was commonly associated with the country. The region populated by Baltic Old Prussians who were Christianised, became a favoured location for immigration by Germans, as well as Poles and Lithuanians along the border regions.
Before its abolition, the territory of the Kingdom of Prussia included the provinces of West Prussia.
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol
The German Empire known as Imperial Germany, was the German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states, except for Austria, joined the North German Confederation. On 1 January 1871, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia from the House of Hohenzollern. Berlin remained its capital, Otto von Bismarck remained Chancellor, the head of government; as these events occurred, the Prussian-led North German Confederation and its southern German allies were still engaged in the Franco-Prussian War. The German Empire consisted of 26 states, most of them ruled by royal families, they included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, one imperial territory. Although Prussia was one of several kingdoms in the realm, it contained about two thirds of Germany's population and territory.
Prussian dominance was established constitutionally. After 1850, the states of Germany had become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In 1871, Germany had a population of 41 million people. A rural collection of states in 1815, the now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire was an industrial and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country. By 1900, Germany was the largest economy in Europe, surpassing the United Kingdom, as well as the second-largest in the world, behind only the United States. From 1867 to 1878/9, Otto von Bismarck's tenure as the first and to this day longest reigning Chancellor was marked by relative liberalism, but it became more conservative afterwards. Broad reforms and the Kulturkampf marked his period in the office. Late in Bismarck's chancellorship and in spite of his personal opposition, Germany became involved in colonialism. Claiming much of the leftover territory, yet unclaimed in the Scramble for Africa, it managed to build the third-largest colonial empire after the British and the French ones.
As a colonial state, it sometimes clashed with other European powers the British Empire. Germany became a great power, boasting a developing rail network, the world's strongest army, a fast-growing industrial base. In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britain's Royal Navy. After the removal of Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II in 1890, the Empire embarked on Weltpolitik – a bellicose new course that contributed to the outbreak of World War I. In addition, Bismarck's successors were incapable of maintaining their predecessor's complex and overlapping alliances which had kept Germany from being diplomatically isolated; this period was marked by various factors influencing the Emperor's decisions, which were perceived as contradictory or unpredictable by the public. In 1879, the German Empire consolidated the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary, followed by the Triple Alliance with Italy in 1882, it retained strong diplomatic ties to the Ottoman Empire. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, Italy left the alliance and the Ottoman Empire formally allied with Germany.
In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris in the autumn of 1914 failed. The war on the Western Front became a stalemate; the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. However, Imperial Germany had success on the Eastern Front; the German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917, contributed to bringing the United States into the war. The high command under Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff controlled the country, but in October after the failed offensive in spring 1918, the German armies were in retreat, allies Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered; the Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution with the abdications of its monarchs. This left a postwar federal republic and a devastated and unsatisfied populace, which led to the rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism; the German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris.
German nationalism shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck's pragmatic Realpolitik. Bismarck sought to extend Hohenzollern hegemony throughout the German states, he envisioned a Prussian-dominated Germany. Three wars led to military successes and helped to persuade German people to do this: the Second Schleswig War against Denmark in 1864, the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, the Franco-Prussian War against France in 1870–71; the German Confederation ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 between the constituent Confederation entities of the Austrian Empire and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies on the other. The war resulted in the partial replacement of the Confederation in 1867 by a North German Confederation, comprising the 22 states north of the Main; the patriotic fervour generated by the Franco-Prussian War overwhelmed the remaining opposition to a unified Germany in the four stat
A bodyguard is a type of security guard, or government law enforcement officer, or soldier who protects a person or a group of people—usually high-ranking public officials or officers, wealthy people, celebrities—from danger: theft, kidnapping, harassment, loss of confidential information, threats, or other criminal offences. The personnel team that protects a VIP is referred to as the VIP's security detail. Most important public figures, such as heads of state, heads of government, governors are protected by several bodyguards or by a team of bodyguards from a government agency, security forces, or police forces. In most countries where the head of state is their military leader, the leader's bodyguards have traditionally been royal guards, republican guards and other elite military units. Less-important public figures, or those with lower risk profiles, may be accompanied by a single bodyguard who doubles as a driver. A number of high-profile celebrities and CEOs use bodyguards. In some countries or regions, wealthy people may have a bodyguard.
In some cases, the security personnel use an armoured vehicle, which protects them and the VIP. The role of bodyguards is misunderstood by the public, because the typical layperson's only exposure to body-guarding is in dramatized action film depictions of the profession, in which bodyguards are depicted in firefights with attackers. In contrast to the exciting lifestyle depicted on the film screen, the role of a real-life bodyguard is much more mundane: it consists of planning routes, pre-searching rooms and buildings where the client will be visiting, researching the background of people that will have contact with the client, searching vehicles, attentively escorting the client on their day-to-day activities; the role of a bodyguard depends on several factors. First, it depends on the role of a given bodyguard in a close protection team. A bodyguard can be a driver-bodyguard, a close-protection officer, or part of an ancillary unit that provides support such as IED detection, electronic "bug" detection, counter-sniper monitoring, pre-searching facilities, background-checking people who will have contact with the client.
Second, the role of a bodyguard depends on the level of risk. A bodyguard protecting a client at high risk of assassination will be focusing on different roles than a bodyguard escorting a celebrity, being stalked by aggressive tabloid photographers; some bodyguards specialize in the close quarter protection of children of VIPs, to protect them from kidnapping or assassination. In some cases, bodyguards drive their clients, it is not sufficient for a client to be protected by a single driver-bodyguard, because this would mean that the bodyguard would have to leave the car unattended when they escort the client on foot. If the car is left unattended, this can lead to several risks: an explosive device may be attached to the car. If parking services tow away or disable the car the bodyguard cannot use the car to escape with the client in case there is a security threat while the client is at their meeting; the driver should be trained in evasive driving techniques, such as executing short-radius turns to change the direction of the vehicle, high-speed cornering, so on.
The car used by the client will be a large sedan with a low center of gravity and a powerful engine, such as a Jaguar, BMW or Mercedes Benz. In some countries, large trucks such as Suburbans are used for VIPs. At a minimum, the vehicle should have ballistic glass in the windows, some type of armor reinforcement to protect the client from gunfire, a foam-filled gas tank. "Run-flat tires" and armor protection for the driver are desirable. The car may be equipped with an additional battery. In Latin American countries, many armored cars will come with a siren and lights to use in situations were they need to get out of places quickly. Decoy convoys and vehicles are used to prevent tailing. In the event the convoy holding the client is compromised and ambushed, decoy convoys can act as a reinforcement force that can counter-attack a force, attacking the primary convoy; some clients rotate between residences in different cities when attending public events or meetings to prevent being tailed home or to a private location.
Depending on the laws in a bodyguard's jurisdiction and on which type of agency or security service they are in, bodyguards may be unarmed, armed with a less-le
Pour le Mérite
The Pour le Mérite is an order of merit established in 1740 by King Frederick II of Prussia. The Pour le Mérite was awarded as both a military and civil honour and ranked, along with the Order of the Black Eagle, the Order of the Red Eagle and the House Order of Hohenzollern, among the highest orders of merit in the Kingdom of Prussia. After 1871, when the various German kingdoms, grand duchies, duchies and Hanseatic city states had come together under Prussian leadership to form the federally structured German Empire, the Prussian honours assumed, at least in public perception, the status of honours of Imperial Germany though many honours of the various German states continued to be awarded; the Pour le Mérite was an honour conferred both for civil services. It was awarded as a recognition of extraordinary personal achievement, rather than as a general marker of social status or a courtesy-honour, although certain restrictions of social class and military rank were applied; the order was secular, membership endured for the remaining lifetime of the recipient, unless renounced or revoked.
New awards of the military class ceased with the end of the Prussian monarchy in November 1918. The civil class was revived as an independent organization in 1923. Instead of the King of Prussia, the President of Germany acted as head of the order. After the Second World War, the civil class was re-established in 1952; this version of the Pour le Mérite is still active today. The Pour le Mérite is still an order into which a person is admitted into membership, like the United Kingdom's Order of the British Empire, is not a medal or state decoration. German author Ernst Jünger, who died in 1998, was the last living recipient of the military class award; the Pour le Mérite was founded in 1740 by King Frederick II of Prussia. It was named in French, the leading international language and the favoured language at Frederick's court; the French name was retained, despite the rising tide of nationalism and increasing hostility between French and Germans during the 19th century, many of its recipients were honoured for acts performed in wars against France.
The insignia of the military award was a blue-enameled Maltese Cross with golden eagles between the arms and the Prussian royal cypher and the words Pour le Mérite written in gold letters on the body of the cross. The ribbon was black with edge stripes of silver-white; the order consisted of only one class, both civil and military, until 1810. Only a few civilians were honored: Francesco Algarotti and Voltaire. In January 1810, during the Napoleonic wars, King Frederick William III decreed that the award could be presented only to serving military officers. In March 1813, the king added an additional distinction, a spray of gilt oak leaves attached above the cross. Award of the oak leaves indicated extraordinary achievement in battle, was reserved for high-ranking officers; the original regulations called for the capture or successful defense of a fortification, or victory in a battle. By World War I, the oak leaves indicated a second or higher award of the Pour le Mérite, though in most cases the recipients were still high-ranking officers.
In early 1918, it was proposed to award the oak leaves to Germany's top flying ace, Manfred von Richthofen, but he was deemed ineligible under a strict reading of the regulations. Instead, Prussia awarded von Richthofen a less prestigious honor, the Order of the Red Eagle, 3rd Class with Crown and Swords; this was still a high honor, as the 3rd Class was awarded to colonels and lieutenant colonels, von Richthofen's award was one of only two of the 3rd Class with Crown and Swords during World War I. In 1866, a special military Grand Cross class of the award was established; this grade of the award was given to those who, through their actions, caused the retreat or destruction of an army. There were only five awards of the Grand Cross: to King Wilhelm I in 1866, to Crown Prince Frederick William of Prussia and Prince Frederick Charles of Prussia in 1873, to Tsar Alexander II of Russia in 1878, to Helmuth Graf von Moltke in 1879; the Pour le Mérite gained international fame during World War I.
Although it could be awarded to any military officer, its most famous recipients were the pilots of the German Army Air Service, whose exploits were celebrated in wartime propaganda. In aerial warfare, a fighter pilot was entitled to the award upon downing eight enemy aircraft. Aces Max Immelmann and Oswald Boelcke were the first airmen to receive the award, on January 12, 1916, it was awarded to Germany's highest-scoring ace, Manfred von Richthofen, in January 1917. Although it has been reported that because of Immelmann's renown among his fellow pilots and the nation at large, the Pour le Mérite became known, due to its color and Immelmann's first name, as the "Blue Max," that has not been confirmed; the number of aerial victories necessary to receive the award continued to increase during the war. However, other aviation recipients
Guards Cavalry Division (German Empire)
The Guards Cavalry Division was a unit of the German army, stationed in Berlin. The division was a part of the Guards Corps. Before the outbreak of war, the component units of the division were: 1st Guards Cavalry Brigade Gardes du Corps Guards Cuirassiers 2nd Guards Cavalry Brigade 1st Guards Uhlans 3rd Guards Uhlans 3rd Guards Cavalry Brigade 1st Guards Dragoons "Queen of Great Britain and Ireland" 2nd Guards Dragoons "Empress Alexandra of Russia" 4th Guards Cavalry Brigade Life Guards Hussars 2nd Guards Uhlans The division was assigned to I Cavalry Corps, which preceded the 3rd Army on the Western Front, it served on the Western Front until December 1914 undertook frontier guard duties against Holland until 30 June 1915, when it relocated to Russia. From 16 March 1918 to 9 April 1918, it was dismounted, re-formed and trained on the Zossen troop training ground. Thereafter, it served as the Guard Cavalry Schützen Division on the Western Front, it was in Artois until May 1918 Champagne / Aisne.
By the end of the war, it was serving under VI Reserve Corps, 1st Army, Heeresgruppe Deutscher Kronprinz on the Western Front. A more detailed combat chronicle can be found at the German-language version of this article. Upon the outbreak of war, the 4th Guards Cavalry Brigade was dissolved and its component regiments were assigned as divisional cavalry to the 1st Guards Infantry Division and 2nd Guards Infantry Division. With the addition of support units, the Division's structure was: 1st Guards Cavalry Brigade Gardes du Corps Guards Cuirassiers 2nd Guards Cavalry Brigade 1st Guards Uhlans 3rd Guards Uhlans 3rd Guards Cavalry Brigade 1st Guards Dragoons "Queen of Great Britain and Ireland" 2nd Guards Dragoons "Empress Alexandra of Russia" Horse Artillery Abteilung of the 1st Guards Field Artillery Regiment 1st Guard Machine Gun Detachment Pioneer Detachment Signals Detachment Heavy Wireless Station 2 Light Wireless Station 1 Light Wireless Station 2 Cavalry Motorised Vehicle Column 10See: Table of Organisation and Equipment The Guard Cavalry Division was extensively reorganised in the course of the war, culminating in the conversion to a Cavalry Schützen Division, to say, dismounted cavalry.
Here, the cavalry brigades were renamed Cavalry Schützen Commands and performed a similar role to that of an infantry regiment command. The cavalry regiments became Cavalry Schützen Regiments and allocated the role of an infantry battalion. However, these units were much weaker than normal infantry formations. 1st Guards Cavalry Brigade became independent on 9 April 1917 2nd Guards Cavalry Brigade became independent on 6 June 1916 3rd Guards Cavalry Brigade became independent on 18 October 1916 19th Cavalry Brigade joined from 9th Cavalry Division on 8 April 1917 and became independent on 12 February 1918 11th Cavalry Brigade joined from 5th Cavalry Division on 23 March 1918 and renamed 11th Cavalry Schützen Command on 8 May 1918 14th Cavalry Brigade joined from 9th Cavalry Division on 23 February 1918 and renamed 14th Cavalry Schützen Command on 8 May 1918 38th Cavalry Brigade joined from 8th Cavalry Division on 20 April 1918 and renamed 38th Cavalry Schützen Command on 8 May 1918 Allied Intelligence rated this division as 2nd Class.
Its late war organisation was: 5th Landwehr Brigade 11th Cavalry Schützen Command Guards Cuirassiers 1st Life Cuirassiers "Great Elector" 8th Dragoons "King Frederick III" 14th Cavalry Schützen Command 4th Hussars "von Schill" 11th Hussars 5th Uhlans 38th Cavalry Schützen Command 4th Cuirassiers "von Driesen" 2nd Jäger zu Pferde 6th Jäger zu Pferde 1st Guard MG Detachment 1st Squadron, 5th Jäger zu Pferde 132nd Artillery Command 3rd Guards Field Artillery 722nd Light Ammunition Column 852nd Light Ammunition Column 1135th Light Ammunition Column 412th Pioneer Battalion 2nd Ersatz Company, 18th Pioneer Battalion 307th Pioneer Company 226th Signal Command 226th Telephone Detachment 183rd Wireless Detachment Medical and Veterinary 257th Ambulance Company 642nd Ambulance Company 1st Field Hospital 302nd Field Hospital 262nd Vet. Hospital Train 636th Motor Transport Column German Army German cavalry in World War I German Army order of battle Histories of two hundred and fifty-one divisions of the German army which participated in the war p. 29-32.
Cron, Hermann. Imperial German Army 1914-18: Organisation, Orders-of-Battle. Helion & Co. ISBN 1-874622-70-1. Ellis, John; the World War I Databook. Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 1-85410-766-6. Histories of Two Hundred and Fifty-One Divisions of the German Army which Participated in the War, compiled from records of Intelligence section of the General Staff, American Expeditionary Forces, at General Headquarters, France 1919; the London Stamp Exchange Ltd. 1920. ISBN 0-948130-87-3; the German Forces in the Field. Imperial War Museum and The Battery Press, Inc. 1918. ISBN 1-870423-95-X
War of the Fourth Coalition
The Fourth Coalition fought against Napoleon's French Empire and was defeated in a war spanning 1806–1807. Coalition partners included Prussia, Saxony and Great Britain. Several members of the coalition had been fighting France as part of the Third Coalition, there was no intervening period of general peace. On 9 October 1806, Prussia joined a renewed coalition, fearing the rise in French power after the defeat of Austria and establishment of the French-sponsored Confederation of the Rhine. Prussia and Russia mobilized for a fresh campaign, Prussian troops massed in Saxony. Napoleon decisively defeated the Prussians in an expeditious campaign that culminated at the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt on 14 October 1806. French forces under Napoleon occupied Prussia, pursued the remnants of the shattered Prussian Army, captured Berlin, they advanced all the way to East Prussia and the Russian frontier, where they fought an inconclusive battle against the Russians at the Battle of Eylau on 7–8 February 1807.
Napoleon's advance on the Russian frontier was checked during the spring as he revitalized his army with fresh supplies. Russian forces were crushed by the French at the Battle of Friedland on 14 June 1807, three days Russia asked for a truce. By the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, France made peace with Russia, which agreed to join the Continental System; the treaty was harsh on Prussia, however, as Napoleon demanded much of the Prussian territory along the lower Rhine west of the Elbe and in what was part of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. These acquisitions were incorporated into the new Kingdom of Westphalia, led by his brother Jérôme Bonaparte, established the Duchy of Warsaw, ruled by his new ally the king of Saxony. At the end of the war Napoleon was master of all of western and central continental Europe, except for Spain, Portugal and several other smaller states. Despite the end of the Fourth Coalition, Britain remained at war with France. Hostilities on land resumed in 1807, when a Franco-Spanish force invaded Britain's ally Portugal, beginning the Peninsular War.
A further Fifth Coalition would be assembled when Austria re-joined the conflict in 1809. The Fourth Coalition of Prussia, Saxony and Britain formed against France within months of the collapse of the previous coalition. Following his triumph at the Battle of Austerlitz and the subsequent demise of the Third Coalition, Napoleon looked forward to achieving a general peace in Europe with his two main remaining antagonists and Russia. Meanwhile, he sought to isolate Prussia from the influence of these two powers by offering a tentative alliance, while seeking to curb Prussia's political and military influence among the German states. Despite the death of William Pitt in January 1806, Britain and the new Whig administration remained committed to checking the growing power of France. Peace overtures between the two nations early in the new year proved ineffectual due to the still unresolved issues that had led to the breakdown of the Peace of Amiens. One point of contention was the fate of Hanover, a German electorate in personal union with the British monarchy, occupied by France since 1803.
Dispute over this state would become a casus belli for both Britain and Prussia against France. This issue dragged Sweden into the war, whose forces had been deployed there as part of the effort to liberate Hanover during the war of the previous coalition; the path to war seemed inevitable after French forces ejected the Swedish troops in April 1806. Apart from some naval clashes and the peripheral Battle of Maida in southern Italy in July 1806, the main conflicts between Britain and France during the Fourth Coalition would involve no direct general military confrontation. Rather, there was an escalation in the ongoing economic warfare between the two powers. With Britain still retaining its dominance of the seas, Napoleon looked to break this dominance with his issuance of the Berlin Decree and the beginnings of his Continental System. Britain retaliated with its Orders in Council several months later. In the meantime, Russia spent most of 1806 still licking its wounds from the previous year's campaign.
Napoleon had hoped to establish peace with Russia and a tentative peace treaty was signed in July 1806, but this was vetoed by Tsar Alexander I and the two powers remained at war. Though nominally an ally in the coalition, Russia remained a dormant entity for much of the year. Russian forces would not come into play in the war until late 1806 when Napoleon entered Poland. Prussia had remained at peace with France the previous year, though it did come close to joining the Allies in the Third Coalition. A French corps led by Marshal Bernadotte had illegally violated the neutrality of Ansbach in Prussian territory on their march to face the Austrians and Russians. Anger by Prussia at this trespass was tempered by the results of Austerlitz, a convention of continued peace with France was signed two weeks after that battle at Schönbrunn; this convention was modified in a formal treaty two months with one clause in effect promising to give Hanover to Prussia in exchange for Ansbach's being awarded to France's ally Bavaria.
In addition, on 15 March 1806 Napoleon elevated his brother-in-law Marshal Joachim Murat to become ruler of the Grand Duchy of Berg and Cleves. Murat exacerbated Prussian enm