The Kemano River is a river in the Kitimat Ranges of the Coast Mountains in British Columbia, Canada. It flows into Kemano Bay on the Gardner Canal near former townsite. List of rivers of British Columbia
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Douglas Channel is one of the principal inlets of the British Columbia Coast. Its official length from the head of Kitimat Arm, where the aluminum smelter town of Kitimat to Wright Sound, on the Inside Passage ferry route, is 90 km; the actual length of the fjord's waterway includes waters between there and the open waters of the Hecate Strait outside the coastal archipelago, comprising another 60 km for 140 km in total. The Kitimat River flows into the Kitimat Arm portion of Douglas Channel; the channel is named in honour of Sir James Douglas, the first governor of the Colony of British Columbia. A major side-inlet, the Gardner Canal, is 90 km in length, is accessed from the Kitimat Arm of Douglas Channel via Devastation Sound, on the east side of Hawkesbury Island. South of Hawkesbury is Varney Passage, which has Ursula Passage. Total waterway length of the fjord dominated by Douglas Channel is therefore, not counting smaller side-inlets, 320 km, longer than Norway's Sognefjord and rivalling Greenland's Scoresby Sund at 350 km, though not as long as nearby Dean Channel's total of 335 km.
Douglas Channel is a busy shipping artery because of the methanol import terminal and the aluminum smelter at Kitimat, as bauxite must be shipped in and smelted aluminum shipped out. Announced plans will see a major expansion of the port of Kitimat as a container and bulk resources port, augmenting the port capacity of the British Columbia's North Coast a monopoly of the city of nearby Prince Rupert. Douglas Channel will be subject due to new sensitive ship traffic when the LNG Canada natural gas storage and liquefaction terminal will be completed and operational, estimated to be in 2025; the LNG Canada project, led by an LNG subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell and several Asian partners and approved on October 1, 2018, will see large LNG carrier ships loading liquefied natural gas at the future Kitimat LNG terminal, to carry it to export destinations in Asia. The Gardner Canal is important for being the location of the Kemano generating station of the Nechako Diversion, built to supply power for Kitimat.
The head of the Gardner Canal is the mouth of the Kitlope River, a major wildlife and wilderness preserve and area of outstanding natural beauty
The Kitlope River is a river in the Kitimat Ranges in the North Coast of British Columbia, flowing north into the head of the Gardner Canal to the south of the smelter town of Kitimat. It is named for the Gitlope group of Haisla, now part of the Haisla Nation government and community at Kitamaat Village near Kitimat; the name is a Tsimshian language reference to the people, who call themselves Henaksiala, means "people of the rocks" or "people of the opening in the mountains". The Haisla language name for the river is Xesduwaxwsdu; the term "the Kitlope" may refer to the basin of the Kitlope, including the basins of its tributaries. The area has been the scene of protracted conservationist vs. resource extraction controversy since the 1970s and is now the Kitlope Heritage Conservancy, a protected area managed by BC Parks. The Kitlope Indian Reserve No. 16 is located at the river's mouth. Tsaytis River - joins the Kitlope at its estuary Kalitan Creek - joins the Kitlope via the Tezwa Tezwa River - joins the Kitlope via Kitlope Lake Gamsby River Tnaiko Creek Kapella River Khutzeymateen Grizzly Bear Sanctuary Great Bear Rainforest Kitlope List of rivers in British Columbia
Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier. There are many fjords on the coasts of Alaska, British Columbia, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, Kamchatka, the Kerguelen Islands, New Zealand, Novaya Zemlya, Nunavut, Quebec, South Georgia Island, Washington state. Norway's coastline is estimated at 29,000 kilometres with nearly 1,200 fjords, but only 2,500 kilometres when fjords are excluded. A true fjord is formed when a glacier cuts a U-shaped valley by ice segregation and abrasion of the surrounding bedrock. According to the standard model, glaciers formed in pre-glacial valleys with a sloping valley floor; the work of the glacier left an overdeepened U-shaped valley that ends abruptly at a valley or trough end. Such valleys are fjords. Thresholds above sea level create freshwater lakes. Glacial melting is accompanied by the rebounding of Earth's crust as the ice load and eroded sediment is removed. In some cases this rebound is faster than sea level rise.
Most fjords are deeper than the adjacent sea. Fjords have a sill or shoal at their mouth caused by the previous glacier's reduced erosion rate and terminal moraine. In many cases this sill causes large saltwater rapids. Saltstraumen in Norway is described as the world's strongest tidal current; these characteristics distinguish fjords from rias, which are drowned valleys flooded by the rising sea. Drammensfjorden is cut in two by the Svelvik "ridge", a sandy moraine that during the ice cover was under sea level but after the post-glacial rebound reaches 60 m above the fjord. Jens Esmark in the 19th century introduced the theory that fjords are or have been created by glaciers and that large parts of Northern Europe had been covered by thick ice in prehistory. Thresholds at the mouths and overdeepening of fjords compared to the ocean are the strongest evidence of glacial origin, these thresholds are rocky. Thresholds are related to sounds and low land where the ice could spread out and therefore have less erosive force.
John Walter Gregory argued that fjords are of tectonic origin and that glaciers had a negligible role in their formation. Gregory's views were rejected by subsequent research and publications. In the case of Hardangerfjord the fractures of the Caledonian fold has guided the erosion by glaciers, while there is no clear relation between the direction of Sognefjord and the fold pattern; this relationship between fractures and direction of fjords is observed in Lyngen. Preglacial, tertiary rivers eroded the surface and created valleys that guided the glacial flow and erosion of the bedrock; this may in particular have been the case in Western Norway where the tertiary uplift of the landmass amplified eroding forces of rivers. Confluence of tributatry fjords led to excavation of the deepest fjord basins. Near the coast the typical West Norwegian glacier spread out and lost their concentration and reduced the glaciers' power to erode leaving bedrock thresholds. Bolstadfjorden is 160 m deep with a treshold of only 1.5 m, while the 1,300 m deep Sognefjorden has a threshold around 100 to 200 m deep.
Hardangerfjord is made up of several basins separated by thresholds: The deepest basin Samlafjorden between Jonaneset og Ålvik with a distinct treshold at Vikingneset in Kvam. Hanging valleys are common along U-shaped valleys. A hanging valley is a tributary valley, higher than the main valley and were created by tributary glacier flows into a glacier of larger volume; the shallower valley appears to be ` hanging' above a fjord. Waterfalls form at or near the outlet of the upper valley. Hanging valleys occur under water in fjord systems; the branches of Sognefjord are for instance much shallower than the main fjord. The mouth of Fjærlandsfjord is about 400 m deep; the mouth of Ikjefjord is only 50 meters deep while the main fjord is around 1,300 m at the same point. During the winter season there is little inflow of freshwater. Surface water and deeper water are mixed during winter because of the steady cooling of the surface and wind. In the deep fjords there is still fresh water from the summer with less density than the saltier water along the coast.
Offshore wind, common in the fjord areas during winter, sets up a current on the surface from the inner to the outer parts. This current on the surface in turn pulls dense salt water from the coast across the fjord threshold and into the deepest parts of the fjord. Bolstadfjorden has a threshold of only 1.5 m and strong inflow of freshwater from Vosso river creates a brackish surface that blocks circulation of the deep fjord. The deeper, salt layers of Bolstadfjorden are deprived of oxygen and the seabed is covered with organic material; the shallow threshold creates a strong tidal current. During the summer season there is a large inflow of river water in the inner areas; this freshwater gets mixed with saltwater creating a layer of brackish water with a higher surface than the ocean which in turn sets up a current from the river mouths towards the ocean. This current is more salty towards the coast and right under the surface current there is a reverse current of saltier water from the coast.
In the deeper
Kemano was a settlement situated 75 km southeast of Kitimat in the province of British Columbia in Canada. It was built to service a hydroelectric power station, built to provide energy for Alcan to smelt aluminum from its ore; the Kemano Generating Station is built 427 m inside the base of Mt Dubose in a blasted cavern. It produces 896 MW of power from its eight generators, each of which has a capacity of 112MW; the plant comprises a 16 km long tunnel, the width of a two-lane highway and blasted through the coastal mountains to carry water to the penstocks of the Kemano powerhouse. The water plunges 800 m to drive the generators; the two 300 kV power transmission lines travel 82 km from Kemano to Kitimat across some of the most rugged mountain territory in British Columbia, along the Kildala Pass, about 1,500 m above sea-level. Voice communication over the power lines was the only form of fast contact between the sites. Between 1951 and 1954, 6,000 construction workers built the Kenney Dam, powerhouse, transmission line and townsite.
There remains no road to Kemano. Construction equipment and supplies were barged over Tahtsa Lake to the eastern end of the tunnel. Sixteen people died making the tunnel. In 1956 the smelter complex consumed 35% of yearly electric energy in British Columbia; the first Kemano Project, known as Kemano I, resulted in the flooding of 339 square miles of the Nechako Reservoir, within Cheslatta territory. This reputedly removed 75% of the flow of the Nechako, or was an important salmon river. Expansion on the project, known as Kemano II, has been contested in the Canadian courts by members of the Cheslatta Carrier Nation with a group of Elders who have filed a Statement of Claim with the Supreme Court of British Columbia. Kemano itself is a name for a tribal subdivision of the Hanaksiala, part of the Haisla group, was a community in its own right after many of the coastal tribes withdrew during the influx of colonists post-1780, to remove themselves from the threat of diseases and the alien culture.
Kemano Indian Reserve No. 17 is located at the site of the Henaksiala village, though most Haisla in the region today live at Kitamaat Village, near Kitimat. The company town of Kemano was built in the 1950s and was home to a thriving small community, featuring a guesthouse, a shop which sold everything from candy to guns to socks to hats, a golf course and a church; when the power station was automated, the town closed its doors as a community in 2000, the residents were moved out, the majority of houses were burnt down as a training exercise for selected fire departments from all of BC. The plant still is operational on a shift system. Cheslatta River PDF - Article about the burning of the town - Rio Tinto Alcan BC "Kemano". BC Geographical Names. "Kemano Indian Reserve 17". BC Geographical Names. "Kemano Beach". BC Geographical Names
Kitimat is a district municipality in the North Coast region of British Columbia, Canada. It is a member municipality of the Regional District of Kitimat-Stikine regional government; the Kitimat Valley is part of the most populous urban district in northwest British Columbia, which includes Terrace to the north along the Skeena River Valley. The city was built by the Aluminum Company of Canada during the 1950s. Kitimat's municipal area is 242.63 km2. It is located on tidewater in one of the few flat valleys on the coast of British Columbia; the 2011 census recorded 8,335 citizens. The District of Kitimat Development Services situates the port of Kitimat as an integral part of the Northwest Corridor connecting North America to the Pacific Ocean and the Pacific Rim. "Kitimat" in the Tsimshian language refers to the Haisla First Nation as the "People of the Snow". Before 1950 the Kitimat township was a small fishing village at the head of the Kitimat Arm of the Douglas Channel, a deepwater fjord; the municipal town of Kitimat came into existence in the 1950s after the Provincial Government of British Columbia invited Alcan to develop hydroelectric facilities to support one of the most power-intensive of all industries – the aluminum smelting industry.
The company built a dam, 16 km tunnel, powerhouse, 82 km transmission line, a deep sea terminal and smelter. The company designed, laid out and assisted with the initial construction of the city. At the time, the combined development was considered "the most expensive project attempted by private industry."Alcan employed the services of city planner Clarence Stein in order to ensure the community design facilitated an environment that would attract and retain workers, although Alcan intended it to not be a company town. Today, Kitimat benefits from the quality of planning resulting from the Garden City design concept. Stein's design kept industry well separated from the community with large areas for expansion, he created looped streets surrounding an urban city centre mall and linked by over 45 km of walkways connecting to all areas of the community. The substantial greenspace areas and future expansion concepts designed by Stein have been upheld to this day by the city planners, thereby resulting in a low-density settlement pattern interspersed with forested patches.
The Alcan-based city origin and land provenance remain documented in the form of restrictive covenants registered on title. Aluminum producer Rio Tinto is the main employer in the municipality. Local government, small manufacturing and service/retail are secondary contributors. Secondary core activities include engineering, import of petrochemical products, metal fabrication. $5 billion in manufacturing investment is anticipated in the 2010–2015 period with a further $5 plus billion in the investigative stage over the next decade. Anticipated investment includes an $2 billion modernization to the Rio Tinto Alcan facilities and $3 billion in the Kitimat liquefied natural gas export development on Haisla Industrial Land at Bish Creek; the export facility would see natural gas piped in from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin and shipped to Asian markets. The LNG Canada project, a joint venture between Shell and affiliates of Mitsubishi Corp. Korea Gas Corp. and PetroChina Investment Ltd. would, if permitted, begin construction in 2015 of a gas pipeline from northeastern BC and a LNG export terminal with an expected lifespan of 30 years.
The terminal, located on the Douglas Channel near the aluminum refinery, would be able to accommodate two LNG vessels at a time. Annual volume would be 24 million tonnes. In July 2014 the Financial Post reported that Apache Corp. will "completely exit" the Kitimat LNG mega-project planned for B. C.'s West Coast. The U. S. hedge fund Jana Partners LLC has pressured Houston-based Apache to sell its 50% stake in the BC shale gas plays. Pending energy projects that have identified Kitimat as a strategic gateway include Pacific Northern Gas's Pacific Trail Pipeline and the Enbridge Northern Gateway Pipelines. Additional investigations into clean energy developments include a Kitimat port development project featuring break-bulk port facilities and consideration of the best uses for the former Eurocan Wharf. In addition, the decommissioning of the former Eurocan pulp and paper facilities or a slimmed down operation are still under consideration. There is renewed interest in mineral development potential in the Kitimat area.
The neighbouring community of Terrace is in advanced stages of approval for a number of clean energy projects along with the associated infrastructure for linking those projects to the provincial electrical grid. Air services for the community are provided through Northwest Regional Airport, with connections to Prince George and Vancouver. In the 1920s, the provincial government of British Columbia extensively evaluated the province's hydroelectric generating potential. In the late 1940s, the Canadian Government sought to tap the untapped resources of northwest British Columbia. All this led to the identification of the Eutsuk/Ootsa/Nechako River drainage basin as a potential site for a sizable reservoir; the potential of this vast system of rivers and lakes prompted British Columbia to invite Alcan to conduct a detailed investigation of the area. Alcan was searching for a site for a large aluminum smelter, an activity requiring vast amounts of electricity. Alcan concluded that the area was more than adequate to generate the required electricity, decided to build a smel