The TGV is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by the SNCF, the state-owned national rail operator. The SNCF started working on a high-speed rail network in 1966 and presented the project to President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing who approved it. Designed as turbotrains to be powered by gas turbines, TGV prototypes evolved into electric trains with the 1973 oil crisis. In 1976 the SNCF ordered 87 high-speed trains from GEC-Alstom. Following the inaugural service between Paris and Lyon in 1981 on the LGV Sud-Est, the network, centered on Paris, has expanded to connect major cities across France and in neighbouring countries on a combination of high-speed and conventional lines; the TGV network in France carries about 110 million passengers a year. Like the Shinkansen in Japan, the TGV has never experienced a fatal accident during its operational history; the high-speed tracks, maintained by SNCF Réseau, are subject to heavy regulation. Confronted with the fact that train drivers would not be able to see signals along the track-side when trains reach full speed, engineers developed the TVM technology, which would be exported worldwide.
It allows for a train engaging in an emergency braking to request within seconds all following trains to reduce their speed. The TVM safety mechanism enables TGVs using the same line to depart every three minutes. A TGV test train set the world record for the fastest wheeled train, reaching 574.8 km/h on 3 April 2007. Conventional TGV services operate up to 320 km/h on the LGV Est, LGV Rhin-Rhône and LGV Méditerranée. In 2007, the world's fastest scheduled rail journey was a start-to-stop average speed of 279.4 km/h between the Gare de Champagne-Ardenne and Gare de Lorraine on the LGV Est, not surpassed until the 2013 reported average of 283.7 km/h express service on the Shijiazhuang to Zhengzhou segment of China's Shijiazhuang–Wuhan high-speed railway. The TGV was conceived at the same period as other technological projects sponsored by the Government of France, including the Ariane 1 rocket and Concorde supersonic airliner; the commercial success of the first high-speed line led to a rapid development of services to the south, west and east.
Eager to emulate the TGV's success, neighbouring countries Italy and Germany developed their own high-speed rail services. The TGV system itself extends to neighbouring countries, either directly or through TGV-derivative networks linking France to Switzerland, to Belgium and the Netherlands, as well as to the United Kingdom. Several future lines are planned, including extensions to surrounding countries. Cities such as Tours and Le Mans have become part of a "TGV commuter belt" around Paris. A visitor attraction in itself, it stops at Disneyland Paris and in tourist cities such as Avignon and Aix-en-Provence as well. Brest, Chambéry, Nice and Biarritz are reachable by TGVs running on a mix of LGVs and modernised lines. In 2007, the SNCF generated profits of €1.1 billion driven by higher margins on the TGV network. The idea of the TGV was first proposed in the 1960s, after Japan had begun construction of the Shinkansen in 1959. At the time the Government of France favoured new technology, exploring the production of hovercraft and the Aérotrain air-cushion vehicle.
The SNCF began researching high-speed trains on conventional tracks. In 1976, the administration agreed to fund the first line. By the mid-1990s, the trains were so popular that SNCF President Louis Gallois declared that the TGV was "the train that saved French railways", it was planned that the TGV standing for très grande vitesse or turbine grande vitesse, would be propelled by gas turbines, selected for their small size, good power-to-weight ratio and ability to deliver high power over an extended period. The first prototype, TGV 001, was the only gas-turbine TGV: following the increase in the price of oil during the 1973 energy crisis, gas turbines were deemed uneconomic and the project turned to electricity from overhead lines, generated by new nuclear power stations. TGV 001 was not a wasted prototype: its gas turbine was only one of its many new technologies for high-speed rail travel, it tested high-speed brakes, needed to dissipate the large amount of kinetic energy of a train at high speed, high-speed aerodynamics, signalling.
It was articulated, comprising two adjacent carriages sharing a bogie, allowing free yet controlled motion with respect to one another. It reached 318 km/h, its interior and exterior were styled by British-born designer Jack Cooper, whose work formed the basis of early TGV designs, including the distinctive nose shape of the first power cars. Changing the TGV to electric traction required a significant design overhaul; the first electric prototype, nick
Gare de Libourne
The gare de Libourne is a railway interchange station in Libourne, Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France. The station is located on the Paris - Bordeaux, Bordeaux - Bergerac - Sarlat, Bordeaux - Coutras - Perigeuxe railway lines; the station is served by TGV Bordeaux - Paris and Lille - Bordeaux, Intercités Bordeaux - Périgueux - Lyon and Bordeaux - Périgueux - Ussel and TER services operated by SNCF. The following services call at Libourne: high speed services Paris - Bordeaux - Irun high speed services Paris - Bordeaux - Arcachon high speed services Lille - Bordeaux intercity services Bordeaux - Libourne - Coutras - Périgueux - Limoges intercity services Bordeaux - Libourne - Coutras - Périgueux - Brive-la-Gaillarde - Ussel local service Bordeaux - Libourne - Angoulême local service Bordeaux - Libourne - Coutras - Mussidan - Périgueux (Line 24 Direction for Limoges and Line 25 direction for Brive local service Bordeaux - Libourne - Bergerac - Sarlat Take Note that stations Bassens, La Gorp, St-Loubes, St-Sulpice-Izon and Vayres between Cenon station and Libourne are for line 16 Only if the trains are marked with destinations Angoulême and Coutras Lines 24, 25 and 26 head for Libourne Non stop from Bordeaux and Cenon all the time and the same from Libourne to Cenon and Bordeaux Ticket Office Ticket Machines Car Park Bus Services - Libus 1, 2 and 5 Toilet Convenience shop/Small coffee shop called Casino Shop Timetables TER Aquitaine
Gare de Limoges-Bénédictins
Limoges-Bénédictins is the main railway station of Limoges. It is situated on the Orléans–Montauban railway, it was named Bénédictins due to the presence of a Benedictine monastery closed during the French Revolution. The CF du PO opened the first railway line in the city in the 1850s; the first station, built of wood, opened on 16 June 1856. The first stone-built station opened in 1860. On 21 November 1918, the Limoges city council and CF du PO signed an agreement regarding the construction of a new station. Work lasted from 1924 and 1929; the station was inaugurated on 2 July 1929. The Germans used an underground roadway as a passive defense shelter, located under the tracks, which linked the Ambazac road to Locarno Avenue, now walled; the "Wehrmacht Reserved" sign is always present On the night of 23-24 June 1944, thanks to information from the Resistance, the Allies bombarded the Puy-Imbert marshalling yard in Limoges, preventing the movement of trains for more than a week. The next day, the Germans requisitioned the labor available to clear and clear... under a sun of lead.
The station was listed as a monument historique on 15 January 1975 and work to restore the Great Hall ended in 1979. About 13:20 on 5 February 1998, a fire broke out under the station's dome; the city's population was touched and the dome was rebuilt to its original design. The railway accident at Brétigny-sur-Orge is a derailment on 12 July 2013 at the Brétigny railway station in the commune of Brétigny-sur-Orge, 28 km south of Paris. Following the failure of a splint, a metal part used to connect two consecutive rails, several cars from a passenger train between Paris-Austerlitz and Limoges-Bénédictins derailed, resulting in the death of seven people; the Limoges station welcomed on May 20, 2008 the filming of an advertising clip for the perfume Chanel No 5, "Un train de nuit", directed by Jean-Pierre Jeunet and featuring actress Audrey Tautou. The rest of the clip was shot in the stations of Nice and Istanbul, around the theme of the Orient-Express. At the end, broadcast in 2009, the station appears stealthily at the beginning of the clip, Audrey Tautou running on the forecourt and making fly some pigeons.
This clip suggests that the Limoges station could be the departure of a direct train to Istanbul Bénédictins station was designed by architect Roger Gonthier. A particularity of the station is that it was built over the ten railway lines as opposed to next to them. A large 90 by 78 metre platform was built over the line to support the station building; the building is made of a concrete bone structure, filled in with limestone. The dome which covers the passenger concourse is made of a metallic framework, covered in copper. On the Southwest corner is a 60 metre tall clock tower composed of twelve levels, it is mounted by a dome. Below these are four four metre wide clocks; the first floors are occupied by offices. The view from the top floors is stunning over the city of Limoges, part of the agglomeration and the Vienne valley. You can see most of the most important monuments of the city: the town hall, the churches of Saint-Michel and Saint-Pierre, the Gay-Lussac high school, the city of Coutures, the Cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Limoges, the Bastide, The technopole or the castle of the Bastide.
The following services call at Limoges-Bénédictins as of January 2018: intercity services Paris - Vierzon - Limoges - Toulouse intercity services Bordeaux - Périgueux - Limoges - Montluçon - Roanne - Lyon local service Limoges - Thiviers - Périgueux local service Limoges - Saint-Yrieix - Brive-la-Gaillarde local service Limoges - Uzerche - Brive-la-Gaillarde local service Limoges - Ussel Gare de Limoges-Bénédictins at "Gares & Connexions", the official website of SNCF Details and information of the station. Photos of the station
The Bordeaux tramway network consists of three lines serving the city of Bordeaux in Aquitaine in southwestern France. The first line of Bordeaux's modern tramway opened on 21 December 2003; the system is notable for using a ground-level power supply of the Alimentation par Sol system in the city centre. It has been operated by Keolis Bordeaux since 1 May 2009; the first tramway line of Bordeaux, with cars towed by horses, dates back to 1880. In 1946, the public transportation system in Bordeaux had 38 tram lines with a total length of 200 kilometres, carrying 160,000 passengers per day. A rudimentary system of ground-level power supply was used on some stretches with mixed success; as in other French cities at the time the mayor, Jacques Chaban-Delmas, embraced anti-tram arguments and decided to terminate the operation of the tramway. He found the tramway to be old-fashioned compared to the bus and its attachment to set tracks on the ground hindered the increasing flow of cars; the lines were closed one after the other.
In 1958 the last line of tramway was terminated. By the 1970s the failure of the "all car" transport policy had become obvious, but Chaban was not prepared to backtrack. A grandiose automatic light underground railway scheme was promoted; the VAL idea was dropped. Chaban remained. Bordeaux had to wait until 1995 and the election of Alain Juppé as mayor – as well as the total strangulation of the city by its transport problems – before the situation was tackled. Following two years of studies, the Bordeaux Urban Community adopted the tramway plan in 1997. Recognized by the central government in 2000 as a Public Interest Project, the scheme got under way and by 21 December 2003 was carrying passengers on three routes, one of, extended on 25 September 2005, with further extensions opened in 2007 and 2008. A particular feature of the new Bordeaux tram network is its ground-level power supply system, used in the city centre to avoid overhead wires spoiling the view of buildings; this was the source of many breakdowns when first introduced.
Improvements since however, have increased reliability and the network is now one of Bordeaux's principal plus points, valued not just for enabling the people of the city to get about but for its contribution to the aesthetics of the city and its quality of life. The new trams are an essential part of Bordeaux's current tourist redynamization strategy; the three lines were extended in 2007 and 2008 to reach several housing estates as well as the suburb of Mérignac. The whole system is with a camera installed inside each vehicle. Trams operate on all lines from around 4.30am until midnight, seven days a week with service on Thursdays and Saturdays until around 1.30am. All stops have panels showing the waiting time until the next tram. On Sunday and holiday mornings, trams run every 30/40 minutes until around 1000am every 20 minutes. Weekday and Saturday services operate every 10 – 12 minutes with additional service during'rush hour' and for special events. However, there is no service at all on Labour Day holiday.
As of July 2009, the Bordeaux tram network has a total route length of 66.1 kilometres, with 116 stops. The current routes of the three lines are: The first line was opened on 21 December 2003 in the presence of President Jacques Chirac, the mayor of Bordeaux, Alain Juppé, it ran between Lormont/Cenon. It was extended on 26 September 2005 to new termini at Saint-Augustin. Further extensions opened in 2007. A new extension from Lormont Lauriers to Carbon Blanc opened in May 2008. Line C was the next to open on 24 April 2004, following delays; the first part of the southern extension from Gare St. Jean to Terres Neuves was opened in February 2008, as was the northern section to Les Aubiers. From there via Berges du Lac to the final terminus at Parc Des Expositions in the Bordeaux Lac commercial and exhibition district it went into service in January 2015; this was followed in mid-March 2015 by the southwards extension to Lycée V. Havel. Line B was opened on 15 May 2004 and throughout on 3 July 2004.
29 May 2007 saw the opening of the first phase of its 2007 extension of when it began to serve Pessac Centre at its western end. On 23 July 2007 a further extension of the line from its previous terminus at Quinconces, along the left bank of the Garonne, to a station at Bassins à Flot opened; the final extension to northern terminus of the line at Cité Claveau, near to the Pont d'Aquitaine on the Bordeaux ring road, opened in October 2008. The main depot for trams is at Thiers Benauge and a secondary depot has opened on Line B at Rue Achard on the new extension towards Claveau. A'tram-train This 7.2 kilometres line branch from Line C, turning off after the stop Cracovie is in service from 17 December 2016. It joins the route of the former Médoc line at La Vache run parallel to it as far as Blanquefort, via several stations including the existing SNCF stop at Bruges; the overall system recorded 117 million passenger journeys in 2012. By demand of the Municipality of Bordeaux, part of the system uses ground-level power supply.
Chemins de fer de l'État
The Chemins de fer de l'État referred to in France as the Réseau de l'État, was an early state-owned French railway company. The company was established by state order of the Third Republic on 25 May 1878 to take over ten small failing railway companies operating in the area between the rivers Loire and Garonne: Compagnie des chemins de fer des Charentes, 777 km, opened 1867. Additional acquisitions included: Compagnie Bordeaux – La Sauve, 29 km, opened May 1873, acquired by CF des Charentes in June 1874, sold to the PO in 1883 Compagnie de la Seudre, circa 50 km, opened 1874, acquired by État July 1880. On 18 November 1908, the État absorbed the Chemins de fer de l'Ouest and in 1934 took over the Paris-Orléans company's lines in southern Brittany. At its greatest extent its operating area comprised all the territory west of a line extending from Dieppe by way of Paris to Bordeaux. On 1 January 1938 the État merged with all the other French railway companies to form the Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français, becoming that company's Région Ouest.
The État took a seat on the SNCF's Board of Directors, as did all the other companies until 1982 when all traces of the constituents of the SNCF disappeared. One of the PO's flagship lines was Paris-Orléans-Bordeaux; the État wished to create a competing line to the PO's. The PO line served Tours and Angoulême, while the État decided to serve Chartres, Saumur and Saintes parallel to the competing line. Thanks to purchases and exchanges made in 1878 with the PO, by 1884, the État operated: Chartres - Courtalain Bessé-sur-Braye - Château-sur-Loir Saumur - Montreuil-Bellay Montreuil-Bellay - Saint-Jean-d'Angély Saint-Jean-d'Angély - Saintes Saintes - CavignacCourtalain-Bessé-sur-Braye was opened in 1885 as well as Château-sur-Loir-Saumur-Cavignac. At La Grave d'Ambarès a junction with the PO was built, État trains linked Paris and Bordeaux on 11 July 1886; the last line portion was the hardest to build. On 1 July 1893, an extension via Lormont was opened, Three years on 1 August 1896 Bordeaux-État was opened, welcoming trains from Paris.
The État's line was 610 km. These were the only competing lines in France; this lasted until date of the creation the SNCF, when the PO line was kept. Raoul Dautry became managing director of the Etat in 1928, his desires were to reconquer the railway company's clientele due to the popularity of the car. Dautry began many modernisation projects, including infrastructure and the opening of new lines; the electrification of the Paris-Le Mans line represents the biggest of his constructions, the line was at the time the most modern line in France. Another one of his influences was the purchase of 600 new passenger cars. 50 of the cars were used on the new electrified line. As early as 1929, the Etat began experimenting with DMUs with a first order of Renault trains. In 1931, an agreement is reached between Michelin and the Etat, authorising trials of the Micheline train. By 1933, the trains were used for expresses between Deauville. During the summer of 1937, the French Government ruled in favour of the nationalisation of the French railways.
As a sign of disagreement, Dautry resigned, he was elected into the SNCF's managing council. Advertising bookmarks of the Chemins de fer de l'État
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
The railway from Paris to Bordeaux is an important French 584-kilometre long railway line, that connects Paris to the southwestern port city Bordeaux via Orléans and Tours. The railway was opened in several stages between 1840 and 1853, when the section from Poitiers to Angoulême was finished; the opening of the LGV Atlantique high speed line from Paris to Tours in 1989 has decreased the importance of this section of the line for passenger traffic. The Paris–Bordeaux railway leaves the Gare d'Austerlitz in Paris in southeastern direction, it follows the left Seine bank upstream until Juvisy-sur-Orge, where it starts following the small river Orge upstream. Beyond Melun it follows the left Seine bank upstream, along the Forest of Fontainebleau. Beyond Lardy, the railway follows the small river Juine upstream. Beyond Étampes it crosses the Beauce plains; the Gare d'Orléans is a terminus. At Orléans the railway turns southwest, following the river Loire downstream along its right bank, it passes through Blois and Amboise, crosses the Loire at Montlouis-sur-Loire, an eastern suburb of Tours.
The Gare de Tours is a terminus as well. The railway turns south again, crosses the rivers Cher and Indre, follows the right Vienne bank upstream beyond Maillé. At Châtellerault it crosses the Vienne and continues upstream along the river Clain, through the city Poitiers. At Voulon the railway leaves the Clain valley and it follows the Charente valley from Saint-Saviol downstream, it crosses it again at Luxé and passes through the city Angoulême. It follows the small rivers Tude and Dronne downstream until its mouth at Coutras, where the railway crosses the river Isle, it follows the left Isle bank downstream to Libourne, where it continues west and downstream along the left Dordogne bank. It reaches the right Garonne bank at Bassens, crosses the river at Cenon, entering its terminus Gare de Bordeaux-Saint-Jean after a total length of 584 km; the main stations on the Paris–Bordeaux railway are: Gare d'Austerlitz Gare des Aubrais Gare d'Orléans Gare de Saint-Pierre-des-Corps Gare de Tours Gare de Poitiers Gare de Bordeaux-Saint-Jean The sections Paris–Orléans and Orléans–Bordeaux were built and exploited by two different companies, that became part of Chemin de Fer de Paris à Orléans in 1852.
The first section, opened in 1840 led from Paris to Juvisy-sur-Orge, a southern suburb. The line was extended to Orléans in 1843. Tours was reached in 1846, Poitiers in 1851. In 1852 Bordeaux was connected with Angoulême. In 1853 the section from Poitiers to Angoulême was opened; the Gare d'Austerlitz is the original terminus of the Paris–Bordeaux line. At the occasion of the 1900 Exposition Universelle the Gare d'Orsay was opened as the new terminus, with a more central location; the richly decorated Gare d'Orsay was only used by electric trains. After 1939 it was only used for suburban trains. Since 1986, the station building is a museum of 19th-century art; the Paris–Bordeaux railway is used by the following passenger services: TGV on the section between Juvisy and Orléans Intercités from Paris to Montluçon and from Paris to Toulouse, from Bordeaux to Lyon and from Paris to Tours TER Centre-Val de Loire and TER Nouvelle-Aquitaine regional services on the whole line RER Paris rapid transit line C on the section between Paris and Étampes Transilien railway map