The TGV is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by the SNCF, the state-owned national rail operator. The SNCF started working on a high-speed rail network in 1966 and presented the project to President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing who approved it. Designed as turbotrains to be powered by gas turbines, TGV prototypes evolved into electric trains with the 1973 oil crisis. In 1976 the SNCF ordered 87 high-speed trains from GEC-Alstom. Following the inaugural service between Paris and Lyon in 1981 on the LGV Sud-Est, the network, centered on Paris, has expanded to connect major cities across France and in neighbouring countries on a combination of high-speed and conventional lines; the TGV network in France carries about 110 million passengers a year. Like the Shinkansen in Japan, the TGV has never experienced a fatal accident during its operational history; the high-speed tracks, maintained by SNCF Réseau, are subject to heavy regulation. Confronted with the fact that train drivers would not be able to see signals along the track-side when trains reach full speed, engineers developed the TVM technology, which would be exported worldwide.
It allows for a train engaging in an emergency braking to request within seconds all following trains to reduce their speed. The TVM safety mechanism enables TGVs using the same line to depart every three minutes. A TGV test train set the world record for the fastest wheeled train, reaching 574.8 km/h on 3 April 2007. Conventional TGV services operate up to 320 km/h on the LGV Est, LGV Rhin-Rhône and LGV Méditerranée. In 2007, the world's fastest scheduled rail journey was a start-to-stop average speed of 279.4 km/h between the Gare de Champagne-Ardenne and Gare de Lorraine on the LGV Est, not surpassed until the 2013 reported average of 283.7 km/h express service on the Shijiazhuang to Zhengzhou segment of China's Shijiazhuang–Wuhan high-speed railway. The TGV was conceived at the same period as other technological projects sponsored by the Government of France, including the Ariane 1 rocket and Concorde supersonic airliner; the commercial success of the first high-speed line led to a rapid development of services to the south, west and east.
Eager to emulate the TGV's success, neighbouring countries Italy and Germany developed their own high-speed rail services. The TGV system itself extends to neighbouring countries, either directly or through TGV-derivative networks linking France to Switzerland, to Belgium and the Netherlands, as well as to the United Kingdom. Several future lines are planned, including extensions to surrounding countries. Cities such as Tours and Le Mans have become part of a "TGV commuter belt" around Paris. A visitor attraction in itself, it stops at Disneyland Paris and in tourist cities such as Avignon and Aix-en-Provence as well. Brest, Chambéry, Nice and Biarritz are reachable by TGVs running on a mix of LGVs and modernised lines. In 2007, the SNCF generated profits of €1.1 billion driven by higher margins on the TGV network. The idea of the TGV was first proposed in the 1960s, after Japan had begun construction of the Shinkansen in 1959. At the time the Government of France favoured new technology, exploring the production of hovercraft and the Aérotrain air-cushion vehicle.
The SNCF began researching high-speed trains on conventional tracks. In 1976, the administration agreed to fund the first line. By the mid-1990s, the trains were so popular that SNCF President Louis Gallois declared that the TGV was "the train that saved French railways", it was planned that the TGV standing for très grande vitesse or turbine grande vitesse, would be propelled by gas turbines, selected for their small size, good power-to-weight ratio and ability to deliver high power over an extended period. The first prototype, TGV 001, was the only gas-turbine TGV: following the increase in the price of oil during the 1973 energy crisis, gas turbines were deemed uneconomic and the project turned to electricity from overhead lines, generated by new nuclear power stations. TGV 001 was not a wasted prototype: its gas turbine was only one of its many new technologies for high-speed rail travel, it tested high-speed brakes, needed to dissipate the large amount of kinetic energy of a train at high speed, high-speed aerodynamics, signalling.
It was articulated, comprising two adjacent carriages sharing a bogie, allowing free yet controlled motion with respect to one another. It reached 318 km/h, its interior and exterior were styled by British-born designer Jack Cooper, whose work formed the basis of early TGV designs, including the distinctive nose shape of the first power cars. Changing the TGV to electric traction required a significant design overhaul; the first electric prototype, nick
Château-Thierry Station is a railway station serving Château-Thierry, Aisne department, northern France. It is situated on the Paris -- Strasbourg railway between Épernay. Château-Thierry Station at "Gares & Connexions", the official website of SNCF Timetables TER Picardie
Venice-Simplon Orient Express
The Venice Simplon-Orient-Express, or VSOE, is a private luxury train service from London to Venice and other European cities. It is owned by Belmond Ltd. Belmond operates 45 luxury hotels, tourist trains and river cruises in 24 countries, agreed in December 2018 to be acquired by LVMH in a transaction expected to close in the first half of 2019; these VSOE services are not to be confused with a scheduled train called the Orient Express, which ran nightly between Paris and Bucharest - in the last years of operation cut back to between Strasbourg and Vienna - until 11 December 2009. This latter was a normal EuroNight sleeper train and was the lineal descendant of the regular Orient Express daily departure from Paris to Vienna and the Balkans. While this descendant train was used for every sort of passengers to Central and Eastern Europe, applying only the standard international train fares, the VSOE train is aimed at tourists looking to take a luxury train ride. Fares on the Venice Simplon-Orient-Express are high as the service is intended not as an ordinary rail service, but as a leisure event with five-star dining included.
The train was established in 1982 by James Sherwood of Kentucky, USA. In 1977 he had bought two original carriages at an auction when the Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits withdrew from the Orient Express service, passing the service on to the national railways of France and Austria. Over the next few years, Sherwood spent a total of US$16 million purchasing 35 sleeper and Pullman carriages. On 25 May 1982, the first London–Venice run was made; the VSOE has separate restored carriages for use in the UK and for continental Europe, but all of the same vintage. Passengers are conveyed across the English Channel by coach on the Eurotunnel shuttle through the Channel Tunnel. In the UK Pullman carriages are used. VSOE runs services between November; the classical London - Paris - Milan - Venice route via the Simplon Tunnel was altered in 1984 to serve Zürich and Verona through the Brenner Pass. This journey is offered twice a week, depending on other trips. Two or three times a year Prague or Vienna and Budapest are accessed, starting from Venice, returning to Paris and London.
Every September the train travels from London and Paris to Istanbul via Budapest and Bucharest - in the last three cities a sightseeing tour takes place - the return trip on the same route ends in Venice. While the above mentioned routes are available most years, some seasons have included unique destinations, among them Cologne, Florence, the High Tatras, Dresden and Stockholm; such a journey is provided to Berlin. The VSOE continental leg contains 18 carriages - 12 sleeping cars, three dining cars, a bar car and two former sleepers, which provide accommodation for the staff and storage rooms for luggage and supplies as well; the Lx class sleepers have nine double compartments, while the S1 class sleepers accommodate 17 passengers in four double and nine single compartments. As of March 2018 the Grand Suite class was introduced with the refitting of the sleeping car No. 3425. The three suites include double or twin bed layouts and a drawing saloon with a sofa and en-suite bathroom. Most of the coaches were refurbished in Ostend by the CIWL workshops, while the rest at the Hansa carriage works in Bremen.
The renovation was made with some technical modifications, to match today's safety and comfort requests, for example the dining cars were fitted with modern kitchens. They have become air-conditioned, introduced in 2017 in the sleeping cars. In the mid 2000s the original bogies were changed to brand new ones to achieve higher speeds. VSOE operates services within Great Britain separate from its main continental services as an "open access" operator; the Belmond British Pullman consists of former Brighton Belle Pullman coaches. It operates services in the South of England and the Midlands, with York as its most northerly terminus. Operating from Victoria Station in London, specials run throughout the south of London to historic sites, including elaborate dining along the way. On 9 October 2007, the Westfield Group rented the whole train to open its new shopping centre in Derby, departing from the former LNER London King's Cross station; the Belmond Northern Belle is a more extensive day service operating throughout Great Britain, as far north as Inverness and south to Plymouth.
It is composed of more modern British Rail Mark 2 coaches, with British Rail Mark 1 kitchen cars and named to resemble the older Pullman coaches. The haulage is done by Direct Rail Services locomotives two Class 57s. Locomotives 57305 & 57312 have been painted in the Northern Belle livery. Selected services are hauled by preserved steam locomotives; the Royal Scotsman, first introduced in 1985, was taken over by Orient Express in 2005. This overnight luxury train provides journeys through Scotland northbound from Edinburgh and Glasgow with its refitted ECML Mark 1 Pullman carriages. Inspired by this train the Grand Hibernian was made of Irish Mark 3 carriages, entered in service in August 2016 for trips in Ireland and Northern Ireland; the company operate services in South-East Asia and Peru. Between 1998 and
Gare de Forbach
Forbach railway station is a railway station in Forbach in the Moselle department of north-eastern France. It is the last station in France before the German border at Saarbrücken; the following train services serve the station as of 2017: List of border crossing points in France Forbach station on web site TER Lorraine
The Société nationale des chemins de fer français is France's national state-owned railway company. Founded in 1938, it operates the country's national rail traffic along with Monaco, including the TGV, France's high-speed rail network, its functions include operation of railway services for passengers and freight, maintenance and signalling of rail infrastructure. The railway network consists of about 32,000 km of route, of which 1,800 km are high-speed lines and 14,500 km electrified. About 14,000 trains are operated daily. In 2010 the SNCF was ranked 22nd in 214th globally on the Fortune Global 500 list, it is the main business of the SNCF Group, which in 2017 had €33.5 billion of sales in 120 countries. The SNCF Group employs more than 260,000 people. Since July 2013, the SNCF Group headquarters are located in a Parisian suburb at 2 Place aux Étoiles in Saint-Denis; the President of the SNCF Group is Guillaume Pepy. SNCF operates all of France's railway system, including the TGV. In the 1970s, the SNCF began the TGV high-speed train programme with the intention of creating the world's fastest railway network.
It came to fruition in 1981. Today, the SNCF operates 1,850 km of designated high-speed track that accommodate more than 800 high-speed services per day. SNCF’s TGV trains carry more than 100 million passengers a year. TGV lines and TGV technology are now spread across several European countries in addition to South Korea; the SNCF's TGV has set many world speed records, the most recent on 3 April 2007, when a new version of the TGV dubbed the V150 with larger wheels than the usual TGV, was able to cover more ground with each rotation and had a stronger 25,000 hp engine, broke the world speed record for conventional railway trains, reaching 574.8 km/h. The SNCF has a remarkable safety record. After nearly 30 years in operation, SNCF’s TGV system has only experienced one fatal accident, which occurred during pre-opening testing and not in regular operation. In 2011 SNCF in partnership with Keolis, unsuccessfully bid for the InterCity West Coast franchise. In April 2017 SNCF took a 30% shareholding in a joint venture with Stagecoach Group and Virgin Group to bid for the West Coast Partnership that will operate services on the West Coast Main Line from May 2020 and the High Speed 2 line from 2026.
In April 2019 Stagecoach were banned from bidding for any franchises including the West Coast Partnership which has meant that Virgin and SNCF have now had to withdraw from the shortlist. Since the 1990s, SNCF has been selling railway carriages to regional governments, with the creation of the Train Express Régional brand. SNCF maintains a broad scope of international business that includes work on freight lines, inter-city lines and commuter lines. SNCF experts provide logistics, construction and maintenance services. SNCF operates the international ticketing agency Oui.sncf Voyages-sncf.com and Rail Europe. SNCF has employees in 120 countries offering extensive overseas and cross border consulting; those projects include: Israel: Training. SNCF International provides assistance to Israel Railways in every area of rail operations including projects to upgrade the network's general safety regulations. Other assistance and training programmes involve the Traction Division. Taiwan: Operations Training.
SNCF supervised the prime contractor responsible for construction of the Taiwan Railways Administration’s main high-speed rail line. It trained rail traffic controllers and crew members. On behalf of the Government of Taiwan, SNCF managed the high-speed railway Command Control Centre. United Kingdom: Maintenance. In 2007-2008, SNCF-International consultants audited the maintenance practices applied to the track and overhead electric power line on British high-speed rail lines connecting London to the Channel Tunnel. In addition, it conducted an audit of the maintainer’s performance from the service quality and cost control standpoint, made recommendations for improvements, proposed a three-year Business Plan. South Korea: HSR Electrification Design. SNCF advised Korean Railroads on the electrification of tracks between Daegu and Busan and on linking existing conventional tracks to the new high-speed line. SNCF assisted in selecting and inspecting high-speed rolling stock and trained 400 senior manager and executives in a broad range of skills, including signalling, track, rolling stock maintenance, HSR operation, safety management and passenger information systems.
Until the end of 2009, SNCF assisted Korea in maintaining its high-speed. Spain: Signalling System. SNCF partnered with ADIF in the study, supply and maintenance of the standard EU railway signaling system along the Madrid-Lleida high-speed line. On behalf of the Spanish Government, SNCF designed and led maintenance operations on this line over a two-year period. France: Lead Infrastructure and Rolling Stock Maintainer – The SNCF maintains 32,000 km of track, 26,500 main sets of points and crossings, 2,300 signal boxes, 80,000 track circuits, over 1 million relays, etc, it maintains 3,900 locomotives and 500 high-speed trains. Each of SNCF’s TGV trains travels more than 39,000 km a month – enough to circle the globe; each year SNCF’s Human Resources Department provides over 1.2 million hours of training to its over 25,000 employees. SNCF was formed in 1938 with the nationalisation of France's main railway companies (Chemin de fer, literally,'path of iron', me
Frankfurt (Main) Hauptbahnhof
Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof abbreviated as Frankfurt Hbf and sometimes translated as Frankfurt central station, is the busiest railway station in Frankfurt, Germany. The affix "Main" comes from the city's full name, Frankfurt am Main; because of its location in the middle of Germany and usage as a hub for long and short distance travelling, Deutsche Bahn refers to it as the most important station in Germany. In the late 19th century, three stations connected Frankfurt to the west and south, the Taunus station for the Taunusbahn, connecting Frankfurt to Wiesbaden Main-Neckar-station for the Main-Neckar-Eisenbahn to Darmstadt and Mannheim ) Main-Weser station for the Main-Weser-Bahn to Kassel and from 1860 on used by the Frankfurt-Bad Homburger Eisenbahn; those three stations were placed beside each other on the Gallustor. This situation was considered impracticable due to rising passenger figures in the 19th century, so plans were laid out as early as 1866. At first, a large scale station with up to 34 platforms was considered the number got reduced to 18.
Post and baggage handlings had their own underground facilities, the city council demanded the station to be moved further away from the city. In the end, in 1881, the German architect Hermann Eggert won the design contest for the station hall, his runner-up in the contest, Johann Wilhelm Schwedler was made chief engineer for the steel-related works; the new station was placed about 1 km to the west of the first three stations. The platforms were covered by three iron-and-glass halls; the station was built by the contractor Philipp Holzmann with construction starting in 1883. The Central-Bahnhof Frankfurt was opened on 18 August 1888. Right on the evening of the opening day, a train ran over the buffer stop and the locomotive was damaged. Over the course of the next few years, the area to the east of the new station, the Bahnhofsviertel, was built; until the completion of Leipzig Hauptbahnhof in 1915, Frankfurt station was the largest in Europe. As of today, the 24 platforms with 26 tracks on one level make it the world's largest one-level railway hall.
In 1924 two neoclassical halls were added on each side of the main hall, increasing the number of platforms to 24. During World War II, the building was damaged. In 1956 the station was electrified. One year Europe's then-largest signal box was commissioned, having been built in a contemporary style of the time has now become a listed building. Starting with the construction of the B-Tunnel for the Frankfurt U-Bahn facilities in 1971, a subterranean level was added in front of the main building, featuring the city's first public escalator and including a large shopping mall, one station each for the U-Bahn and S-Bahn trains, an air raid shelter and a public car park; the subterranean stations were opened in 1978 and were built in the cut and cover method, which involved the demolition of the second northern hall and rebuilding it after the stations were completed. Between 2002 and 2006, the roof construction, a listed building, was renovated; this involved the exchange of aged steel girders, reinstallation of windows that were replaced by panels after World War II and a general clean-up of the hall construction.
The operational part of the station is being remodeled as well. This was vital to improve capacity of the station; the new signal box became operational in late 2005 and will allow faster speeds into the station after the remodelling of the tracks. The appearance of the station is divided into vestibule. Dominant in those parts built in 1888 are Neo-Renaissance features, the outer two halls, added in 1924 follow the style of neoclassicism; the eastern façade of the vestibule features a large clock with two symbolic statues for day and night. Above the clock, the word Hauptbahnhof and the Deutsche Bahn logo are situated; the roof of the front hall carries a monumental statue of Atlas supporting the World on his shoulders, in this case assisted by two allegorical figures representing Iron and Steam. The station's terminal layout has posed some unique problems since the late 20th century, since all trains have to change directions and reverse out of the station to continue on to their destination.
This causes long turn-around times and places the passengers in the opposite direction of where they had been sitting. There have been several attempts to change this; the last project, called Frankfurt 21, was to put the whole station underground, connect it with tunnels to the east, so avoid the disadvantages of the terminal layout. This would be financed by selling the air rights over the area now used for tracks as building ground for skyscraper, but this soon proved unrealistic, the project was abandoned. Frankfurt is the busiest in Germany; as for long-distance traffic, the station profits from its location in the heart of Europe. To ease the strain on the Hauptbahnhof, some ICE lines now call at Frankfurt Airport station and at Frankfurt Süd instead of Hauptbhanhof. There are long-distance night trains from Frankfurt, e.g. to Copenhagen, Prague, Zurich and Rome. With regard to regional traffic, Frankfurt Hbf is the main hub in the RMV network, offering connections to Koblenz, Kassel, Stockheim, Fulda, Gießen, Aschaffenburg, Würzb
Gare de Calais-Ville
Gare de Calais-Ville is a railway station in the city centre of Calais, France. Gare de Ville opened in 1849, replacing the temporary St. Pierre station which had opened in 1846 and subsequently became the site of a marshalling yard, it was rebuilt in 1888-89. In 1900, the metre gauge Chemin de Fer d'Anvin à Calais was extended from St. Pierre to Calais-Ville, enabling the closure of St. Pierre. In the Second World War, Calais-Ville station had been damaged in 1940 during the Battle of France, further damaged in 1944 when Calais was liberated by Allied forces; the remaining station buildings were demolished and temporary buildings erected to serve until the station was rebuilt. The CF AC closed on 1 March 1955. Calais-Ville station was subsequently rebuilt, it is the principal station for commuter and short distance rail services in Calais. Another station Calais-Fréthun, where longer distance services depart from, is connected by a free shuttle bus service. There is a third smaller station at Gare des Fontinettes.
There is a shuttle service bus from the Port of Calais to the station. The station is served by the following services: High speed services Paris - Lille - CalaisAs of July 2011 the typical weekday service pattern is 3-5 tpd to Dunkirk 11 tpd to Calais-Frethun and Boulogne, some continuing to Gare d'Étaples-Le Touquet, Rang-du-Fliers-Verton and Amiens 40 tpd to St Omer, of which 34 continue to Hazebrouck and 17 of these on to Gare de Lille FlandresThere is one TGV return service via Calais-Fréthun to Gare de Lille Europe each day, it was served by the Chemin de Fer d'Anvin à Calais between 1900 and 1955. Port of Calais Port of Dover Farebrother, Martin J B. Usk: The Oakwood Press. ISBN 0 85361 554 3. Timetables TER Nord-Pas-de-Calais