In cricket, the term wicket has several meanings. Firstly, it is one of two bails at either end of the pitch; the wicket is guarded by a batsman who, with his bat, attempts to prevent the ball from hitting the wicket. Secondly, through metonymic usage, the dismissal of a batsman is known as the taking of a wicket, thirdly, the cricket pitch itself is sometimes called the wicket; the origin of the word is from a small gate. Cricket wickets had only two stumps and one bail and looked like a gate; the third stump was introduced in 1775. The size and shape of the wicket has changed several times during the last 300 years and its dimensions and placing is now determined by Law 8 in the Laws of Cricket, thus: Law 8: The wickets; the wicket consists of three wooden stumps. The stumps are placed along the batting crease with equal distances between each stump, they are positioned. Two wooden bails are placed in shallow grooves on top of the stumps; the bails must not project more than 0.5 inches above the stumps, must, for men's cricket, be 4.31 inches long.
There are specified lengths for the barrel and spigots of the bail. There are different specifications for the bails for junior cricket; the umpires may dispense with the bails. Further details on the specifications of the wickets are contained in Appendix D to the laws. For a batsman to be dismissed by being bowled, run out, stumped or hit wicket, his wicket needs to be put down. What this means is defined by Law 29. A wicket is put down if a bail is removed from the top of the stumps, or a stump is struck out of the grounds by the ball, the striker's bat, the striker's person, a fielder. A 2010 amendment to the Laws clarified the rare circumstance where a bat breaks during the course of a shot and the detached debris breaks the wicket; the wicket is put down if a fielder pulls a stump out of the ground in the same manner. If one bail is off, removing the remaining bail or striking or pulling any of the three stumps out of the ground is sufficient to put the wicket down. A fielder may remake the wicket, if necessary, in order to put it down to have an opportunity of running out a batsman.
If however both bails are off, a fielder must remove one of the three stumps out of the ground with the ball, or pull it out of the ground with a hand or arm, provided that the ball is held in the hand or hands so used, or in the hand of the arm so used. If the umpires have agreed to dispense with bails, for example, it is too windy for the bails to remain on the stumps, the decision as to whether the wicket has been put down is one for the umpire concerned to decide. After a decision to play without bails, the wicket has been put down if the umpire concerned is satisfied that the wicket has been struck by the ball, by the striker's bat, person, or items of his clothing or equipment separated from his person as described above, or by a fielder with the hand holding the ball or with the arm of the hand holding the ball; the dismissal of a batsman is known as the taking of a wicket. The batsman is said to have lost his wicket, the batting side is said to have lost a wicket, the fielding side to have taken a wicket, the bowler is said to have taken his wicket, if the dismissal is one of the types for which the bowler receives credit.
This language is used if the dismissal did not involve the stumps and bails in any way, for example, a catch. Though note that the other four of the five most common methods of dismissal do involve the stumps and bails being put down, or prevented from being put down by the batsman; the word wicket has this meaning in the following contexts: A team's score is described in terms of the total number of runs scored and the total number of wickets lost. The number of wickets taken is a primary measure of a individual bowler's ability, a key part of a bowling analysis; the sequence of time over which two particular batsmen bat together, a partnership, is referred to as a numbered wicket when discriminating it from other partnerships in the innings. The first wicket partnership is from the start of the innings until the team loses its first wicket, i.e. one of the first two batsmen is dismissed. The second wicket partnership is from when the third batsman starts batting until the team loses its second wicket, i.e. a second batsman is dismissed.
Etc... The tenth wicket or last wicket partnership is from when the eleventh batsman starts batting until the team loses its tenth wicket, i.e. a tenth batsman is dismissed. A team can win a match by a certain number of wickets; this means that they were batting last, reached the winning target with a certain number of batsmen still not dismissed. For example, if the side scored the required number of runs to win with only three batsmen dismissed, they are said to have won by seven wickets; the word wicket is sometimes used to refer to the cricket pitch itself. According to the Laws of Cricket, this usage is incorrect, but it is in common usage and understood by cricket followers; the term sticky wicket refers to a situation in which the pitch has become damp due to rain or high humidity. This makes the path of the ball more unpredictable thus making the
Twenty20 cricket, sometimes written Twenty-20, abbreviated to T20, is a short form of cricket. At the professional level, it was introduced by the England and Wales Cricket Board in 2003 for the inter-county competition in England and Wales. In a Twenty20 game the two teams have a single innings each, restricted to a maximum of 20 overs. Together with first-class and List A cricket, Twenty20 is one of the three current forms of cricket recognised by the International Cricket Council as being at the highest international or domestic level. A typical Twenty20 game is completed in about three hours, with each innings lasting around 90 minutes and an official 10 minute break between the innings; this is much shorter than previously-existing forms of the game, is closer to the timespan of other popular team sports. It was introduced to create a fast-paced form of the game which would be attractive to spectators at the ground and viewers on television; the game has succeeded in spreading around the cricket world.
On most international tours there is at least one Twenty20 match and all Test-playing nations have a domestic cup competition. The inaugural ICC World Twenty20 was played in South Africa in 2007 with India winning by five runs against Pakistan in the final. Pakistan won the second tournament in 2009, England won the title in the West Indies in 2010. West Indies won with Sri Lanka winning the 2014 tournament. West Indies are the reigning champions, winning the 2016 competition, in doing so, became the first nation to win the tournament twice. Was originated in 2005 When the Benson & Hedges Cup ended in 2002, the ECB needed another one day competition to fill its place. Cricketing authorities were looking to boost the game's popularity with the younger generation in response to dwindling crowds and reduced sponsorship, it was intended to deliver fast-paced, exciting cricket accessible to thousands of fans who were put off by the longer versions of the game. Stuart Robertson, the marketing manager of the ECB, proposed a 20 over per innings game to county chairmen in 2001 and they voted 11–7 in favour of adopting the new format.
The first official Twenty20 matches were played on 13 June 2003 between the English counties in the Twenty20 Cup. The first season of Twenty20 in England was a relative success, with the Surrey Lions defeating the Warwickshire Bears by 9 wickets in the final to claim the title; the first Twenty20 match held at Lord's, on 15 July 2004 between Middlesex and Surrey, attracted a crowd of 27,509, the highest attendance for any county cricket game at the ground – other than a one-day final – since 1953. Thirteen teams from different parts of the country participated in Pakistan's inaugural competition in 2004, with Faisalabad Wolves the first winners. On 12 January 2005 Australia's first Twenty20 game was played at the WACA Ground between the Western Warriors and the Victorian Bushrangers, it drew a sell-out crowd of 20,000, the first time in nearly 25 years the ground had been sold out. Starting 11 July 2006 19 West Indies regional teams competed in what was named the Stanford 20/20 tournament; the event was financially backed by billionaire Allen Stanford, who gave at least US$28,000,000 funding money.
It was intended. Guyana won the inaugural event, defeating Trinidad and Tobago by 5 wickets, securing US$1,000,000 in prize money. On 5 January 2007 Queensland Bulls played the New South Wales Blues at The Brisbane. A crowd of 11,000 was expected based on pre-match ticket sales. However, an unexpected 16,000 turned up on the day to buy tickets, causing disruption and confusion for surprised Gabba staff as they were forced to throw open gates and grant many fans free entry. Attendance reached 27,653. For 1 February 2008 Twenty20 match between Australia and India, 85,824 people attended the match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground involving the Twenty20 World Champions against the ODI World Champions; the Stanford Super Series was held in October 2008 between Middlesex and Trinidad and Tobago, the respective winners of the English and Caribbean Twenty20 competitions, a Stanford Superstars team formed from West Indies domestic players. On 1 November, the Stanford Superstars played England in what was expected to be the first of five fixtures in as many years with the winner claiming a US$20,000,000 in each match.
The Stanford Superstars won the first match, however no further fixtures were held as Allen Stanford was charged with fraud in 2009. Several T20 leagues started after the popularity of the 2007 ICC World Twenty20. BCCI started the Indian Premier League in 2008, which utilizes the North American sports franchise system with eight teams in major Indian markets, is in its eleventh season of competition. In September 2017, the broadcasting and digital rights for the next five years of the IPL were sold to Star India for US$2.55 billion, making it one of the world's most lucrative sports league per match. The IPL has seen a spike in its brand valuation to US$5.3 billion after the 10th edition, according to global valuation and corporate finance advisor Duff & Phelps. The Big Bash League, Bangladesh Premier League, Pakistan Super League, Caribbean Premier League started thereafter and remained popular with the fans; the Women's Big Bash League was started in 2015 by Cricket Australia, while the Kia Super League was started in England and Wales in 2016.
The first Twenty20 International match was held on 5 August 2004 between the England and New Zealand women's teams with New Zealand winning by nine runsOn 17 February 2005 Australia defeated New Zealand in the first men's full international Twenty20 match, played at Eden Park in Auckland
M. A. Chidambaram Stadium
M. A. Chidambaram Stadium is a cricket stadium in India; the stadium was established in 1916 and it is the third oldest cricket stadium in the country after Eden Gardens in Kolkata and Feroz Shah Kotla Ground in Delhi. Named after M. A. Chidambaram, former President of BCCI, the stadium was known as Madras Cricket Club Ground, it is the home ground of the Tamil Nadu cricket team and the Indian Premier League team Chennai Super Kings. Chepauk hosted its first Test match on 10 February 1934, the first Ranji Trophy match in 1936 and Indian cricket team's first test victory in 1952 against England; the 1986 India-Australia match held at Chepauk was only the second Tied Test in the history of the game. The stadium is said to be one of the most iconic cricket stadiums in the world; the stadium is located at a few hundred meters from Marina beach along the Bay of Bengal. The stadium can be accessed from Wallajah Road in the north, Babu Jagjivanram Road in the west and Pycrofts Road in the south. Adjacent to the east of the stadium is the Chepauk MRTS railway station which lies on the Chennai Beach—Velachery section of the Chennai MRTS.
The Cooum river runs tangentially to the north side of the stadium. Chepauk Stadium was established in 1916 and has been the home venue of the Tamil Nadu cricket team since, it is the third oldest cricket stadium in the country after Eden Gardens in Kolkata and Feroz Shah Kotla Ground in Delhi. The Chepauk crowd is known to be amongst the most appreciative in the country; the crowd gave a standing ovation to Saeed Anwar after scoring the highest ODI score of 194 against India in 1997. The crowd was again appreciative when Pakistan won a Test match in 1999 and the Pakistani team made a lap of honour in appreciation of the spectators' sporting behaviour. In June 2009, reconstruction work of the stadium was taken up at the cost of ₹175 crore; the plan consisted of constructing three new reinforced concrete stands designated I, J, K accommodating 12,000 spectators and 24 hospitality boxes under translucent PTFE membrane roofs. Hopkins Architects and Nataraj & Venkat Architects, Chennai were contracted by the Tamil Nadu Cricket Association.
The renovation was completed in 2011 and the old roofing with pillars that blocked the view in the old stadium were replaced by light quad conical roofing held together by cables. The stadium can accommodate 50,000 spectators; the stands are at a gradient of 36° and lets the sea breeze in to get the ground's traditional swing back. On 31 March 2015, the Supreme Court ruled that the renovation violates regulations relating to public safety; the court ruled that the parts of the renovation which violate the regulations must be demolished and until the appropriate planning permissions are issued and the demolition is complete, three stands must remain sealed. Cricket matches take place in the stadium with the I, J, K stands locked for spectators; the total area of stadium is 7.52 Lakh square feet. This is under lease agreement between association. In April 2015, the lease agreement between the government and association lapsed; the first match of the Ranji Trophy was held on 4 November 1934 between Madras and Mysore at Chepauk.
M J Gopalan of Madras bowled the first ball to N Curtis. India recorded their first test victory, in their 24th match, against England at Cheupak in 1952; the second Tied Test in cricket history was played here between India and Australia in 1986. Sunil Gavaskar scored his 30th test match century in 1983 breaking Don Bradman's record for most centuries in test cricket. Narendra Hirwani's 8 wickets for 61 runs against the West Indies in January 1988 are the best bowling figures by an Indian on Test début and the third overall; as of December 2014, he is the only Indian cricketer to take ten or more wickets in Test debut. Hirwani's figures of 16 wickets for 136 runs in the match are a record for any bowler on début. Saeed Anwar of Pakistan scored 194 against India in 1997, the highest ODI score at that time. On 15 October 2004, Shane Warne surpassed Muttiah Muralitharan's tally of 532 Test wickets to become the highest wicket taker during the time. Virender Sehwag scored 319 against South Africa, in the home series in April 2008 in the first Test at M A Chidambaram Stadium in Chennai, having reached 300 off just 278 balls, the fastest triple century in test history.
Sehwag became only the third batsman after Donald Bradman and Brian Lara to score two triple centuries in Test Cricket. He scored 257 runs the third day of the match, the most runs scored by an individual batsman on a single day of a Test match since 1954, when Denis Compton made 273 runs on the second day of the Nottingham Test against Pakistan. Sachin Tendulkar has scored more runs in Chepauk than any other venue in India with 876 runs in nine Tests at an average of 87.60. On 22 March 2001, India defeated Australia by 2 wickets to clinch the Border Gavaskar Trophy following India's win in Kolkata which ended the 16 match winning streak of Australia in test matches. India's 387/4 in the fourth innings of the first Test against England in December 2008, became the highest successful run chase in a test match in India. Karun Nair scored 303* not out in the 5th test against England in the home series on 19 December 2016. India declared in the innings on 759-7, he became the 6th youngest batsman to the 2nd Indian to do so.
He was dropped on 34 by England captain Alastair Cook. This stadium has hosted 7 One; the World cup matches hosted by this stadium are as follows: List of Test cricket grounds List of international cricket centuries at the M. A. Chidambaram Stadium List of international cri
County Ground, Taunton
The County Ground is a cricket ground in Taunton, Somerset. It is the home of Somerset County Cricket Club, who have played there since 1882; the ground, located between Priory Bridge Road and St James Street, has a capacity of 8,500. The ground was built as part of a sports centre by Taunton Athletic Club in 1881, became the home of the nomadic Somerset County Cricket Club soon after. Having leased the ground for ten years, the club bought the ground in 1896, under the guidance of club secretary Henry Murray-Anderdon; the ground ends are the Somerset Pavilion End to the south. Somerset played their first match of first-class cricket on the ground over 8–10 August 1882, beating Hampshire County Cricket Club by five wickets. In the same month, the touring Australia national cricket team played a match against Somerset, becoming the first international side to play at the ground; the first international cricket to be played on the ground was in the 1983 Cricket World Cup, for a group-stage match between England and Sri Lanka.
The ground hosted two group-stage matches during the 1999 Cricket World Cup and will be a venue for the tournament in 2019. Since 1997, women's international cricket has been played at the ground, in 2006 it became the home of the England women's cricket team; the ground saw international cricket in 2017, with a Twenty20 International tie between England and South Africa. In the winter of 1880, Somerset County Cricket Club, prompted by an article in the Somerset County Gazette describing cricket in Taunton as being "in a sorry plight", were considering building their own ground. Athletics was booming in the town, it was an amalgamation of sporting clubs that leased seven and a half acres of land known as "Rack Field" from local gentleman farmer John Winter for £50 per year. A cricket pitch, cycling-track and running-track were all laid on the ground with great difficulty. Although Edward Western promised that Somerset could play fixtures on the ground, he acknowledged that the cricket pitch belonged to Taunton Cricket Club.
The new sports centre was opened on Whit Monday 1881, with an athletics fixture held on the newly laid running-track to mark the occasion. Although some cricket was played at the ground in 1881, it was not yet ready for first-class matches. Taunton Athletic Society, thanks to money raised by Western, funded the erection of a grandstand and pavilion on the ground ready for a 15-mile bicycle race between French champion Frédéric De Civry and John Keen in August 1881. Known as the Taunton Athletic Ground, Somerset County Cricket Club played their maiden first-class game there in 1882. A nomadic club, Somerset played their home matches across the county, relying on the good will of other people. Four first-class matches were played at the ground in 1882. Somerset lost their held first-class status in 1886, but in the same year took out a nineteen-year lease on the Athletic Ground; the more loyal members of the club had decided that there was a need to restructure the club and have a permanent home.
Somerset regained their first-class status after an unbeaten season in 1890, winning the so-called'Second-class County Championship'. The first official County Championship match was played at the ground in 1891, a nine-wicket loss to Lancashire. In 1896, ten years after taking out the lease on the ground, the freehold was purchased by the club for £2,000. Under the administration of club secretary Henry Murray-Anderdon, the small ground was developed, with trees planted along the boundary. By the start of the twentieth century, the ground was, according to Roebuck, "an intimate and lovely place". A section of the ground known as the "Hen Coop" was used by the important families in Taunton, although there were no official seat reservations, no one else occupied these seats in the absence of their regular user. For the less well off, hard benches were placed around much of the ground, the floor was used by many others under some chestnut trees. A public bar was erected soon after, was well used after the First World War.
In 1925, some of the seats were removed in one corner of the ground, a hill was built to provide a superior view of the ground, using 400 lorry-loads of earth. During the Second World War, the ground, like many others in the country, was lent to the military, it was used by local soldiers and firemen alike, but the groundsman was careful to maintain the cricket surface throughout the war, in preparation for use again at its conclusion. In 1989 the Somerset Cricket Museum was opened at the ground within the Old Priory Barn, a Grade II* listed building; the exhibits and displays in the museum cover the cricket club's history including Test match players such as Ian Botham and Marcus Trescothick. It has a section devoted to the England women's cricket team, due to the County Ground being their headquarters; the museum hosts a collection of I Zingari memorabilia, a club to whom current chairman Charles Clive Ponsonby-Fane has strong family links. In June 2010, Somerset County Cricket Club reopened'The Colin Atkinson Pavilion' after undergoing GBP1.25 million of redevelopment - this, together with the construction of the Marcus Trescothick Stand, the Somerset Stand, the Ondaatje Pavilion has enhanced the capacity of the County Ground to 8,500.
Lord's Cricket Ground known as Lord's, is a cricket venue in St John's Wood, London. Named after its founder, Thomas Lord, it is owned by Marylebone Cricket Club and is the home of Middlesex County Cricket Club, the England and Wales Cricket Board, the European Cricket Council and, until August 2005, the International Cricket Council. Lord's is referred to as the Home of Cricket and is home to the world's oldest sporting museum. Lord's today is not on its original site, being the third of three grounds that Lord established between 1787 and 1814, his first ground, now referred to as Lord's Old Ground, was. His second ground, Lord's Middle Ground, was used from 1811 to 1813 before being abandoned to make way for the construction through its outfield of the Regent's Canal; the present Lord's ground is about 250 yards north-west of the site of the Middle Ground. The ground can hold 28,000 spectators. Proposals are being developed to increase amenity; as of December 2013, it was proposed to redevelop the ground at a cost of around £200 million over a 14-year period.
The current ground celebrated its two hundredth anniversary in 2014. To mark the occasion, on 5 July an MCC XI captained by Sachin Tendulkar played a Rest of the World XI led by Shane Warne in a 50 overs match. Acting on behalf of the White Conduit Club and backed against any losses by George Finch, 9th Earl of Winchilsea and Colonel Charles Lennox, Thomas Lord opened his first ground in May 1787 on the site where Dorset Square now stands; the White Conduit moved there from Islington soon afterwards and reconstituted themselves as Marylebone Cricket Club. In 1811, feeling obliged to relocate because of a rise in rent, Lord removed his turf and relaid it at his second ground; this was short-lived. The "Middle Ground" was on the estate of the Eyre family; the new ground, on the present site, was opened in the 1814 season. The earliest known match was MCC v Hertfordshire on 22 June 1814; this is not rated a first-class match. MCC won by 27 runs; the next match known to have been played at Lord's, from 13 to 15 July 1814, was the earliest first-class one, between MCC and the neighbouring St John's Wood club, which had several guest players for the occasion, including five leading professionals.
MCC won by 4 wickets. The annual Eton v Harrow match was first played on the Old Ground in 1805. There is no record of the fixture being played again until 29 July 1818, when it was held at the present Lord's ground for the first time. From 1822, the fixture has been an annual event at Lord's; as of January 2015, the stands at Lord's are: Pavilion Warner Stand Grandstand Compton Stand Media Centre Edrich Stand Mound Stand Tavern Stand Allen StandMany of the stands were rebuilt in the late 20th century. In 1987 the new Mound Stand, designed by Michael Hopkins and Partners, was opened, followed by the Grandstand in 1996. Most notably, the Media Centre was added in 1998-9; the ground can hold up to 28,000 spectators. The two ends of the pitch are the Pavilion End, where the main members' pavilion is located, the Nursery End, dominated by the Media Centre; the main survivor from the Victorian era is the Pavilion, with its famous Long Room. This historic landmark— a Grade II*-listed building— underwent an £8 million refurbishment programme in 2004–05.
The pavilion is for members of MCC, who may use its amenities, which include seats for viewing the cricket, the Long Room and its Bar, the Bowlers Bar, a members' shop. At Middlesex matches the Pavilion is open to members of the Middlesex County Club; the Pavilion contains the dressing rooms where players change, each of which has a small balcony for players to watch the play. In each of the two main dressing rooms are honours boards which commemorate all the centuries scored in Test matches or One Day Internationals at Lord's, all instances of a bowler taking five wickets in a Test or ODI innings and all occurrences of a bowler taking ten wickets in a Test match; the only cricketer to hit a ball over the pavilion was Albert Trott, off Monty Noble on 31 July 1899. Another visible feature of the ground is Old Father Time, a weather vane in the shape of Father Time adorning a stand on the south-east side of the field; the Media Centre was commissioned in time for the 1999 Cricket World Cup, was the first all-aluminium, semi-monocoque building in the world.
It was fitted out in two boatyards, using boat-building technology. The centre stands 15 metres above the ground and its sole support comes from the structure around its two lift shafts— it is about the same height as the Pavilion directly opposite it on the other side of the ground; the lower tier of the centre provides accommodation for over 100 journalists, the top tier has radio and television commentary boxes. The centre's only opening window is in the broadcasting box used by BBC Test Match Special; the building was awarded the RIBA Stirling Prize for architecture in 1999. The Lord's Taverners, a charitable group comprising cricketers and cricket-lovers, take their name from the old Tavern pub at Lord's, where the organisation's founders used to congregate; the pub no longer exists, the Tavern Stand now stands on its former site. However, a new pub of the same name is open in the grounds, as well as the Members Bar, in the Pavilion. One
West Indies cricket team
The West Indies cricket team, traditionally known as the Windies, is a multi-national cricket team representing the Anglophone Caribbean region and administered by Cricket West Indies. The players on this composite team are selected from a chain of fifteen Caribbean territories, which are parts of several different countries and dependencies; as of 24 June 2018, the West Indian cricket team is ranked ninth in the world in Tests, ninth in ODIs and seventh in T20Is in the official ICC rankings. From the mid-late 1970s to the early 1990s, the West Indies team was the strongest in the world in both Test and One Day International cricket. A number of cricketers who were considered among the best in the world have hailed from the West Indies: Sir Garfield Sobers, Lance Gibbs, George Headley, Brian Lara, Clive Lloyd, Malcolm Marshall, Sir Andy Roberts, Rohan Kanhai, Sir Frank Worrell, Sir Clyde Walcott, Sir Everton Weekes, Sir Curtly Ambrose, Michael Holding, Courtney Walsh, Joel Garner, Sir Viv Richards and Sir Wes Hall have all been inducted into the ICC Hall of Fame.
The West Indies have won the ICC Cricket World Cup twice, the ICC World Twenty20 twice, the ICC Champions Trophy once, the ICC Under 19 Cricket World Cup once, have finished as runners-up in the Cricket World Cup, the Under 19 Cricket World Cup, the ICC Champions Trophy. The West Indies appeared in three consecutive World Cup finals, were the first team to win back-to-back World Cups; the West Indies has hosted the 2007 Cricket World Cup and the 2010 ICC World Twenty20. The current side represents: Sovereign states Antigua and BarbudaL Barbados DominicaW GrenadaW Guyana Jamaica Saint LuciaW Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesW Trinidad and Tobago Parts of Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint KittsL NevisL British Overseas Territories AnguillaL MontserratL British Virgin IslandsL Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Sint MaartenL Territory of the United States US Virgin IslandsLLegends L = Participant of the Leeward Islands team and member of the Leeward Islands Cricket Association W = Participant of the Windward Islands team and member of the Windward Islands Cricket Board of ControlNotes Cricket West Indies, the governing body of the team, consists of the six cricket associations of Barbados, Jamaica and Tobago, Leeward Islands and Windward Islands.
The Leeward Islands Cricket Association consists of associations of one sovereign state, the two entities of Saint Kitts and Nevis, three British Overseas Territories and two other dependencies. The Windward Islands Cricket Board of Control consists of associations of four sovereign states. Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands, other historical parts of the former West Indies Federation and now British Overseas Territories, have their own teams. National teams exist for the various islands, which, as they are all separate countries much keep their local identities and support their local favourites; these national teams take part in the Carib Beer Cup. It is common for other international teams to play the island teams for warm-up games before they take on the combined West Indies team; the population of these countries and dependencies is estimated at around 6 million, more than Scotland and the Republic of Ireland. The member associations of Cricket West Indies are: Barbados Cricket Association Guyana Cricket Board Jamaica Cricket Association Trinidad & Tobago Cricket Board Leeward Islands Cricket Association.
The WICB joined the sport's international ruling body, the Imperial Cricket Conference, in 1926, played their first official international match, granted Test status, in 1928, thus becoming the fourth Test nation. In their early days in the 1930s, the side represented the British colonies that would form the West Indies Federation plus British Guiana; the last series the West Indies played before the outbreak of the Second World War was against England in 1939. There followed a hiatus. Of the West Indies players in that first match after the war only Gerry Gomez, George Headley, Jeffrey Stollmeyer, Foffie Williams had played Test cricket. In 1948, leg spinner Wilfred Ferguson became the first West Indian bowler to take ten wickets in a Test, finishing with 11/229 in a match against England.
Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket with the longest duration, is considered the game's highest standard. Test matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined and conferred by the International Cricket Council; the term Test stems from the fact of the form's long, gruelling matches being both mentally and physically testing. Two teams of 11 players each play a four-innings match, it is considered the most complete examination of a team's endurance and ability. The first recognised Test match took place between 15 and 19 March 1877 and was played between England and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, where Australia won by 45 runs. A Test match to celebrate 100 years of Test cricket was held in Melbourne between 12 and 17 March 1977, in which Australia beat England by 45 runs—the same margin as that first Test. In October 2012, the ICC recast the playing conditions for Test matches, permitting day/night Test matches; the first day/night game took place between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval, Adelaide, on 27 November – 1 December 2015.
Women's Test cricket is played over four days, with slight differences in format from men's Tests. Test matches are the highest level of cricket, statistically, their data form part of first-class cricket. Matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council; as of June 2017, twelve national teams have Test status, the most promoted being Afghanistan and Ireland on 22 June 2017. Zimbabwe's Test status was voluntarily suspended, because of poor performances between 2006 and 2011. In January 2014, during an ICC meeting in Dubai, the pathway for new potential Test nations was laid out with the winners of the next round of the ICC Intercontinental Cup playing a 5-day match against the bottom ranked Test nation. If the Associate team defeats the Test nation they could be added as the new Test country and granted full membership. A list of matches, defined as "Tests", was first drawn up by Australian Clarence Moody in the mid-1890s.
Representative matches played by simultaneous England touring sides of 1891–92 and 1929–30 are deemed to have "Test status". In 1970, a series of five "Test matches" was played in England between England and a Rest of the World XI; these matches scheduled between England and South Africa, were amended after South Africa was suspended from international cricket because of their government's policy of apartheid. Although given Test status, this was withdrawn and a principle was established that official Test matches can only be between nations. Despite this, in 2005, the ICC ruled that the six-day Super Series match that took place in October 2005, between Australia and a World XI, was an official Test match; some cricket writers and statisticians, including Bill Frindall, ignored the ICC's ruling and excluded the 2005 match from their records. The series of "Test matches" played in Australia between Australia and a World XI in 1971–72 do not have Test status; the commercial "Supertests" organised by Kerry Packer as part of his World Series Cricket enterprise and played between "WSC Australia", "WSC World XI" and "WSC West Indies" from 1977 to 1979 have never been regarded as official Test matches.
There are twelve Test-playing men's teams. The teams all represent individual, independent nations, except for England, the West Indies and Ireland. Test status is conferred upon a group of countries by the International Cricket Council. Teams that do not have Test status can play in the ICC Intercontinental Cup designed to allow non-Test teams to play under conditions similar to Tests; the teams are listed below with the date of each team's Test debut: England Australia South Africa West Indies New Zealand India Pakistan Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Bangladesh Ireland Afghanistan In the mid 2010s, the ICC evaluated proposals for dividing Test cricket into two tiers, with promotion and relegation between Tier-1 and Tier-2. These proposals were opposed by others; these proposals were not implemented. A standard day of Test cricket consists of three sessions of two hours each, the breaks between sessions being 40 minutes for lunch and 20 minutes for tea; however the times of sessions and intervals may be altered in certain circumstances: if bad weather or a change of innings occurs close to a scheduled break, the break may be taken immediately.
Today, Test matches are scheduled to be played across five consecutive days