Garfield's Thanksgiving is a 1989 animated television special based on the Garfield comic strip. It once again featured Lorenzo Music as the voice of Garfield; the special was first broadcast November 22, 1989 on CBS and was nominated for Outstanding Animated Program at the 42nd Primetime Emmy Awards. It has been released on DVD home video. On overseas DVD copies of Garfield's Holiday Celebrations, this special is replaced with Garfield in the Rough. Garfield and Odie scare Jon out of bed with military music and drill sergeant attitudes as he demands pancakes the size of Australia and plenty of coffee for breakfast. After the meal, Garfield changes his mind to kick Odie off the table. Along the way, Garfield checks the calendar date and discovers to his horror that he has an appointment with the vet today; when he removes the date hoping to make Jon forget, he notices that tomorrow is Thanksgiving and demands Jon to buy the Thanksgiving food. On the way home from the supermarket, Jon remembers the vet appointment, this causes Garfield to scream all the way to the office.
While at the vet, Dr. Liz Wilson examines Garfield while Jon attempts to talk her into going out on a date with him. Liz must be put on a diet, she tells. After this moment Garfield enters a panic, he screams; that is. When Garfield and Jon faint, an exasperated Liz agrees to the date out of annoyance, Jon invites her to his house for Thanksgiving Dinner. At home, Jon is excited that Liz is coming over, but Garfield is miserable at being put on a diet. After eating half a leaf of lettuce for lunch, Garfield tries to raid the refrigerator but is stopped by Odie, whom Jon has assigned to make sure the cat himself doesn't try to cheat on his diet. Garfield weighs himself on the talking weight scale and destroys it for comparing him to Orson Welles is foiled by Odie when he tries to steal cookies, flour and sugar. Garfield wonders; the next morning, Garfield is more grumpy than usual, but Jon pays him no mind as he begins preparing the Thanksgiving meal. However, Jon doesn't have a clue on how to prepare such a dinner, as he didn't thaw the turkey overnight, doesn't bother to make stuffing, rubs butter on his skin instead of the turkey, roasts it at 500 degrees Fahrenheit instead of 325.
Garfield helps ruin the meal further by putting garlic powder in the vegetables. Jon shaves and picks a suit, just in time for Liz to arrive and notice that he's not wearing pants; as Jon leaves to check on the meal, Liz spends a bit of time to inspect Garfield and wonders if she was a bit too hard on him with the diet. After Garfield pretends to be suffering from every single withdrawal symptom Liz casually mentions, she decides that the diet is too strict for Garfield and lets him off cheering him up... until he remembers about Jon's horrible cooking of the feast. In the kitchen, Jon is faced with a still frozen turkey and the realization that he doesn't know how to prepare a Thanksgiving dinner, he has no idea what to do now. Garfield manages to convince Jon to call Grandma, who arrives seconds and shoos Jon out of the kitchen; as Jon distracts Liz by giving her a history lesson about Thanksgiving, Grandma proceeds to cook the meal: she cuts the turkey into slices with a chainsaw, adds white sauce batters and deep fries the slices into what she calls her famous turkey croquettes, prepares sweet potatoes by covering them with butter, brown sugar and marshmallows, finishes with "split-second cranberry sauce" and pumpkin pie.
Once everything is ready, Grandma tells Garfield that Liz couldn't have found a better man than Jon and that she'd better not blow it asks Garfield to eat a piece of pie for her as she leaves. Garfield tells Jon, who has put Liz to sleep with his boring stories, that everything is ready, they all proceed into the dining room to eat. Afterwards, Liz declares that it was a wonderful meal and agrees to come back next year thanks Jon for inviting her with a kiss on the cheek. Once Liz leaves, Jon and Odie declare it was a great day and they're thankful for Grandma, they decide to head out for a walk to work off the meal, but Odie is too bloated from overeating to get off the couch. Jon puts Odie on a diet, Garfield gleefully torments Odie into doing push-ups as payback for yesterday. Lorenzo Music - Garfield Thom Huge - Jon Arbuckle Gregg Berger - Odie Julie Payne - Dr. Liz Wilson Pat Carroll - Grandma "Make Thanksgiving One Whole Meal" by Lou Rawls "It's a Quiet Celebration" by Desirée Goyette The book adaptation, which retains the original title "Garfield's Thanksgiving," deviates in the following ways: Odie and the scale are not involved in Garfield's torment, Jon - too deliriously happy about having Liz over for Thanksgiving dinner - is ignorant to the fact that Garfield is in misery.
Garfield is weak and suffers from insomnia, resulting in a sleepless night. More of Jon's self-ruined Thanksgiving dinner is shown. In the end, the turkey he did not thaw or butter is in terrible state, the sabotaged vegetables are smoking, the pie he made is burnt. Jon is the one to decide to call Grandma without needing Garfield to offer the idea. At the end, there is no mention of any new diets. Odie and Garfield sit comfortably with their full bellies as Jon sees Liz out the door, the three agree unanimously that they have Grandma to thank. Created by Jim Davis Written by Jim Davis and Kim Campbell Original Music by Ed Bogas and Desirée Goyette Produced and directed by Phil Roman Recording Engi
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
Garfield: A Tail of Two Kitties
Garfield: A Tail of Two Kitties is a 2006 British-American live-action/computer-animated family comedy film directed by Tim Hill and written by Joel Cohen and Alec Sokolow. It is the sequel to the 2004 film Garfield: The Movie; the film stars Breckin Meyer, Jennifer Love Hewitt, Billy Connolly, Ian Abercrombie, Roger Rees, Lucy Davis, Oliver Muirhead, Bill Murray, Tim Curry, Bob Hoskins, Rhys Ifans, Vinnie Jones, Joe Pasquale, Richard E. Grant, Jane Leeves and Roscoe Lee Browne; this film was produced by Davis Entertainment Company for 20th Century Fox, was released in United States on June 16, 2006. A video game, Garfield 2, was developed by The Game Factory; the film earned $141.7 million. Jon Arbuckle plans to propose to his girlfriend Dr. Liz Wilson, going on a business trip to London. Jon follows her to the United Kingdom as a surprise. Garfield and Odie break out of the hotel room due to boredom, subsequently get lost on the streets of London. Meanwhile, at Carlyle Castle in the English countryside, the late Lady Eleanor Carlyle's will is read.
She leaves all of Carlyle Castle to Prince XII, her beloved cat, a twin counterpart of Garfield. This enrages the Lady's nephew, Lord Manfred Dargis, who will now only get the grand estate once Prince is out of the picture. Lord Dargis throws him into the river. Garfield inadvertently switches places with Prince: Jon finds Prince climbing out of a drain and takes him to the hotel after mistaking him for Garfield, while Prince's butler Smithee finds Garfield in the street and takes him to Carlyle Castle after mistaking him for Prince. In the grand estate Garfield is residing in, he receives the royal treatment, including a butler and a team of four-legged servants and followers. Garfield teaches his animal friends how to make lasagna, while Prince learns to adapt to a more humble setting, while in Jon's company. Dargis sees Garfield and thinks Prince has come back – if the lawyers see Prince/Garfield they will not sign the estate over to Dargis, who secretly wants to destroy the barnyard and kill the animals to build a country spa.
Dargis makes many attempts to kill Garfield, one involving a merciless but dim-witted Rottweiler named Rommel. Garfield and Prince meet each other for the first time. Jon, with the help of Odie, discovers the mix-up and goes to the castle, which coincidentally Liz is visiting. Garfield and Prince taunt Dargis, whose plan is exposed, are seen by the lawyers. Dargis threatens everybody. Garfield and Prince with the help of Odie and Jon save the day while Smithee alerts the authorities and Dargis is arrested for his crimes. Garfield, trying to stop Jon from proposing to Liz, has a change of heart: He helps Jon in proposing, she accepts. Breckin Meyer as Jon Arbuckle, the owner of Garfield and Odie Jennifer Love Hewitt as Dr. Liz Wilson Billy Connolly as Lord Manfred Dargis Ian Abercrombie as Smithee the Butler Roger Rees as Mr. Hobbs Lucy Davis as Ms. Abby Westminister Jane Carr as Mrs. Whitney Oliver Muirhead as Mr. Greene Bill Murray as Garfield Tim Curry as Prince XII, an English cat, a twin counterpart of Garfield Bob Hoskins as Winston, an English bulldog, Prince's servant.
Rhys Ifans as McBunny Vinnie Jones as Rommel, a rottweiler, Lord Dargis's companion. Jim Piddock as Bolero Joe Pasquale as Claudius Greg Ellis as Nigel Richard E. Grant as Preston Jane Leeves as Eenie Jane Horrocks as Meenie Roscoe Lee Browne as the Narrator Rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator, reports that 11% of 73 surveyed critics gave the film a positive review; the site's critical consensus reads, "Strictly for little kids, A Tale of Two Kitties features skilled voice actors but a plot that holds little interest." On Metacritic, the film has a score of 37 out of 100 based on 20 critics, indicating "generally unfavorable reviews". Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "B+" on an A+ to F scale, the same grade earned by its predecessor. Joe Leydon of Variety gave the film a positive review, saying "Good kitty! Superior in every way to its underwhelming predecessor, Garfield: A Tail of Two Kitties is a genuinely clever kidpic that should delight moppets, please parents – and maybe tickle a few tweens."
Janice Page of The Boston Globe gave the film one and a half stars out of four, saying "You'll only be attracted to Garfield: A Tail of Two Kitties if you're young, you're easily entertained, or you just can't get enough of Jim Davis's lasagna-scarfing cartoon cat." Roger Ebert gave the film three out of four stars, saying "Garfield: A Tail of Two Kitties is funnier and more charming than the first film." Elizabeth Weitzman of New York Daily News gave the film one and a half stars out of four, saying "Connolly, bless him, throws himself heartily into the task of acting opposite a computer-generated cat given to bad puns and flatulence. Everyone else, looks mortified, can you blame them?" Peter Hartlaub of the San Francisco Chronicle gave the film one out of four stars, saying "The best thing that can be said about Garfield: A Tail of Two Kitties is that the movie isn't quite as bad as its name." Nathan Rabin of The A. V. Club gave the film a C. It's faster paced and the filmmakers wisely shift the focus away from bland owner Breckin Meyer and onto a menagerie of chattering animals.
After a dreadful first entry, Two Kitties elevates the Garfield series to the level of mediocrity." Claudia Puig of USA Today gave the film one and a half stars out of four, saying "It
Garfield in Paradise
Garfield in Paradise is a 1986 animated television special directed by Phil Roman, based on the Garfield comic strip by Jim Davis. It features Lorenzo Music as the voice of Garfield the house cat, other regulars Thom Huge and Gregg Berger, guest star Wolfman Jack; the story concerns the characters visiting a tropical vacation destination. The special was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Animated Program and has been released on DVD. Jon and Garfield take their third class airline trip to Paradise World, a cheapskate's version of Hawaii. Jon and Garfield check in at a squalid motel and are soon disappointed to find out that there is no beach within sight of the motel, only an empty swimming pool in the back; when Jon and Garfield enter their room, they find Odie hiding in their luggage. None of the trio has any fun until Jon and Odie plan to rent a car and search for a beach around the island. For a cheap price, they get a nice and classic Chevrolet Bel Air to hit the beach and begin to choose where to go when their car mysteriously speeds into a jungle on its own, stopping in the middle of a native village.
Jon and Odie presume that they are in trouble until the natives begin kowtowing to their car. They meet the tribal chief who explains that the villagers learned English "from watching a lot of beach movies", that in 1957, the Cruiser, a James Dean/Fonzie-styled legend, drove his car into the village and introduced the people to the 1950s pop culture; the Cruiser saved the village by sacrificing himself and driving his car into a nearby volcano to prevent it from erupting. The village is now devoted to a 1950s lifestyle and believes that Jon's rental car is the same one the Cruiser owned. In the village and Garfield find romance with the tribal princess and her cat, Mai-Tai. Meanwhile, the chief orders the village idiot, Monkey; the volcano begins to erupt and Owooda tells Jon that she and Mai-Tai must sacrifice themselves to save the village. However, the volcano rejects Owooda and Mai-Tai, the village shaman, interprets that it wants the car instead, if it does not have the car within thirty seconds, it will blow the island to pieces.
Monkey and Odie make their final attempt to get the car fixed, which still does not work until Odie taps the distributor cap with a hammer. The car starts and zooms through the village and up the volcano with Monkey driving and Odie hanging onto the hood; the car plummets into the crater, the volcano erupts, the Cruiser's spirit and car's ghost drift out, speed off, vanish into the night sky. Monkey and Odie are presumed dead until Garfield sees them climb out of the crater unharmed, Jon and the other villagers carry Monkey and Odie back to the village in a hero's fashion. Lorenzo Music as Garfield Thom Huge as Jon Arbuckle Gregg Berger as Odie/Piegon Wolfman Jack as the Chief Frank Nelson as Hotel Clerk/Salesman Desirée Goyette as Owooda Julie Payne as Mai-Tai/Stewardess Nino Tempo as Monkey Carolyn Davis as Female Cat Hal Smith as Off-screen voice "Inversion Layer Airlines Jingle" performed by Desirée Goyette "Hello, Hawaii" performed by Lou Rawls and Desirée Goyette "Beauty and the Beach" performed by Lou Rawls, Thom Huge, Lorenzo Music "When I Saw You" performed by Thom Huge and Desirée Goyette The special guest stars disc jockey Wolfman Jack as the tribal chief.
Creator Jim Davis was excited to work with Jack on the special. We did it for silliness." This was the final credit for Frank Nelson, once again, portrayed a variation on his recurring character from The Jack Benny Program. The special first aired on May 27, 1986, at prime time on CBS, it was aired again in subsequent years. An illustrated children's book adaptation was published by Ballantine Books in 1986. In February 2005, the special was included on the DVD Garfield Travel Adventures along with the specials Garfield in the Rough and Garfield Goes Hollywood, it was released on another DVD compilation, The Garfield Holiday Collection, on November 4, 2014, sold only by Walmart, was made available for digital download on November 11 that year. The special was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Animated Program in 1986; the only other nominee was Garfield's Halloween Adventure, which won. In his 2005 DVD Talk review, Randy Miller III complimented the special on "memorable characters" the James Dean doppelganger and Wolfman Jack's character, concluding, "Plus, Jon gets some action."
In 2008, Dan Walsh, creator of the website Garfield Minus Garfield recalled watching the specials and claimed, "I can still do a perfect rendition of'Hello Hawaii,' from Garfield in Paradise." In 2014, Jim Davis identified Garfield in Paradise as "absolutely one of my favorites. It’s bright, rock n’ roll in it." Garfield in Paradise on IMDb Garfield in Paradise at The Big Cartoon DataBase
A Garfield Christmas
A Garfield Christmas Special is a 1987 American animated television special based on the Garfield comic strip, created by Jim Davis. It is directed by Phil Roman and stars Lorenzo Music as the voice of Garfield the house cat, as well as Thom Huge, Gregg Berger, Julie Payne, Pat Harrington Jr. David L. Lander and Pat Carroll; the special is about Garfield spending Christmas with the Arbuckle family on their farm, discovering the true meaning of Christmas. Davis, who wrote the teleplay, cited it as semi-autobiographical; the special was first broadcast December 21, 1987, on CBS and was rebroadcast in subsequent years at Christmastime: until 2000. It was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Animated Program and has been released on DVD. In a dream, Garfield is awakened by his owner Jon dressed as an elf, who feeds him a large amount of lasagna before giving him his gift, a robotic Santa Claus which reads minds and produces whatever Garfield wants; when Jon wakes up Garfield, he tells him that it is "Christmas Eve morning" and they and Odie are going to the countryside to celebrate Christmas with Jon's family on their farm.
Garfield is annoyed that the family never comes to Jon's house. During his drive to his family's farm, Jon talks about Christmases he had when he was a boy, with his parents, brother Doc Boy, Grandma, while Garfield listens with great cynicism. Upon arriving and Garfield grow a special bond. While Jon and Odie take a walk, Grandma spikes Mom's sausage gravy with chili powder, bragging that her sausage gravy just won the Greene County Fair. Jon and Garfield return for dinner, while Odie works on something secretive and sneaks back into the house. After dinner, they decorate the tree. Jon asks Garfield to put the star on; as the family sings Christmas songs, Grandma tells Garfield about her beloved and deceased husband, whom she misses at Christmastime because of his unspoken, but obvious, love for the holiday. Afterwards, Mom asks Dad to read a book called Binky: The Clown. Dad gives in. At night, Garfield notices Odie's suspicious activity and follows him to the barn, seeing Odie making something out of a piece of wood, some wire, a plunger handle, a hand rake.
While there, Garfield realizes they must be 50 years old. On Christmas morning, just when it seems like all the presents have been opened, Garfield gives Grandma the letters he found in the barn; these letters were love notes written to Grandma by her husband from when they first met each other and married. Garfield finds out that Odie has been busy making his ultimate Christmas gift: a homemade back scratcher; this is a rare glimpse at Garfield's other side, as Garfield learns one of the true meanings of Christmas: "It's not the giving, it's not the getting, it's the loving!", gladly thanks and embraces Odie for the gift he made. "Gimme, Gimme, Gimme" performed by Lou Rawls "Can't Wait Till Christmas" performed by Thom Huge, Lorenzo Music, Gregg Berger "O Christmas Tree" performed by Pat Carroll "Christmas in Your Heart" performed by ensemble and Desirée Goyette "You Can Never Find an Elf When You Need One" performed by Lou Rawls and Desirée Goyette "A Good Old-Fashioned Christmas" performed by ensemble"Here Comes Garfield" from the special of the same name can be heard instrumentally when Jon wakes up Garfield from his dream.
In writing the teleplay, Davis based it on experiences he had celebrating Christmas with his family on their farm in Indiana, with many Arbuckles modeled after Davis family members. Davis' real-life brother was known as Doc Boy. Davis referred to the story as "very autobiographical," adding "That was my Christmas on the farm." However, he noted Grandma was an fictional character, added for the emotional subplot of having time with loved ones at Christmas. Lorenzo Music, Thom Huge and Gregg Berger reprise their respective roles from past films as Garfield, Jon Arbuckle, Odie. Julie Payne and Pat Harrington Jr. voice Jon's mother and father, while David L. Lander voices Jon's brother, Doc Boy. Grandma was voiced by Pat Carroll, who at the time was becoming popular in voice work. After the 1970s, she was working on Legends of the Superheroes and Pound Puppies; the episode first aired on December 21, 1987. According to Bustle, the special was rebroadcast every year until 2000, it played along with the 1965 Peanuts special A Charlie Brown Christmas.
In 2004, A Garfield Christmas was released on the DVD Garfield Holiday Celebrations, along with Garfield's Halloween Adventure and Garfield's Thanksgiving. It appeared 23rd in TV DVD sales for the week of November 10, 2007. In 2014, Entertainment Weekly reported copies of the DVD "were selling on eBay like rare collector's items." Garfield holiday-themed specials, including A Garfield Christmas, were receiving millions of views on the website YouTube. It was re-released on another DVD compilation, The Garfield Holiday Collection, on November 4, 2014, sold only by Walmart, was made available for digital download on November 11 that year; the special was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Animated Program at the 40th Primetime Emmy Awards. In 2004, TV Guide ranked the special 10th on its 10 Best Family Holiday Specials list. In 2013, Scott Neumyer of Parade called it "a delightful little short featuring everyone's favorite cantankerous orange cat." That year, Jef Rouner of the Houston Press described the episode as "depressing" and unfunny, remarking that since Grandma cannot hear Garfield's thoughts, "what we're wa
Garfield At Large: His First Book
Garfield at Large: His First Book is the first compilation book of Garfield comic strips. The book was published by Ballantine Books in the United States in 1980 and the strips date from June 19, 1978 to January 22, 1979; this book introduced the "Garfield Format" to the comic book market. Prior to its publication, comic strip compilations were most formatted like a standard paperback book with the panels running down the page. Jim Davis, Garfield's author, disliked the idea and convinced Ballantine to print the strips from left to right, as they would have appeared in the newspaper; this resulted in the final product being shorter from top to bottom and much wider from side to side than the average paperback book. The book was #1 on The New York Times bestseller list for two years. In the original editions, the strips were published in black and white, including the Sunday strips, which appeared in color in their newspaper format. Garfield at Large has since been republished in full color in 2001 as part of the "Garfield Classics" series and as part of a “Fat Cat 3-Pack” in 1993 and 2001, the latter with its strips in full color.
The colorized editions correct an error present in all previous editions: the July 23, 1978 strip had the first panel printed as the fourth panel. Main characters Brian and Champ read this book in the comedy film Anchorman 2: The Legend Continues, which takes place in 1980, when this was the only Garfield comic strip compilation published at the time. Earlier in the film, there was a poster of an orange striped cat that read "I hate Mondays". Stewie Griffin reads this book in the Family Guy episode "North by North Quahog" describing Garfield's disdain for Nermal. Garfield at Large Garfield: Fat Cat 3-Pack
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne