Ramganga is a tributary of the river Ganga, originating in Uttarakhand state, India. Ramganga West River originates from Doodhatoli ranges in the district of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand state of India; the Ramganga River flows to south east from Kumaun Himalaya. It is a tributary of the river Ganges, originates from the high altitude zone of 800m-900m. Ramganga flows by the Corbett National Park near Ramnagar of Nainital district from where it descends upon the plains. Bijnor, Bareilly, Badaun and Hardoi cities of Uttar Pradesh are situated on its banks; the Ramganga Dam crosses the river at Kalagarh for irrigation and hydroelectric generation. An annual festival of Ganga Dassahra is organised on its banks annually during the months of September and October at Chaubari village near Bareilly, it has a drainage basin of 30,641 km2.. Length:1931km Another Ramganga called Ramganga East originates from the Namik Glacier in Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand and flows towards South-East; the river is fed by numerous small and big rivers and joins river Sarju at Rameshwar near Ghat of Pithoragarh.
The Sarju in turn confluences with the Kali
Prithu is a sovereign, named in the Vedic scriptures of ancient India. According to Hindu mythology, he is an Avatar of the preserver god—Vishnu, he is called Pruthu and Prithu Vainya Prithu — the son of Vena. Prithu is "celebrated as the first consecrated king, from whom the earth received her name Prithvi." He is associated with the legend of his chasing the earth goddess, who fled in the form of a cow and agreed to yield her milk as the world's grain and vegetation. The epic Mahabharata and text Vishnu Purana describes him as a part Avatar of Vishnu; the birth of Prithu is without female intervention. Thus being a ayonija, Prithu is untouched by desire and ego and can thus control his senses to rule dutifully upholding Dharma; the Mahabharata traces Prithu's lineage from Vishnu. The Almighty Vishnu created a human named Virajas to bring order to the Humans. Virajas became an ascetic. Virajas' son was Krittimat. Krittimat's son was Kardama. Kardama's son was Ananga and Ananga's son was Atibala. Atibala called Anga, conquered the earth and ruled well.
Atibala married Mrityu's daughter and had a son named Vena. Vena's son would be Prithu; the Bhagavata Purana and Vishnu Purana tells the story of Prithu: King Vena, from the lineage of the pious Dhruva, was an evil king, who neglected Vedic rituals. Thus the rishis killed him, leaving the kingdom without an heir and in famine due to the anarchy of Vena. So, the sages churned Vena's body, out of which first appeared a dark dwarf hunter, a symbol of Vena's evil. Since the sins of Vena had gone away as the dwarf, the body was now pure. On further churning, Prithu emerged from right arm of the corpse. To end the famine by slaying the earth and getting her fruits, Prithu chased the earth who fled as a cow. Cornered by Prithu, the earth states that killing her would mean the end of his subjects too. So Prithu reasoned with the earth and promised her to be her guardian. Prithu milked her using Manu as a calf, received all vegetation and grain as her milk, in his hands for welfare of humanity. Before Prithu's reign, there was "no cultivation, no pasture, no agriculture, no highway for merchants", all civilization emerged in Prithu's rule.
By granting life to the earth and being her protector, Prithu became the Earth's father and she accepted the patronymic name "Prithvi". However, the Manu Smriti considers Prithvi as Prithu's wife and not his daughter, thus suggests the name "Prithvi" is named after her husband, Prithu; the Vayu Purana records that when born, Prithu stood with a bow, arrows and an armour, ready to destroy the earth, devoid of Vedic rituals. Terrified, the earth fled in form of a cow and submitted to Prithu's demands, earning him the title chakravartin. Prithu is the first king, recorded to earn the title; the creator-god Brahma is described to have recognized Prithu as an avatar of Vishnu, as one of Prithu's birthmark was Vishnu's chakram on his hand and thus Prithu was "numbered amongst the human gods". According to Oldham, the title Chakravarti may be derived from this birthmark, may not be indicative of universal dominion. Prithu was worshipped as an incarnation of Vishnu in his lifetime and now is considered a Nāga demi-god.
Shatapatha Brahmana calls him the first anointed king and Vayu Purana calls him adiraja. The epic Mahabharata states that Vishnu crowned Prithu as the sovereign and entered the latter's body so that everyone bows to the king as to god Vishnu. Now, the king was "endowed with Vishnu's greatness on earth". Further, Dharma and Artha established themselves in Prithu. Prithu became the first true king, he became a Kshatriya after he healed the Brahmanas of their wounds, inflicted by Prithu's tyrannical father, Vena. After acquiring many presents from the gods, Prithu conquered and ruled the earth as well as the Devas, Yakshas and Nagas in all glory, it was. Prithu liberated his father Vena, from the hell called Pūt, hence all sons are called Putras. Practicing detachment, Prithu ruled according to the Dandaneeti, his capital is believed to be somewhere in modern-day Haryana. Prithu used his Kshatriya power to make the earth yield its riches. Hence the earth is called daughter of Prithu. Prithu, by mere fiat of will, created millions of men, elephants and horses.
During his reign, there was no decreptitude, no calamity, no famine, no disease, no agriculture and no mining. Prithu enjoyed popularity amongst his subjects, hence all kings are called Rajas. Cows yielded buckets of rich milk. Trees and lotuses always had honey in them. People had no fear of thieves or wild animals. Nobody died of accidents. Kusha grass was golden in colour. Fruits were always sweet and ripe and nobody went hungry. People lived in caves or trees or wherever they liked. For the first time and commerce came into existence. Prithu himself made the earth even, he had divine powers of disappearing any mundane object with his mental power. His chariot could travel over land and air with complete ease. Mountains made way for Prithu on his chariot and his flagstaff was never entangled when Prithu trave
In the epic Mahabharata, Droṇa or Droṇāchārya or Guru Droṇa or Rajaguru Devadroṇa was the 3rd incarnation of Brahma and was royal preceptor to the Kauravas and Pandavas. He was a friend of the guru of Asuras, including Mahabali, he was a descendant of sage Angirasa. He was a master of advanced military arts, including Astras. Since Droṇa was not born from a womb, but from a vessel made of leaf, he was named'Droṇa' which means'vessel made of leaf'; the name has Proto-Indo-European origins, is related to English tray. The story of Droṇa's birth is narrated in the Mahabharata. Bharadwaja rishi went with his companions to the Ganga River to perform his ablutions. There he was beheld by the beauty of a beautiful apsara called Ghritachi who had come there to bathe; the sage was overcome by desire, which caused him to produce semen involuntarily out of the visual excitation. Bharadwaja rishi captured this semen in a vessel called a Droṇa, Droṇācharya himself sprang from the semen thus preserved. Droṇācharya spent his youth in poverty, but studied Dharma and military arts such as archery, in which he gained expertise, together with the prince of Panchala, Drupada in the gurukul of Rishi Bharadwaja.
Drupada and Droṇācharya became close friends. Droṇācharya married Kripi, the sister of Kripa, the royal teacher of the princes of Hastinapura. Like Drona himself and her brother had not been gestated in a womb, but outside the human body. Kripi and Droṇa had Ashwatthama. Drona approached Parasurama. However, by the time he was approached by Drona, Parasurama only had his weapons left to give away, he offered to give Droṇa the weapons as well as the knowledge of. This is how Droṇa obtained the greatest weapons in his possession, his title of'ācārya'. For the sake of his wife and son, Droṇa desired freedom from poverty. Remembering a childhood promise given by Drupada, he decided to approach him to ask for help. However, King Drupada refused to acknowledge their friendship, saying friendship was possible only between persons of equal stature in life; as a child, he said, it was possible for him to be friends with Droṇa, because at that time they were equals. But now Drupada had become a king. However, he said he would satisfy Droṇācharya if he asked for alms befitting a Brahmin, rather than claiming his right as a friend.
Droṇa went away silently. Drona decides to continue Parashurama's legacy by starting his own school, he begins wandering Northern India. While at Hastinapur, he comes across the Kuru princes at play, is able to use his abilities to help the princes solve some of their problems. Amazed, the princes go to their patriarch Bhisma with news of this magician. Bhishma realized that this was Drona, asked him to become the Guru of the Kuru princes, training them in advanced military arts. Drona's school soon accepted all students of its allies. Many princes came to study under him. Of all the Kaurava and Pandava brothers training under Drona, Arjuna emerged as the most dedicated, hard-working and most talented of them all, exceeding Drona's own son Ashwatthama. Arjuna assiduously served his teacher, impressed by his devoted pupil. Arjuna surpassed Drona's expectations in numerous challenges; as a reward, Drona gave Arjuna mantras to invoke the super-powerful divine weapon of Brahma known as Brahmāstra, but told Arjuna not to use this invincible weapon against any ordinary warrior.
When Arjuna, inspired by his brother Bhima's nocturnal eating, mastered archery in absolute darkness, Drona was moved. Drona was impressed by Arjuna's concentration and drive, promised him that he would become the greatest archer on earth. Drona gave Arjuna special knowledge of the divine Astras. Drona was partial to Arjuna and Ashwatthama. Drona dearly loved his son Ashwatthama and as a guru, he loved Arjuna more than anyone. A strong criticism of Dronacharya is due to his pervert behavior towards Ekalavya and his strong bias in favor of Arjuna. Ekalavya was the son of a Nishadha chief. Dronacharya refused to train him along with the kṣatriya princes because Ekalavya was not a kṣatriya prince. Ekalavya began practice by himself, having fashioned a clay image of Dronacharya. By his determination, Ekalavya became a warrior of exceptional prowess. One day, kuru princes' dog's barking disturbed a focused Ekalavya. Without looking, Ekalavya fired arrows that sealed up the dog's mouth without spilling any blood of dog or causing any injury to the dog.
The Kuru princes saw this dog running back to them, wondered who could have done such a feat. They saw Ekalavya; every person saw his skill in shutting the dog's mouth. But Drona had given promise that Arjun will be the greatest archer in the world,so he demanded Ekalavya his right hand thumb as fee of being teacher. Drona held the invincible sword of Lord Brahma. Bhishma once told the story of this sword to Pandava prince Nakula; this sword was the primordial weapon created by the gods for the destruction of evil. The name of the sword was Asi, the personification and the primary energy behind all the weapons created; as per Bhishma, the constellation under which the sword was born is called Krittika, Agni is its deity, Rohini is its Gotra, Rudra is its high preceptor and whoever holds this weapon obtains sure victory. Dronacharya had been
Bharadwaja referred to as Bharadvaja or Bharadvaja Bṛhaspatya, was one of the revered Vedic sages in Ancient India, a renowned scholar, economist and an eminent physician. His contributions to the ancient Indian literature in Puranas and Rig Veda, played a significant role in giving an insight to the Indian society, he and his family of students are considered the authors of the sixth book of the Rigveda. Bharadwaja was father of warrior Brahmin Droṇācārya, a main character in Mahabharata, an instructor to both Pandava and Kaurava princes, he was grandfather of a legendary warrior in Mahabharata. Both Droncharya and Ashwatthama fought in different battles of Mahabharata alongside Kauravas. Bharadwaja is mentioned in Charaka Samhita, an authoritative ancient Indian medical text. Maharishi Bharadwaj is considered as the "Father of Medicine" He is one of the Saptaṛṣis, his full name in Vedic texts is Bharadvaja Barhaspatya, the last name referring to his father and Vedic sage Brihaspati. His mother was Mamata, the wife of Utathya Rishi, the elder brother of Brhaspati.
He is one of the seven rishis mentioned four times in the Rigveda as well as in the Shatapatha Brahmana, thereafter revered in the Mahabharata and the Puranas. In Puranic legends, he is stated to be the son of Vedic sage Atri. In Buddhist Pali canonical texts such as Digha Nikaya, Tevijja Sutta describes a discussion between the Buddha and Vedic scholars of his time; the Buddha names ten rishis, calls them "early sages" and makers of ancient verses that have been collected and chanted in his era, among those ten rishis is Bharadvaja. The ancient Hindu medical treatise Charaka Samhita attributes Bharadvaja learning medical sciences from god Indra, after pleading that "poor health was disrupting the ability of human beings from pursuing their spiritual journey", Indra provides both the method and specifics of medical knowledge; the word Bharadvaja is a compound Sanskrit from "bhara and vaja", which together mean "bringing about nourishment". Bhardvaja is considered to be the initiator of the Bhardvāja gotra of the Brahmin caste.
Bharadvaja is the third in the row of the Pravara Rishis and is the first in the Bharadvaja Gotris, with the other two rishis being initiators of Gotras with their respective names. Bharadvaja and his family of students are the authors of the sixth mandala of the Rigveda, one of the "family books" in this text, he and his students are the attributed authors of other Rigvedic hymns such as 10.87, 10.152 and 10.155. Bharadvaja and his family of students were the traditional poets of king Marutta of the Vedic era, in the Hindu texts. Bharadvaja is a revered sage in the Hindu traditions, like other revered sages, numerous treatises composed in ancient and medieval era are reverentially named after him; some treatises named after him or attributed to him include: Dhanur-veda, credited to Bharadvaja in chapter 12.203 of the Mahabharata, is an Upaveda treatise on archery. Bharadvaja samhita, a Pancharatra text. Bharadvaja srautasutra and grhyasutra, a ritual and rites of passage text from 1st millennium BCE.
After the Kalpasutra by Baudhayana, these Bharadvaja texts are among the oldest srauta and grhya sutras known. Sections in Ayurveda. Bharadvaja theories on medicine and causal phenomenon is described in Charaka Samhita. Bharadvaja states, for example, that an embryo is not caused by wish, urging of mind or mystical causes, but it is produced from the union of a man's sperm and menstrual blood of a woman at the right time of her menstrual cycle, in her womb. According to Gerrit Jan Meulenbeld, Bharadvaja is credited with many theories and practical ideas in ancient Indian medicine. Niti sastra, a treatise on ethics and practical conduct. Bharadvaja-siksa, is one of many ancient Sanskrit treatises on phonetics. According to one legend, Bharadvaja married Susheela and had a son named Garga and a daughter named Devavarshini. According to some other legends, Bharadvaja had two daughters named Ilavida and Katyayani, who married Vishrava and Yajnavalkya respectively. According to Vishnu Purana, Bharadwaja had a brief liaison with an apsara named Ghritachi, together they had a child who grew up into a warrior-Brahmin named Droṇācārya.
Bharadvaja is therefore directly linked to two important characters of the epic Mahabharata — Dronacharya and Aśvatthāma, the son of Dronacharya. According to the Mahabharata, Bharadvaja trained Drona in the use of weapons. In the epic Ramayana, Rama and Lakshmana meet Bharadvaja at his asrama at the start of their fourteen-year exile; the sage asks them to stay with him through the exile,but they insist on going deeper into the forest to Chitrakuta, three kosla away from ashram. Bharadvaja gives them directions. Bharath along with Sumanth received at Ashram by Bharadvaja while Bharath went on to forest in search of Lord Ram for re-union and to bring Lord Rama and Laxmana back to Ayodhya, he reappears at various times in the epic. According to James Lochtefeld, the Bharadvaja in the Ramayana is different from the Vedic sage mentioned in Panini's Ashtadhyayi. Kaviratna, Avinash C.. The Charaka Samhita 5 Vols. Sri Satguru Publications. ISBN 81-7030-471-7
Gokul is a historic town and municipality in the Mathura district of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located 15 kilometres south-east of Mathura; the Hindu god Krishna is said to have spent his childhood in Gokul. The town has an average elevation of 163 metres. According to the 2001 census of India, Gokul had a population of 4041. Males constituted 55% of the population and females 45%; the average literacy rate was 60%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy was 68%, female literacy was 49%. 18% of the population was under 8 years of age
Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, it is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the sixth largest by population, it has a high HDI ranking among Indian states as of 2017. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹17.25 lakh crore in gross domestic product after Maharashtra and a per capita GDP of ₹167,000. It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India.
Its official language is Tamil, one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires – Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine and architecture; the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganization of states on linguistic lines; the state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, bones, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.
The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, most of these are in the Tamil language. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language"; the date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. Though this finding remains contested,like the claim of historian Michel Danino who rubbishes the theory of the latter’s southward migration in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language in 2007.
He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus- Sarasvati civilization… The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! Their migration to South would thus constitute a double “archaeological miracle”: apart from being undetectable on the ground, it implies that the migrants experienced a total break with all their traditions; such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature.
Numismatic and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from 500 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era; the Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India and spread northwards through India. The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the Saiva Nayanars and the Vaisnava Alvars who spread bhakti poetry and devotion; the Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti tradition. During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I; the Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Much the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.
The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep s
Astrology is a pseudoscience that claims to divine information about human affairs and terrestrial events by studying the movements and relative positions of celestial objects. Astrology has been dated to at least the 2nd millennium BCE, has its roots in calendrical systems used to predict seasonal shifts and to interpret celestial cycles as signs of divine communications. Many cultures have attached importance to astronomical events, some—such as the Hindus and the Maya—developed elaborate systems for predicting terrestrial events from celestial observations. Western astrology, one of the oldest astrological systems still in use, can trace its roots to 19th–17th century BCE Mesopotamia, from which it spread to Ancient Greece, the Arab world and Central and Western Europe. Contemporary Western astrology is associated with systems of horoscopes that purport to explain aspects of a person's personality and predict significant events in their lives based on the positions of celestial objects.
Throughout most of its history, astrology was considered a scholarly tradition and was common in academic circles in close relation with astronomy, alchemy and medicine. It was present in political circles and is mentioned in various works of literature, from Dante Alighieri and Geoffrey Chaucer to William Shakespeare, Lope de Vega, Calderón de la Barca. Following the end of the 19th century and the wide-scale adoption of the scientific method, astrology has been challenged on both theoretical and experimental grounds, has been shown to have no scientific validity or explanatory power. Astrology thus lost its academic and theoretical standing, common belief in it has declined. While polls have demonstrated that one quarter of American and Canadian people say they continue to believe that star and planet positions affect their lives, astrology is now recognized as a pseudoscience—a belief, incorrectly presented as scientific; the word astrology comes from the early Latin word astrologia, which derives from the Greek ἀστρολογία—from ἄστρον astron and -λογία -logia.
Astrologia passed into meaning'star-divination' with astronomia used for the scientific term. Many cultures have attached importance to astronomical events, the Indians and Maya developed elaborate systems for predicting terrestrial events from celestial observations. In the West, astrology most consists of a system of horoscopes purporting to explain aspects of a person's personality and predict future events in their life based on the positions of the sun and other celestial objects at the time of their birth; the majority of professional astrologers rely on such systems. Astrology has been dated to at least the 2nd millennium BCE, with roots in calendrical systems used to predict seasonal shifts and to interpret celestial cycles as signs of divine communications. A form of astrology was practised in the first dynasty of Mesopotamia. Vedāṅga Jyotiṣa, is one of earliest known Hindu texts on astrology; the text is dated between 1400 BCE to final centuries BCE by various scholars according to astronomical and linguistic evidences.
Chinese astrology was elaborated in the Zhou dynasty. Hellenistic astrology after 332 BCE mixed Babylonian astrology with Egyptian Decanic astrology in Alexandria, creating horoscopic astrology. Alexander the Great's conquest of Asia allowed astrology to spread to Ancient Rome. In Rome, astrology was associated with'Chaldean wisdom'. After the conquest of Alexandria in the 7th century, astrology was taken up by Islamic scholars, Hellenistic texts were translated into Arabic and Persian. In the 12th century, Arabic texts were translated into Latin. Major astronomers including Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler and Galileo practised as court astrologers. Astrological references appear in literature in the works of poets such as Dante Alighieri and Geoffrey Chaucer, of playwrights such as Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare. Throughout most of its history, astrology was considered a scholarly tradition, it was accepted in political and academic contexts, was connected with other studies, such as astronomy, alchemy and medicine.
At the end of the 17th century, new scientific concepts in astronomy and physics called astrology into question. Astrology thus lost its academic and theoretical standing, common belief in astrology has declined. Astrology, in its broadest sense, is the search for meaning in the sky. Early evidence for humans making conscious attempts to measure and predict seasonal changes by reference to astronomical cycles, appears as markings on bones and cave walls, which show that lunar cycles were being noted as early as 25,000 years ago; this was a first step towards recording the Moon's influence upon tides and rivers, towards organising a communal calendar. Farmers addressed agricultural needs with increasing knowledge of the constellations that appear in the different seasons—and used the rising of particular star-groups to herald annual floods or seasonal activities. By the 3rd millennium BCE, civilisations had sophisticated awareness of celestial cycles, may have oriented temples in alignment with heliacal risings of the stars.
Scattered evidence suggests that the oldest known astrological references are copies of texts made in the ancient world. The Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa is thought to be compiled in Babylon around 1700 BCE. A scroll documenting an early use of electional astrology is doubtfully ascribed to the reign of the Sumerian ruler Gud