The Republic of Ingushetia referred to as Ingushetia, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation, located in the North Caucasus region. Its capital is the town of Magas. At 3,000 square km, in terms of area, the republic is the smallest of Russia's federal subjects except for the federal cities, it was established on June 4, 1992, after the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was split in two. The republic is home to the indigenous a people of Vainakh ancestry; as of the 2010 Census, its population was 412,529. Due to the insurgency in the North Caucasus, Ingushetia remains one of the poorest and most unstable regions of Russia. Although the violence has died down in recent years, the insurgency in neighboring Chechnya has spilled into Ingushetia. According to Human Rights Watch in 2008, the republic has been destabilized by corruption, a number of high-profile crimes, anti-government protests, attacks on soldiers and officers, Russian military excesses and a deteriorating human rights situation.
The name Ingushetia is derived from the ancient village Angusht, renamed into Tarskoye and transferred to North Ossetia in 1944 after the deportation of 23 February 1944, a.k.a. operation "Lentil". The Ingush, a nationality group indigenous to the Caucasus inhabit Ingushetia, they refer to themselves as Ghalghai (from Ingush: Ghala and ghai. The Ingush speak the Ingush language, which has a high degree of mutual intelligibility with neighboring Chechen; the Ingush are traditionally a classless society based on unwritten law. Every clan, each clan member, are viewed as equal. Unlike the neighboring nations in the Caucasus, the Ingush never had social inferiors; the Ingush/Ingushetia were known by the following names: Gelia, Ghalghai/Gelgai, Vainakh, Gergar, Ghlighvi, Mack-aloni, Nart-Orstkhoi, Tsori, Khamhoi, Metshal and Nyasareth. The self-namings represent different Vainakh tribes; the history of the Ingush is related to Chechens. Byzantine and Georgian missionaries Christianised the Ingush, although Christianity was weakened by the Mongol invasions.
The remains of several churches, notably the Tkhabya-Yerd and the Albe-Yerd can be found in Ingushetia. Ingush converted to Islam at the end of the 19th century, three centuries after the beginning of Islamization in Chechnya. According to Leonti Mroveli, the 11th-century Georgian chronicler, the word Caucasian is derived from the Vainakh ancestor Kavkas. According to Professor George Anchabadze of Ilia State University "The Vainakhs are the ancient natives of the Caucasus, it is noteworthy, that according to the genealogical table drawn up by Leonti Mroveli, the legendary forefather of the Vainakhs was "Kavkas", hence the name Kavkasians, one of the ethnicons met in the ancient Georgian written sources, signifying the ancestors of the Chechens and Ingush. As appears from the above, the Vainakhs, at least by name, are presented as the most "Caucasian" people of all the Caucasians in the Georgian historical tradition." The Soviet-Russian anthropologists and scientists N. Ya. Marr, V. V. Bounak, R.
M. Munchaev, I. M Dyakonov, E. I. Krupnov and G. A. Melikashvilli wrote: "Among Ingush the Caucasian type is preserved better than among any other North Caucasian nation", Professor of anthropology V. V. Bounak "Groznenski Rabochi" 5, VII, 1935. Professor G. F. Debets recognized. In an article in Science Magazine Bernice Wuethrich states that American linguist Dr. Johanna Nichols "has used language to connect modern people of the Caucasus region to the ancient farmers of the Fertile Crescent" and that her research suggests that "farmers of the region were proto-Nakh-Daghestanians". Nichols is quoted as stating that "The Nakh–Dagestanian languages are the closest thing we have to a direct continuation of the cultural and linguistic community that gave rise to Western civilization" The Ingush have 89% of J2 Y-DNA, the highest known frequency in the world and J2 is associated with the Fertile Crescent; the mitochondrial DNA of the Ingush differs from other Caucasian populations and the rest of the world.
"The Caucasus populations exhibit, on average, less variability than other populations for the eight Alu insertion polymorphisms analyzed here. The average heterozygosity is less than that of any other region of the world, with the exception of Sahul. Within the Caucasus, the Ingush have much lower levels of variability than any of the other populations; the Ingush showed unusual patterns of mtDNA variation when compared with other Caucasus populations, which indicates that some feature of the Ingush population history, or of this particular sample of the Ingush, must be responsible for their different patterns of genetic variation at both mtDNA and the Alu insertion loci." 10,000–8000 BC Migration of Nakh people to the slopes of the Caucasus from the Fertile Crescent. Invention of agriculture, irrig
Imbros or İmroz changed to Gökçeada since 29 July 1970, is the largest island of Turkey and the seat of Gökçeada District of Çanakkale Province. It is located in the Aegean Sea, at the entrance of Saros Bay and is the westernmost point of Turkey. Imbros contains some wooded areas. According to the 2016 census, the island-district of Gökçeada has a population of 8,776; the main industries of Imbros are tourism. Today the island is predominantly inhabited by settlers from the Turkish mainland that arrived there after 1960, but from the indigenous population about 300 Greeks are still remaining, most of them elderly, but including some families with children; the island was inhabited by ethnic Greeks from antiquity until the 1960s, when many emigrated to Greece, western Europe, the United States and Australia, due to a campaign of state-sponsored discrimination. The Greek Imbriot diaspora is thought to number around 15,000. According to Greek mythology, the palace of Thetis, mother of Achilles, king of Phthia, was situated between Imbros and Samothrace.
The stables of the winged horses of Poseidon were said to lie between Tenedos. Homer, in The Iliad wrote: Eëtion, a lord of or ruler over the island of Imbros is mentioned in the Iliad, he restores him to his father. Homer writes that Hera and Hypnos leave Lemnos and Imbros making their way to Mount Ida. Homer mention Imbros in the Iliad on other occasions too. Imbros is mentioned in the Homeric Hymn, dedicated to Apollo. Apollonius of Rhodes mention Imbros in the first book of his work Argonautica. For ancient Greeks, the islands of Lemnos and Imbros were sacred to Hephaestus, god of metallurgy, on ancient coins of Imbros an ithyphallic Hephaestus appears. In classical antiquity, like Lemnos, was an Athenian cleruchy, a colony whose settlers retained Athenian citizenship; the original inhabitants of Imbros were Pelasgians. In 511 or 512 BC the island was captured by the Persian general Otanes, but Miltiades conquered the island from Persia after the battle of Salamis. Thucydides, in his History of the Peloponnesian War describes the colonization of Imbros, at several places in his narrative mentions the contribution of Imbrians in support of Athens during various military actions.
He recounts the escape of an Athenian squadron to Imbros. In the late 2nd century A. D. the island may have become independent under Septimius Severus. Strabo mention that Cabeiri are most honored in Lemnos. Stephanus of Byzantium mention that Imbros was sacred to Hermes. Imbrian Mysteries were one of the secret religious rites of ancient Greece. Little are known about Imbrian Mysteries. Prior to the Fall of Constantinople, several larger islands south of Imbros were under Genoese rule, part of territory held in the eastern Mediterranean by the independent Maritime Republic of Genoa a political development within the Western Roman Empire of city-states such as Venice and Amalfi. Defended by the Genoese Navy, one of the largest and most powerful in the Mediterranean, Corsica remained a prominent western Mediterranean territory in the Tyrhennian Sea until Napoleon's conquest. At the beginning of the 13th century, when the Fourth Crusade and its aftermath temporarily disrupted Venice's relations with the Byzantine Empire, Genoa expanded its influence north of Imbros, into the Black Sea and Crimea.
An extensive network of mercantile routes and associated ports promoted expansion of Byzantine culture, its goods and services - including scholars and craftsmen schooled in ancient Classical traditions - into Italy, Greece, Russia, Tunisia and Ukraine. The Renaissance's renewal of European culture was spawned in part by the rapid influx of exiles from Constantinople at the close of the 15th century. Not all the trade exchanges were as beneficial however: in the debit column can be recorded the 1347 European import of the plague via a Genoese trading post in the Black Sea. High mortality precipitated a weakening in the balance of maritime powers, leading to political strife with Venice and outright war. After a failing alliance with France against Barbary pirates, Genoa became a satellite of Spain. After the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 the Byzantine forces in Imbros left the island. In the aftermath following the withdrawal, delegates from the island went to İstanbul for an audience with the Ottoman Emperor Mehmed II to discuss terms allowing them to live harmoniously within the Ottoman Empire.
After the island became Ottoman soil in 1455 it was administered by Ottomans and Venetians at various times. During this period, during the reign of Kanuni Sultan Süleyman, the island became a foundation within the Ottoman Empire. Relations between the Ottomans and Venetians led to hostilities - for example, in June 1717 during the Turkish-Venetian War, a tough but fairly indecisive naval battle between a Venetian fleet, under Flangini, an Ottoman fleet was fought near Imbros in the Aegean
The Circassians known by their endonym Adyghe, are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century after the Russo-Circassian War in 1864. In its narrowest sense, the term "Circassian" includes the twelve Adyghe princedoms. However, due to Soviet administrative divisions, Circassians were designated as the following: Adygeans, Cherkessians and Shapsugians, although all the four are the same people residing in different political units. Most Circassians are Sunni Muslim; the Circassians speak the Circassian languages, a Northwest Caucasian dialect continuum with three main dialects and numerous sub-dialects. Many Circassians speak Turkish, English and Hebrew, having been exiled by Russia to lands of the Ottoman Empire, where the majority of them today live. About 800,000 Circassians remain in historical Circassia, others live in the Russian Federation outside these republics and krais; the 2010 Russian Census recorded 718,727 Circassians, of whom 516,826 are Kabardian, 124,835 are other Adyghe in Adygea, 73,184 are Cherkess and 3,882 Shapsug.
The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization estimated in the early 1990s that there are as many as 3.7 million "ethnic Circassian" diaspora outside the titular Circassian republics, that, of these 3.7 million, more than 2 million live in Turkey, 300,000 in the Levant and Mesopotamia and 50,000 in Western Europe and the United States. The Circassians refer to themselves as Adyghe; the name is believed to derive from atté "height" to signify a mountaineer or a highlander, ghéi "sea", signifying "a people dwelling and inhabiting a mountainous country near the sea coast", or "between two seas". The word "Circassians" is an exonym; the Russians referred to all Circassian tribes as Cherkesy, which may be derived from Kerkety, the name of one of the Adyghe tribes native to the northwestern Caucasus. In early Russian sources, the Circassians are referred to as Kasogi, whereas in medieval Arabic sources, Kasogi is written as Jarkas and Jahārkas; the spelling Charkas may be an abbreviation of Persian Chahār-kas.
Though "Jahārkas" was used by Ibn Khaldun and Ali ibn al-Athir, the Persian hypothesis remains uncertain. In the 10th century, Persians and Arabs referred to the Circassians as Kashak, which appears to be a Georgian word derived from Ossetian Kasogi; the Turkic peoples referred to the Circassians as Cherkas, a name which had come into common use by the 13th century. This designation "did not designate the Adygei but rather the people living in southern Ukraine". In contemporary times, Ukraine has a province named Cherkessk, with its provincial capital bearing the same name. With the advent of the Golden Horde in the 13th century, the designation Cherkess "came to refer to the Adygei who remained in the Caucasus, became a generic term for all who lived there"; this in turn created terminology "anomalies", as a result, Cherkes became used alongside other names such as Adygei, Kabardian and Abkhaz. In Medieval Oriental and European texts, "the Adygei people were known by the name Cherkess/Circassians".
The Encylopaedia Islamica adds: "This is because the Cherkess, the Kabardians and the Adygei people share a common language, spoken by the north-western Caucasian people, belongs to the family known as Abkhazian-Adygei". In Persian sources, Charkas/Cherkes is used to refer to the "actual" Circassians of the northwest Caucasus, in some occasions as a general designation for Caucasians who live beyond Derbent. In Russian historiography the term had been used as an exonym for Russian and Cossack people at least until the end of the 18th century, Caucasian Tatar peoples. In Turkey the term nowadays used as a name for all Caucasian nations such as, such as Karachays, different Dagestanian diasporas and others. Despite a common self-designation and a common Russian name, Soviet authorities applied four designations to Circassians: Kabardian, Circassians of Kabardino-Balkaria (Circassians speaking the Kabardian language, one of two indigenous peoples of the republic. Cherkess, Circassians of Karachay-Cherkessia (Circassians speaking the Cherkess, i.e. Circassian, language one of two indigenous peoples of the republic who are Besleney Kabardians.
The name "Cherkess" is the Russian form of "Circassian" and was used for all Circassians before Soviet times. Adyghe or Adygeans, the indigenous population of the Kuban including Adygea and Krasnodar Krai. Shapsug, the indigenous historical inhabitants of Shapsugia, they live in the Tuapse District and the Lazarevsky City District of Sochi, both in Krasnodar Krai and in Adygea. Genetically, the
Orphism is the name given to a set of religious beliefs and practices originating in the ancient Greek and Hellenistic world, as well as from the Thracians, associated with literature ascribed to the mythical poet Orpheus, who descended into the Greek underworld and returned. Orphics revered Persephone and Dionysus or Bacchus. Orpheus was said to have invented the Mysteries of Dionysus. Poetry containing distinctly Orphic beliefs has been traced back to the 6th century BC or at least 5th century BC, graffiti of the 5th century BC refers to "Orphics". Classical sources, such as Plato, refer to "Orpheus-initiators", associated rites, although how far "Orphic" literature in general related to these rites is not certain; as in the Eleusinian mysteries, initiation into Orphic mysteries promised advantages in the afterlife. The Orphic theogonies are genealogical works similar to the Theogony of Hesiod, but the details are different; the theogonies are symbolically similar to Near Eastern models. The main story has it that Dionysus is the son of Persephone.
Dionysus is tricked with a mirror and children's toys by the Titans, who murder and consume him. Athena tells Zeus of the crime, who in turn hurls a thunderbolt on the Titans; the resulting soot, from which sinful mankind is born, contains the bodies of the Titans and Dionysus. The soul of man is therefore divine. Thus, it was declared. There are two Orphic stories of the rebirth of Dionysus: in one it is the heart of Dionysus, implanted into the thigh of Zeus. Many of these details differ from accounts in the classical authors. Firmicus Maternus, a Christian author, gives a different account with the book On the Error of Profane Religions, he says that Jupiter was a king of Crete—a concept of Euhemerus—and Dionysos was his son. Dionysos was murdered, cannibalized. Only his heart was salvaged by Athena. A statue of gypsum was made to look like Dionysos, the heart placed within; the Orphic theogonies include: The "Protogonos Theogony", composed c. 500 BC, known through the commentary in the Derveni papyrus and references in classical authors.
The "Eudemian Theogony", composed in the 5th century BC. It is the product of a syncretic Bacchic-Kouretic cult; the "Rhapsodic Theogony", composed in the Hellenistic age, incorporating earlier works. It is known through summaries in neo-Platonist authors. Orphic Hymns. 87 hexametric poems of a shorter length composed in the late Hellenistic or early Roman Imperial age. Surviving written fragments show a number of beliefs about the afterlife similar to those in the "Orphic" mythology about Dionysus' death and resurrection. Bone tablets found in Olbia carry short and enigmatic inscriptions like: "Life. Death. Life. Truth. Dio. Orphics." The function of these bone tablets is unknown. Gold-leaf tablets found in graves from Thurii, Hipponium and Crete give instructions to the dead. Although these thin tablets are highly fragmentary, collectively they present a shared scenario of the passage into the afterlife; when the deceased arrives in the underworld, he is expected to confront obstacles. He must take care not of the pool of Mnemosyne.
He is provided with formulaic expressions with which to present himself to the guardians of the afterlife. I am a son of starry sky. I am dying. Other gold leaves offer instructions for addressing the rulers of the underworld: Now you have died and now you have come into being, O thrice happy one, on this same day. Tell Persephone that the Bacchic One himself released you. Orphic views and practices have parallels to elements of Pythagoreanism. There is, too little evidence to determine the extent to which one movement may have influenced the other. In the fifteenth century, the Neoplatonic Greek scholar Constantine Lascaris considered a Pythagorean Orpheus; the book The works of Aristotle mentioned Aristotle says the poet Orpheus never existed. Bertrand Russell noted; the intoxication that they sought was that of "enthusiasm," of union with the god. They believed themselves, in this way; this mystical element entered into Greek philosophy with Pythagoras, a reformer of Orphism as Orpheus was a reformer of the religion of Dionysus.
From Pythagoras Orphic elements entered into the philosophy of Plato, from Plato into most philosophy, in any degree religious. Bertrand Russell pointed out about Socrates He is not an orthodox Orphic.
Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives or stories that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans. Stories of everyday human beings, although of leaders of some type, are contained in legends, as opposed to myths. Myths are endorsed by rulers and priests or priestesses, are linked to religion or spirituality. In fact, many societies group their myths and history together, considering myths and legends to be true accounts of their remote past. In particular, creation myths take place in a primordial age when the world had not achieved its form. Other myths explain how a society's customs and taboos were established and sanctified. There is a complex relationship between recital of myths and enactment of rituals; the study of myth began in ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and revived by Renaissance mythographers.
Today, the study of myth continues in a wide variety of academic fields, including folklore studies and psychology. The term mythology may either refer to the study of myths in general, or a body of myths regarding a particular subject; the academic comparisons of bodies of myth is known as comparative mythology. Since the term myth is used to imply that a story is not objectively true, the identification of a narrative as a myth can be political: many adherents of religions view their religion's stories as true and therefore object to the stories being characterised as myths. Scholars now speak of Christian mythology, Jewish mythology, Islamic mythology, Hindu mythology, so forth. Traditionally, Western scholarship, with its Judaeo-Christian heritage, has viewed narratives in the Abrahamic religions as being the province of theology rather than mythology. Labelling all religious narratives as myths can be thought of as treating different traditions with parity. Definitions of myth to some extent vary by scholar.
Finnish folklorist Lauri Honko offers a cited definition: Myth, a story of the gods, a religious account of the beginning of the world, the creation, fundamental events, the exemplary deeds of the gods as a result of which the world and culture were created together with all parts thereof and given their order, which still obtains. A myth expresses and confirms society's religious values and norms, it provides a pattern of behavior to be imitated, testifies to the efficacy of ritual with its practical ends and establishes the sanctity of cult. Scholars in other fields use the term myth in varied ways. In a broad sense, the word can refer to any traditional story, popular misconception or imaginary entity. However, while myth and other folklore genres may overlap, myth is thought to differ from genres such as legend and folktale in that neither are considered to be sacred narratives; some kinds of folktales, such as fairy stories, are not considered true by anyone, may be seen as distinct from myths for this reason.
Main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans, while legends feature humans as their main characters. However, many exceptions or combinations exist, as in the Iliad and Aeneid. Moreover, as stories spread between cultures or as faiths change, myths can come to be considered folktales, their divine characters recast as either as humans or demihumans such as giants and faeries. Conversely and literary material may acquire mythological qualities over time. For example, the Matter of Britain and the Matter of France, seem distantly to originate in historical events of the fifth and eighth-centuries and became mythologised over the following centuries. In colloquial use, the word myth can be used of a collectively held belief that has no basis in fact, or any false story; this usage, pejorative, arose from labeling the religious myths and beliefs of other cultures as incorrect, but it has spread to cover non-religious beliefs as well. However, as used by folklorists and academics in other relevant fields, such as anthropology, the term myth has no implication whether the narrative may be understood as true or otherwise.
In present use, mythology refers to the collected myths of a group of people, but may mean the study of such myths. For example, Greek mythology, Roman mythology and Hittite mythology all describe the body of myths retold among those cultures. Folklorist Alan Dundes defines myth as a sacred narrative that explains how the world and humanity evolved into their present form. Dundes classified a sacred narrative as "a story that serves to define the fundamental worldview of a culture by explaining aspects of the natural world and delineating the psychological and social practices and ideals of a society". Anthropologist Bruce Lincoln defines myth as "ideology in narrative form." The compilation or description of myths is sometimes known as mythography, a term which can be used of a scholarly anthology of myths. Key mythographers in the Classical tradition include Ovid, whose tellings of myths have been profoundingly influential.
Strabo was a Greek geographer and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Strabo was born to an affluent family from Amaseia in Pontus in around 64 BC, his family had been involved in politics since at least the reign of Mithridates V. Strabo was related to Dorylaeus on his mother's side. Several other family members, including his paternal grandfather had served Mithridates VI during the Mithridatic Wars; as the war drew to a close, Strabo's grandfather had turned several Pontic fortresses over to the Romans. Strabo wrote that "great promises were made in exchange for these services", as Persian culture endured in Amasia after Mithridates and Tigranes were defeated, scholars have speculated about how the family's support for Rome might have affected their position in the local community, whether they might have been granted Roman citizenship as a reward. Strabo's life was characterized by extensive travels, he journeyed to Egypt and Kush, as far west as coastal Tuscany and as far south as Ethiopia in addition to his travels in Asia Minor and the time he spent in Rome.
Travel throughout the Mediterranean and Near East for scholarly purposes, was popular during this era and was facilitated by the relative peace enjoyed throughout the reign of Augustus. He moved to Rome in 44 BC, stayed there and writing, until at least 31 BC. In 29 BC, on his way to Corinth, he visited the island of Gyaros in the Aegean Sea. Around 25 BC, he sailed up the Nile until reaching Philae, after which point there is little record of his proceedings until AD 17, it is not known when Strabo's Geography was written, though comments within the work itself place the finished version within the reign of Emperor Tiberius. Some place its first drafts around 7 BC, others around AD 17 or 18; the latest passage to which a date can be assigned is his reference to the death in AD 23 of Juba II, king of Maurousia, said to have died "just recently". He worked on the Geography for many years and revised it not always consistently, it is an encyclopaedical chronicle and consists of political, social, geographic description of whole Europe: British Isles, Iberian Peninsula, Germania, The Alps, Greece.
The Geography is the only extant work providing information about both Greek and Roman peoples and countries during the reign of Augustus. On the presumption that "recently" means within a year, Strabo stopped writing that year or the next, when he died, he was influenced by Homer and Aristotle. The first of Strabo's major works, Historical Sketches, written while he was in Rome, is nearly lost. Meant to cover the history of the known world from the conquest of Greece by the Romans, Strabo quotes it himself and other classical authors mention that it existed, although the only surviving document is a fragment of papyrus now in possession of the University of Milan. Strabo studied under several prominent teachers of various specialties throughout his early life at different stops along his Mediterranean travels, his first chapter of education took place in Nysa under the master of rhetoric Aristodemus, who had taught the sons of the same Roman general who had taken over Pontus. Aristodemus was the head of two schools of rhetoric and grammar, one in Nysa and one in Rhodes, the former of the two cities possessing a distinct intellectual curiosity of Homeric literature and the interpretation of epics.
Strabo was an admirer of Homer's poetry a consequence of his time spent in Nysa with Aristodemus. At around the age of 21, Strabo moved to Rome, where he studied philosophy with the Peripatetic Xenarchus, a respected tutor in Augustus's court. Despite Xenarchus's Aristotelian leanings, Strabo gives evidence to have formed his own Stoic inclinations. In Rome, he learned grammar under the rich and famous scholar Tyrannion of Amisus. Although Tyrannion was a Peripatetic, he was more relevantly a respected authority on geography, a fact significant, considering Strabo's future contributions to the field; the final noteworthy mentor to Strabo was Athenodorus Cananites, a philosopher who had spent his life since 44 BC in Rome forging relationships with the Roman elite. Athenodorus endowed to Strabo three important items: his philosophy, his knowledge, his contacts. Unlike the Aristotelian Xenarchus and Tyrannion who preceded him in teaching Strabo, Athenodorus was Stoic in mindset certainly the source of Strabo's diversion from the philosophy of his former mentors.
Moreover, from his own first-hand experience, Athenodorus provided Strabo with information about regions of the empire which he would not otherwise have known. Strabo is most notable for his work Geographica, which presented a descriptive history of people and places from different regions of the world known to his era. Although the Geographica was utilized in its contemporary antiquity, a multitude of copies survived throughout the Byzantine Empire, it first appeared in Western Europe in Rome as a Latin translation issued around 1469. The first Greek edition was published in 1516 in Venice. Isaac Casaubon, classical scholar and editor of Greek texts, provided the first critical edition in 1587. Although Strabo cited the antique Greek astronomers Eratosthenes and Hipparchus, acknowledging their astronomical and mathematical efforts towards geography, he claimed that
Apotheosis is the glorification of a subject to divine level. The term has meanings in theology, where it refers to a belief, in art, where it refers to a genre. In theology, apotheosis refers to the idea. In art, the term refers to the treatment of any subject in a grand or exalted manner. Before the Hellenistic period, imperial cults were known in Ancient Mesopotamia. From the New Kingdom, all deceased pharaohs were deified as the god Osiris. From at least the Geometric period of the ninth century BC, the long-deceased heroes linked with founding myths of Greek sites were accorded chthonic rites in their heroon, or "hero-temple". In the Greek world, the first leader who accorded himself divine honours was Philip II of Macedon. At his wedding to his sixth wife, Philip's enthroned image was carried in procession among the Olympian gods; such Hellenistic state leaders might be raised to a status equal to the gods before death or afterwards. A heroic cult status similar to apotheosis was an honour given to a few revered artists of the distant past, notably Homer.
Archaic and Classical Greek hero-cults became civic, extended from their familial origins, in the sixth century. The Greek hero cults can be distinguished on the other hand from the Roman cult of dead emperors, because the hero was not thought of as having ascended to Olympus or become a god: he was beneath the earth, his power purely local. For this reason hero cults were chthonic in nature, their rituals more resembled those for Hecate and Persephone than those for Zeus and Apollo. Two exceptions were Heracles and Asclepius, who might be honoured as either gods or heroes, sometimes by chthonic night-time rites and sacrifice on the following day. Up to the end of the Republic, Romans accepted only one official apotheosis: the god Quirinus, whatever his original meaning, having been identified with Romulus. Subsequently, apotheosis in ancient Rome was a process whereby a deceased ruler was recognized as having been divine by his successor also by a decree of the Senate and popular consent. In addition to showing respect the present ruler deified a popular predecessor to legitimize himself and gain popularity with the people.
The upper-class did not always take part in the imperial cult, some ridiculed the apotheosis of inept and feeble emperors, as in the satire The Pumpkinification of Claudius attributed to Seneca. At the height of the imperial cult during the Roman Empire, sometimes the emperor's deceased loved ones—heirs, empresses, or lovers, as Hadrian's Antinous—were deified as well. Deified people were awarded posthumously the title Divus to their names to signify their divinity. Traditional Roman religion distinguished between a divus, though not consistently. Temples and columns were erected to provide a space for worship; the Ming dynasty epic Investiture of the Gods deals with deification legends. Numerous mortals have been deified into the Daoist pantheon, such as Guan Yu, Iron-crutch Li and Fan Kuai. Song Dynasty General Yue Fei was deified during the Ming Dynasty and is considered by some practitioners to be one of the three highest ranking heavenly generals. Various Hindu and Buddhist rulers in the past have been represented as deities after death, from Thailand to Indonesia.
Several Sultans of Yogyakarta were semi-deified, posthumously. Deceased North Korean leader Kim Il-Sung is the principal object of the North Korean cult of personality in which he is treated to an explicitly apotheosized leader, with statues of and monuments dedicated to the "Eternal President", the annual commemoration of his birth, the paying of respects by newlyweds to his nearest statue, the North Korean calendar being a Juche calendar based on Kim Il-sung's date of birth. Instead of the word "apotheosis", Christian theology uses in English the words "deification" or "divinization" or the Greek word "theosis". Traditional mainstream theology, both East and West, views Jesus Christ as the preexisting God who undertook mortal existence, not as a mortal being who attained divinity, it holds that he has made it possible for human beings to be raised to the level of sharing the divine nature: he became one of us to make us "partakers of the divine nature" "For this is why the Word became man, the Son of God became the Son of man: so that man, by entering into communion with the Word and thus receiving divine sonship, might become a son of God."
"For He was made man that we might be made God." "The only-begotten Son of God, wanting to make us sharers in his divinity, assumed our nature, so that he, made man, might make men gods." The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Theology contains the following in an article titled "Deification": Deification is for Orthodoxy the goal of every Christian. Man, according to the Bible, is'made in the image and likeness of God.'... It is possible for