Dipterocarpus is a genus of flowering plants and the type genus of family Dipterocarpaceae. Dipterocarpus are the third largest and most diverse genus among Dipterocarpaceae, they are less acknowledged for its use in traditional herbal medicine. The genus has about 70 species, occurring in Southeast Asia, it is an important component of dipterocarp forests. Its generic name comes from Greek and means "two-winged fruits"; the greatest diversity of Dipterocarpus species occurs with many endemic to the island. The genus is of considerable importance as timber trees, sold under the trade name Keruing, although not as important as Shorea species. Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Gurjan, is a major commercial timber species found in the Andaman islands. Gurjan wood is important for making plywood. Species include: Dipterocarpus acutangulus Dipterocarpus alatus Dipterocarpus applanatus Dipterocarpus baudii Dipterocarpus borneensis Dipterocarpus bourdilloni Dipterocarpus caudatus Dipterocarpus caudiferus Dipterocarpus chartaceus Dipterocarpus cinereus Dipterocarpus concavus Dipterocarpus condorensis Dipterocarpus confertus Dipterocarpus conformis Dipterocarpus coriaceus Dipterocarpus cornutus Dipterocarpus costatus Dipterocarpus costulatus Dipterocarpus crinitus Dipterocarpus cuspidatus Dipterocarpus dyeri Dipterocarpus elongatus Dipterocarpus eurynchus Dipterocarpus fagineus Dipterocarpus fusiformis Dipterocarpus geniculatus Dipterocarpus glabrigemmatus Dipterocarpus glandulosus Dipterocarpus globosus Dipterocarpus gracilis Dipterocarpus grandiflorus, the wood is sold as keruing timber Dipterocarpus hasseltii Dipterocarpus hispidus Dipterocarpus humeratus Dipterocarpus indicus Dipterocarpus insignis Dipterocarpus intricatus Dipterocarpus kerrii, the wood is sold as keruing timber Dipterocarpus kunstleri Dipterocarpus lamellatus Dipterocarpus littoralis Dipterocarpus lowii Dipterocarpus megacarpus Dipterocarpus mundus Dipterocarpus nudus Dipterocarpus oblongifolius Dipterocarpus obtusifolius Dipterocarpus ochraceus Dipterocarpus orbicularis Dipterocarpus pachyphyllus Dipterocarpus palembanicus Dipterocarpus perakensis Dipterocarpud pseudocornutus Dipterocarpus retusus Dipterocarpus rigidus Dipterocarpus rotundifolius Dipterocarpus sarawakensis, locally called the Sarawak keruing Dipterocarpus semivestitus Dipterocarpus stellatus Dipterocarpus sublamellatus Dipterocarpus tempehes Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Dipterocarpus turbinatus, the wood is sold as keruing timber Dipterocarpus validus Dipterocarpus verrucosus Dipterocarpus zeylanicus
Ardabil is an ancient city in northwestern Iran, the capital of Ardabil Province. Located in the northeastern part of Iran's historic Azerbaijan region, at the 2011 census, Ardabil's population was 564,365, in 156,324 families; the dominant majority in the city are ethnic Iranian Azerbaijanis and the primary language of the people is Azerbaijani. Ardabil is known for its trade in silk and carpets. Ardabil rugs are renowned and the ancient Ardabil Carpets are considered among the best of classical Persian carpets. Ardabil is home to a World Heritage Site, the Ardabil Shrine, the sanctuary and tomb of Shaikh Safî ad-Dîn, eponymous founder of the Safavid dynasty; the name Ardabil comes from the Avesta "Artavila" which means a holy place. Ardabil is located on the Baliqly Chay River, about 70 km from the Caspian Sea, 210 km from the city of Tabriz, it has an average altitude of 1,263 metres and total area of 18.011 km2. Neighboring on the Caspian Sea and the Republic of Azerbaijan, it has been of great political and economic significance throughout history within the Caucasus region.
It is located on an open plain 1,500 metres above sea level, just east of Mount Sabalan, where cold spells occur until late spring. The province is believed to be as old as the Achaemenid era, it is mentioned in the Avesta, where prophet Zoroaster was born by the river Aras and wrote his book in the Sabalan Mountains. During the Parthian era, the city had a special importance among the cities of Azerbaijan; some Muslim historians attribute the foundation of Ardabil to king Peroz I of the Sassanid Empire. The Persian poet Ferdowsi credits the foundation of the city to Peroz I. Ardabil suffered some damages caused by occasional raids of Huns from the 4th to 6th century CE. Peroz fortified the city. Peroz made Ardabil the residence of provincial governor of Azarbaijan. Due to its proximity to the Caucasus, Ardabil was always vulnerable to invasions and attacks by the mountain peoples of the Caucasus as well as by the steppe dwellers of South Russia past the mountains. In 730-731, the Khazars managed to get past the Alan Gates and killed the Arab governor of Armenia named Al-Jarrah ibn Abdallah on the plain outside the town of Ardabil, subsequently captured the town, as they continued their conquests.
During the Islamic conquest of Iran, Ardabil was the largest city in north-western Iran, ahead of Derbent, remained so until the Mongol invasion period. Ardabilis fought the Mongols three times. Incursions of Mongols and subsequently the Georgians, under Tamar the Great and sacked the city with some 12,000 citizens reputedly killed, devastated the city; the city however recovered and was in a more blossoming state than before, though by this time the principal city in the Azerbaijan region had become Tabriz, under the Ilkhanate, it had become Soltaniyeh. Safavid king Ismail I, born in Ardabil, started his campaign to nationalize Iran's government and land from there, but announced Tabriz as his capital in 1501, yet Ardabil remained an important city both politically and economically until modern times. During the frequent Ottoman-Persian Wars, being close to the borders, it was sacked by the Ottomans between 1514 and 1722 as well as in 1915 during World War I when the former invaded neighboring Iran.
In the early Qajar period, crown prince Abbas Mirza, son of incumbent king Fath Ali Shah Qajar was the governor of Ardabil. With Ardabil once being sacked by the Russians during the Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813, this being the era of the Russians advancing into the Iranian possessions in the Caucasus, Abbas Mirza ordered the Napoleonic general Gardane, who served the Qajars at the time, to strengthen and fortify the town with ramparts. During the next and final war, the Russo-Persian War of 1826-28, the ramparts were stormed by the Russian troops, who temporarily occupied the town; the town's extensive and noted library, known as the library of Safi-ad-din Ardabili, was taken to St. Petersburg by General Ivan Paskevich with the promise that its holdings would be brought to the Russian capital for safekeeping until they could be returned, a promise never fulfilled. After the Russo-Persian Wars, Iran ceded its territories in the Caucasus to Russia under the terms of the Treaty of Turkmenchay.
As a result, Ardabil was situated only 40 kilometers from the newly drawn border, becoming more important economically as a stop on a major caravan route along which European goods entered Iran from Russia. After he visited Ardabil in 1872, German diplomat Max von Thielmann noted, in his book published in 1875, the extensive activity in the town's bazaar, as well as the presence of many foreigners, estimated its population at 20,000. During the early Iranian Constitutional Revolution, Russia occupied Ardabil together with the rest of Iranian Azerbaijan until the eventual collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917. In the heart of the city, stands the ancient bazaar, described by historians of the 4th century CE as cruciform, with designed domes extending in four directions. Most sections of the bazaar were renovated during the Safavid and Zand periods. Produce Bazar and vicinity Located at the Meshkin Shahr gate is a market where farmers directly sell their produce to the public. One of the main sights in the city of Ardabil in north-west Iran is the shrine of Shaykh Safi al-Din Ardabili, who died in 1334.
The Shaykh was a Sufi leader, who tra
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
Ardabil Province is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran. It is in the northwest of the country, in Regions 3, bordering the Republic of Azerbaijan, the provinces of East Azerbaijan and Gilan, its administrative centre is the city of Ardabil. The province was established in 1993 from the eastern part of East Azerbaijan. Many tourists come to the region for its cool climate during the hot summer months; the winters are bitterly cold, with temperatures plummeting to −25 °C. Its famous natural region is the Sabalan mountains; the province is considered the coldest province in Iran by many. Large parts of the province are forested. Athletes such as Ali Daei and Hossein Rezazade are from Ardabil. Ardabil's capital stands about 70 km from the Caspian Sea and has an area of 18011 km². Neighbouring the Caspian Sea and the Republic of Azerbaijan, the city is of political and economic significance; the natural features of the province of Ardabil are mentioned in the Avesta, according to which Zoroaster was born by the river Aras and wrote his book in the Sabalan Mountains.
During the Islamic conquest of Iran, Ardabil was the largest city in Azarbaijan, remained so until the Mongol invasion period. Shah Ismail I started his campaign to nationalize Iran's government and land from here, but announced Tabriz as his capital in 1500 CE, yet Ardabil remained an important city both politically and economically until modern times. The province is divided into 10 counties: Ardabil, Germi, Kowsar, Namin, Sarein and Parsabad. District of Arasbaran was transferred to the province of Ardabil from East Azerbaijan in 2010 and now appears on the more recent maps of Ardabil Province produced by the Iranian official organs. Ardabil is the seat of the sanctuary and tomb of Shaikh Safî ad-Dîn, eponym of the Safavid Dynasty Kulliye, it has natural landscapes which attract tourists. The mineral springs of Ardabil are Beele-Darreh, Sareyn and Booshloo, which are known throughout Iran for their medicinal qualities, it has a number of lakes: the largest of which are Ne'or, ShoorGel, NouShahr and Alooche, which are the habitats of some species of water birds.
Lake Ne'or is located in a mountainous area 48 km south-east of the city of Ardabil. It has an average depth of 3 metres, it is fed by springs in the lake bed. Lake Shoorabil is located in a hilly area south of the city of Ardabil and covers an area of 640,000 m²; the surface of the lake is covered with a thin white layer of minerals, useful for healing skin diseases and rheumatism. Near the lake there is the leisure complex of Shoorabil. Ardabil is a city of great antiquity, its origins go back 4000 to 6000 years. This city was the capital of Azerbaijan province in different times, but its golden age was in the Safavid period. One of the most ancient cities in Iran is Meshkin Shahr, it is located in the north-west of Iran in 839 kilometers from Tehran. It is the closest city to the Sabalan mountains. In the past, it was called "Khiav", "Orami", "Varavi"; the most important places to visit in the district of Meshkin Shahr are the following: – The hot water springs of Moiel and Qaynarja, located in the suburb of the city.
– Qara Soo River Sides. – The spring of Qotur Suie, located 42 kilometers from Meshkin shahr. – The old Castle of Meshkin Shahr. – Qahqaheh castle, located 80 kilometers from Meshkin Shahr. – Deev castle, located in Kavij. – The petrograph of Shapour Sasani in Meshkin Shahr. – The old cemetery in Oonar. – The tomb of Sheykh Haydar in Meshkin Shahr. – Imamzadeh Seyyed Soleyman. The other significant historical monuments are as follows: the mausoleum of Sheikh Jebra'il, located 2 km north of Ardabil, the old but always lively bazaar, the babadavood anbaran, the Friday mosque, a few ancient bridges. In addition to these, in many villages of Ardabil, including Sadeqlu, relics of ancient monuments, including tombs, have been found. Ardabil University of Medical Sciences Mohaghegh Ardabili University Islamic Azad University of Ardabil Payam Noor University of Ardabil Soureh University of Ardabil Islamic Azad University of Khalkhal The primary language of Ardebil province is Azerbaijani, a branch of Turkic.
Other languages in Ardabil include Talysh. Encyclopedia of Orient About Ardabil Ardabil-Iran Carvan Tourism at the Wayback Machine Ardabil entries in the Encyclopædia Iranica site of meshkin shahr at the Wayback Machine site of khalkhal site of ardebil