A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism; these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode through the action of rivers, weather conditions, glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level; these colder climates affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing; the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m. There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as "a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable."Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma, USA, is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittow's Dictionary of Physical Geography states "Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, a mountain is defined as any summit at least 2,000 feet high, whilst the official UK government's definition of a mountain, for the purposes of access, is a summit of 600 metres or higher. In addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement 100 or 500 feet. At one time the U.
S. Board on Geographic Names defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, but has abandoned the definition since the 1970s. Any similar landform lower. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US; the UN Environmental Programme's definition of "mountainous environment" includes any of the following: Elevation of at least 2,500 m. Using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, 14% of Africa; as a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. There are three main types of mountains: volcanic and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth's crust move and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features; the height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if steeper, a mountain. Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.
Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, forms magma that reaches the surface; when the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines; the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US. Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened. Since the less dense continental crust "floats" on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle, thus the continental crust is much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.
Rock can fold either asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may be recumbent and overturned folds; the Balkan Mountains and the Jura Mountains are examples of fold mountains. Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust: a plane; when rocks on one side of a fault rise relative to the other, it can form a mountain. The uplifted blocks are block horsts; the intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range Province of Western North America and the Rhine valley; these areas occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. During and following uplift, mountains are subjected to the agents of erosion which wear the uplifted area down. Erosion causes the surface of mountains to be younger than the rocks that form the mountains themselves. Glacial processes produce characteristic landforms, such as pyramidal peaks, knife-edge arêtes, bowl-shaped cirques that can contai
Mount Hugh Neave
Mount Hugh Neave is a mountain in east-central British Columbia, located between Hobson Lake to the west and Goat Creek to the south. Situated in the Cariboo Mountains of the Columbia Mountains, it is the seventh highest mountain in Wells Gray Provincial Park with an elevation of 2,829 m. Mount Hugh Neave is named for Hugh Neave, a mountaineer, rock climber and backcountry explorer of Wells Gray Park from 1966 to 1987, he was a latecomer among the explorers of Wells Gray Park, but he was drawn by the scenery and the challenge of mountaineering, rather than by the wealth of mining, trapping or guiding. In 1966, he made his first expedition to the Huntley-Buchanan Ridge north of Azure Lake and was a regular visitor to those peaks for the next 20 years. In 1972, Neave and Peter Cowan of New Zealand attempted to climb Mount Hugh Neave via the Hobson Glacier east of the peak, they reached an elevation of 2,400 m on its south side, but ran short of time for an Azure Lake boat rendezvous and had to retreat through the Goat Creek valley.
In those years, the boat did not pass several times a day as it does now, so missing an arranged meeting could have meant a long wait for the next boat arrival. Neave organized three expeditions to Garnet Peak, Wells Gray Park's third highest mountain, which were all turned back by severe weather, he improved it with each trip. Today, it is maintained by its users. In 1974 at the age of 65, Neave launched his fourth expedition with Barb Hargreaves and Tor Schmid, they achieved the first ascent of Garnet Peak. Neave named the mountain for the small garnets. Neave travelled around the world seeking mountaineering adventures. In 1978 he led a month-long expedition to the Andes of Peru, in 1986 he canoed the Yukon River from Whitehorse to Dawson City, his last major expedition was a 1987 trek in the Himalayas at age 78. Neave died in 1988 and Mount Hugh Neave was named the following year in recognition of his climbs in northern Wells Gray Park. In 1988, members of the Kamloops Mountaineering Club carried his ashes to the top of Garnet Peak.
The Kamloops Mountaineering Club organized two expeditions during the 1990s with the goal of reaching the summit of Mount Hugh Neave. Both started the climb from the sandspit about halfway up the lake, they reached the alpine meadows both times after a rigorous bushwhack, but were turned back by severe weather conditions. It is possible. One of the major challenges is the climb through dense undergrowth from Hobson Lake. Helicopters and float planes require a permit from B. C. Parks to land at Hobson Lake and no other landing sites closer to the mountain are allowed. On topographical maps, a route up Goat Creek to the base of Mount Hugh Neave appears feasible; the Neave/Cowan expedition of 1972 proved the opposite during their forced retreat to Azure Lake. Neave described Goat Creek in his diary, "It is a matter of fighting a recurrent medley of slide alder, devil’s club, scrub growth and a vast jumble of rotting deadfall, eked out by beaver swamps along the valley bottom." His advice to future climbers: "Remember the going will always be tough, daily mileages will be much less than expected, a nose for route finding in poor visibility is essential, a search and rescue operation will have a minimal chance of success."After a 20-year hiatus, the fourth expedition to Mount Hugh Neave was launched in July 2015.
Members were Hugh Neave's grandson, Fred Erler and Ken Kram. They reached an altitude of 2,444 m on the southwest ridge and were turned back by a deep impassable cleft. Since the northwest ridge has technical challenges and the eastern approach is impracticable due to the helicopter ban, there are no plans for another expedition. "Mount Hugh Neave". BC Geographical Names. Wells Gray Provincial Park official government website
Wells Gray Provincial Park
Wells Gray Provincial Park is a large wilderness park located in east-central British Columbia, Canada. The park protects most of the southern, highest, regions of the Cariboo Mountains and covers 5,250 square kilometres, it is British Columbia's fourth largest park, after Tatshenshini and Tweedsmuir. The boundaries of Wells Gray Park encompass 60 percent of the drainage basin of the Clearwater River and most water that originates in the park flows into this river; the northern two-thirds of the park is rugged with relief ranging from Clearwater Lake at an elevation of 680 m to 2,946 m at an unnamed peak on the northern park boundary, 4.9 km west of Mount Pierrway. These summits are part of the Cariboo Mountains, most of the east boundary of the park follows the mountain divide between drainage into the North Thompson River and into the Clearwater River. Individual mountain groups dominate the topography of the northern park region and are separated by deep glacially carved valleys, several of which contain large lakes such as Clearwater and Hobson.
The ruggedness of its features has ensured that northern Wells Gray remains little known except to the hardiest of backpackers. The southern third of Wells Gray Park is traversed by the Clearwater Valley Road, although large areas are accessible only by trail; the dominant topography features volcanic plateaus, lava flows and deep canyons which are crowned by several peaks over 2,300 m high. The waterfalls, for which Wells Gray is famous result from the interaction of volcanic eruptions and glacial activity; the best known is Helmcken Falls, the fourth highest waterfall in Canada, which plunges 141 m over the edge of one of these volcanic plateaus. Here are the eight highest mountains in Wells Gray Park:1) "Unnamed Peak, 2946 m, 4.9 km west of Mount Pierrway". Unnamed mountains are referenced in this style, by height and location relative to a named summit, it is curious that the Park's highest mountain is unnamed, but this reflects its remoteness. The first climbers are unknown, it was discovered by Bill McKenzie and Roger Wallis who claimed the second ascent on August 18, 2005.
2) Mount Goodall, 2930 m. The mountain consists of 11 distinct summits and extends for nearly 8 km in a northwest to southeast direction. On the northeast side, an unbreached wall of rock and ice rises between 400 m and 1,300 m from the Goodall Glacier; the first ascent was achieved on August 21, 2006 by Roger Wallis, Don Chiasson, Jim Lundy. They established its height, only 16 m lower than #1; as of 2015, only four of Goodall's 11 summits have been conquered. Mount Goodall is one of six peaks in this area named in 1966 in honor of Canadian soldiers from the Quesnel area who were killed in action during World War II. 3) Garnet Peak, 2876 m. This is a prominent landmark from many viewpoints in southern Wells Gray Park, it is located north of Azure Lake. The first ascent was by Hugh Neave, Tor Schmid and Barbara Hargreaves on August 29, 1974, it was long believed to be the Park's highest mountain until expeditions to the north boundary found the above two peaks were higher. 4) "Unnamed Peak, 2861 m, 1.5 km SE of Mount Goodall".
This is the second highest summit of the Goodall group and has been unofficially called "The Black Cone". Its first ascent was on July 30, 2012 by Paul Geddes, Norm Greene, Bill McKenzie. 5) Mount Pierrway, 2854 m. It was first climbed in 1969 by Art Wilder; the second ascent was in 1987 and the third in 2005. This honors another World War II casualty, Private Alfred Pierrway, age 22. 6) "Unnamed Peak, 2847 m, 3.7 km WSW of Mount Pierrway". It is located on the north park boundary; as of 2015, there is no record of this peak being climbed, therefore it is Wells Gray Park's highest unclimbed mountain. 7) Mount Hugh Neave, 2829 m. Located east of Hobson Lake and north of Garnet Peak. Hugh Neave, first to summit Garnet Peak, Peter Cowan attempted to climb it in 1972 via Hobson Glacier to the east, but were forced to turn back by difficult terrain. Two expeditions in the 1990s failed to reach the summit, it was named for Hugh Neave after his death in 1988. 8) "Unnamed Peak, 2797 m, 3.1 km SE of Mount Beaman".
Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Wells Gray area was a valued hunting ground to the Secwepemc, Tsilhqot'in and Canim Lake aboriginal groups. This resulted in a conflict about 1875 over access to caribou herds. Geographic names like "Battle Mountain", "Fight Lake", "Battle Creek" and "Indian Valley" recall this period; the Overlanders expedition to the Cariboo goldfields rafted down the North Thompson River in 1862. When they arrived at the mouth of the Clearwater River, they noted its distinct clarity compared to the muddy North Thompson and named it Clear Water. In 1863, the first tourists, Lord Milton and Dr. Cheadle, traveled through the North Thompson Valley and solidified the Clearwater River name by publishing it in their journal, The Northwest Passage by Land. Between 1872 and 1881, about 20 survey parties fanned out across British Columbia trying to find the best route for the Canadian Pacific Railway between Yellowhead Pass in the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Coast. Three survey parties visited.
In 1873, Marcus Smith, searching for the ideal route to Bute Inlet, visited Hobson Lake and Mahood Lake. In 1874, the railway dispatched a survey party to explore the headwaters of the Clearwater River, under the leadership of E. W. Jarvis; the altitude of the pass was calculated at 2,130 m and the route skirted an immense glaci
Clearwater Lake (British Columbia)
Clearwater Lake is one of six large lakes in Wells Gray Provincial Park in east-central British Columbia, Canada. The Clearwater River enters the lake at its north end, flowing from Hobson Lake and Azure Lake, drains the lake. There are several small streams that flow into Clearwater Lake, but it has no significant tributaries; the basin occupied by Clearwater Lake was scoured by glaciers during several ice ages, including the Wisconsin Ice Age which ended in this region about 10,000 years ago. The basin subsequently filled with meltwater; the deepest point is believed to be just east of Diver's Bluff. When Dragon Cone erupted about 8,500 years ago, the lava flowed 15 km southwest to the Clearwater River, damming it to a height of 3 m and raising the level of existing Clearwater Lake just upstream; this flow is just one example of volcanic activity that has occurred in the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field during the last 500,000 years. Osprey Falls occurs; the waterfall is over 500 m wide along an L-shaped brink.
Osprey Falls is hazardous to boaters on Clearwater Lake because of the strong current in the southern 3 km. Up to 2003, 18 people had been swept over only three survived; the Clearwater Valley Road ends at Clearwater Lake. Wells Gray Park's largest campgrounds, Clearwater Lake and Falls Creek, are adjacent to Osprey Falls and have 80 sites total. Lake tours and a water taxi service operate from near the campgrounds; the public boat launching ramp is 3 km further up the lake. A trail follows the lakeshore from the water taxi dock to the public boat launch, it continues for 1.5 km climbs away from the lake to a viewpoint above the Easter Bluffs. At the north end of Clearwater Lake, a portage trail provides access for canoeists and kayakers to nearby Azure Lake; the Hobson Lake trail starts here and is 13 km long. Some older maps show a trail to Azure and Zodiac Mountains from the east shore of Clearwater Lake, but this trail is no longer passable. Seven campgrounds with a few sites at each are located along the east and west shores of Clearwater Lake.
The only access is by boat. The Overlanders expedition to the Cariboo goldfields rafted down the North Thompson River in 1862; when they arrived at the mouth of the Clearwater River, they noted its distinct clarity compared to the muddy North Thompson and named it Clear Water. The lake was discovered by white prospectors in 1866 and the river's name was extended to the lake. Wells Gray Provincial Park official government website
Azure Lake is a fjord-like lake located in east-central British Columbia, Canada. It is an expansion of the Azure River; the outflow is called the Azure River, but it is only 50 m long before it flows into the Clearwater River. Azure Lake is one of the six major lakes in Wells Gray Provincial Park. Azure Lake is ringed by peaks. North of the lake are Mount Huntley, Batoche Peak, Tryfan Mountain, Buchanan Peak. Garnet Peak, Wells Gray Park's third highest mountain, rises north of Tryfan, but is not visible from anywhere on the lake. South of the lake are Azure Mountain. East of the lake's upper end is Mount Hogue; the incised valley of Azure Lake was carved by glaciers during past Ice Ages resulting in rugged and steep shorelines. Hanging valleys are seen along both sides of the lake and there are waterfalls on nearly every tributary stream. Azure Lake refers to its colour; the name appeared on a map in 1914 and in the BC Gazetteer in 1930. It was sometimes called Blue Lake. Angus Horne may have named the lake.
He settled at Blue River in the North Thompson Valley in 1912 and prospected and explored in these mountains. Angus Horne Lake and Angus Horne Creek which flows into Azure Lake are named for him. Mount Huntley was named by Chess Lyons in 1940, he was dispatched by Arthur Wellesley Gray, British Columbia's Minister of Lands, six months after Wells Gray Park was created, to explore the park and report on its significant features. Huntley Campbell was his assistant. Buchanan Peak was named by Chess Lyons. Robert "Buck" and Sarah Buchanan were from Texas and lived at Deception Point on Mahood Lake from 1933 to 1941, his two boats and Manana, transported the Lyons expedition along Mahood and Canim Lakes. Garnet Peak was named by Hugh Neave after leading the first ascent in 1974, he found garnets in several places on the peak. Tryfan Mountain was named by Hugh Neave after the Welsh peak where he learned rock climbing as a boy. Mount Hogue was named by Chess Lyons for trappers Henry and John Hogue who built Helmcken Falls Lodge, Wells Gray Park's first lodging, in 1948.
There are no roads to Azure Lake. The only access is by boat from the end of the Clearwater Valley Road at the south end of Clearwater Lake. Motorboats can travel up Clearwater Lake, through the connecting Clearwater River and Azure River for 2.9 km to Azure Lake. Canoeists and kayakers can paddle up Clearwater Lake take the portage trail over to Azure Lake. Azure Lake can be reached by a water taxi operated by Clearwater Lake Tours. A popular multi-day trip is to take the water taxi, loaded with canoes or kayaks, to Rainbow Falls paddle back to the south end of Clearwater Lake. Access by air is restricted and a special permit from B. C. Parks is required to land a float helicopter at Azure Lake. There are four campsites along Azure Lake: Osprey and Rainbow Falls on the south shore and Indian Point and Four and a Half Mile on the north shore. Fees are paid at the boat launching ramp on Clearwater Lake. Sites cannot be reserved in advance. There is only one hiking trail from the shore of Azure Lake and it leads to Huntley Col.
It was first blazed by mountain climber and explorer, Hugh Neave, in 1966 and improved by other hikers. It is a strenuous five-hour climb of 1,370 m. From the Col, the peaks along the Huntley-Buchanan Ridge can be climbed on a multi-day expedition with a base camp at Huntley Col where water is available. Garnet Peak is a four-day climb via the Huntley Col trail and requires technical rock climbing experience. Other than this trail, hiking from Azure Lake is difficult due to dense undergrowth. Wells Gray Provincial Park official government website Clearwater Lake Tours and water taxi
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
The Cariboo Mountains are the northernmost subrange of the Columbia Mountains, which run down into the Spokane area of the United States and include the Selkirks and Purcells. The Cariboo Mountains are within the province of British Columbia, Canada; the range is 7,700 square kilometres in area and about 245 km in length and about 90 km at its widest. East of the range is the Rocky Mountain Trench, in this region the path of the upper Fraser River. To the west the range verges with the Cariboo Plateau through an intermediary "foothill" area known as the Quesnel Highland. Northwestwards the range drops to the Willow River area of the Nechako Plateau, which lies around Prince George. South of the range, northeast of Clearwater a plateau-like mountainous area between the range and the North Thompson River is part of the Shuswap Highland, which crosses the North Thompson and continues into the Shuswap Lake area. N. B; some classification systems assign the Cariboo Mountains to the Cariboo Plateau, which includes the small Marble and Clear Ranges but it is so large and so mountainous a range, with peaks that rival the highest in the Selkirks, that it does not warrant the "plateau" designation.
The Cariboo Mountains subranges include the Mowdish Range. Unlike the other three major subranges of the Columbia Mountains, the Cariboo Mountains have no contact with the Columbia River or its tributaries, but are bounded by the Fraser and its tributary, the North Thompson River (there is a small exception in the Canoe River, which runs into the Rocky Mountain Trench from the eastern end of the range; the Canoe River is on the north side of Albreda Pass, the divide between the North Thompson and the Rocky Mountain Trench. The highest summits in the range are in a group known as the Premier Range whose peaks carry the names of eleven Canadian Prime Ministers, one British Prime Minister, one Premier of British Columbia; the highest peak is Mount Sir Wilfrid Laurier at 3,516 m. The most added name to the group is that of Mount Pierre Elliott Trudeau; the highest peak in the Cariboo Mountains outside the Premiers Range is Quanstrom Mountain 3,038 m, the northernmost peak in the range over 3,000 m.
Mowdish Range Premier Range Wavy Range Much of the Cariboo Mountains lie in Wells Gray Provincial Park, created in 1939 and the 4th largest in British Columbia. Another section is in Bowron Lake Provincial Park, a popular canoeing circuit east of the preserved gold rush town of Barkerville. Another park in the range is Cariboo Mountains Provincial Park, between Wells Gray and Bowron Lake