Great North of Scotland Railway
The Great North of Scotland Railway was one of the two smallest of the five major Scottish railway companies prior to the 1923 Grouping, operating in the north-east of the country. Formed in 1845, it carried its first passengers the 39 miles from Kittybrewster, in Aberdeen, to Huntly on 20 September 1854. By 1867 it operated over a further 61 miles; the early expansion was followed by a period of forced economy, but in the 1880s the railway was refurbished, express services began to run and by the end of that decade there was a suburban service in Aberdeen. The railway operated its main line between Aberdeen and Keith and two routes west to Elgin, connections could be made at both Keith and Elgin for Highland Railway services to Inverness. There were other junctions with the Highland Railway at Boat of Garten and Portessie, at Aberdeen connections for journeys south over the Caledonian and North British Railways, its eventual area encompassed the three Scottish counties of Aberdeenshire and Moray, with short lengths of line in Inverness-shire and Kincardineshire.
Fish from the North Sea ports and whisky from the distilleries of Speyside became important goods traffic. The Royal Family used the Deeside Line for travel to and from Balmoral Castle and when they were in residence a daily special'Messenger Train' ran from Aberdeen; the company ran three hotels, a network of feeder bus services was developed in the early 20th century. In 1923, it became part of the London and North Eastern Railway as its Northern Scottish area, passing on 333 1⁄2 miles of line and 122 steam locomotives, most of them 4-4-0 tender locomotives. Although the railway had several branches, its remoteness has resulted in only its main line remaining today as part of the Aberdeen to Inverness Line. In 1845 the Great North of Scotland Railway was formed to build a railway from Aberdeen to Inverness; the proposed 108 1⁄4-mile route, which needed few major engineering works, followed the River Don to Inverurie, via Huntly and Keith to a crossing of the River Spey, to Elgin and along the coast via Nairn to Inverness.
Branch lines to Banff, Portsoy and Burghead would total 30 1⁄2 miles. At the same time the Perth & Inverness Railway proposed a direct route over the Grampian Mountains to Perth, the Aberdeen, Banff & Elgin Railway suggested a route that followed the coast to better serve the Banffshire and Morayshire fishing ports. Three private bills were presented to Parliament seeking permission to build a railway, but the Aberdeen, Banff & Elgin failed to raise funds, the Perth & Inverness Railway was rejected because the railway would be at altitudes that approached 1,500 feet and needed steep gradients; the Great North of Scotland Railway Act received Royal Assent on 26 June 1846. In the aftermath of the railway mania railway companies became an unpopular investment and the necessary finance could not be raised; the company suggested at a meeting in November 1849 that whereas £650,000 was needed for a double-track railway from Aberdeen to Inverness, only £375,000 would be needed for a single-track railway from Kittybrewster, 1 1⁄2 miles from Aberdeen, to Keith, half way to Inverness.
The meeting recommended that the bridges and works be built wide enough for a second track when this was needed. Construction began in November 1852, albeit to Huntly, 12 1⁄2 miles short of Keith, with William Cubitt as engineer; the severe winter the following year delayed work. Between Inverurie and Aberdeen the line took over the Aberdeenshire Canal, the purchase of which delayed construction as it was necessary to settle the claims of each shareholder individually. After an inspection by the Board of Trade, the railway opened to goods on 12 September 1854 and approval for the carriage of passengers was given two days later; the railway was opened on 19 September, two locomotives hauling twenty-five carriages carrying 400 passengers left Kittybrewster at 11 am. The number of passengers had grown to about 650 by the time the train arrived to a celebration at Huntly at 1:12 pm. Public services began the following day. There were stations at: Kittybrewster Buxburn Dyce Kinaldie Kintore Inverury Pitcaple Oyne Buchanstone Insch Wardhouse Kennethmont Gartly HuntlyThe railway was single track with passing loops at the termini and at Kintore and Insch.
A daily goods train took up to 3 hours 40 minutes for the 39 miles, the goods to Aberdeen carried passengers and mail and spared cattle a two-day drive to market. There were three passenger services a day taking two hours, fares being 1 3⁄4 old pence a mile for first class and 1 1⁄4d for third. Although cheaper than travelling by coach, these fares and the charges for the transport of goods were considered high but not reduced for thirty years; the railway opened short of rolling stock as only half of the twelve locomotives and twenty-four of forty passenger carriages ordered had arrived. The carriage builders, Marshall & Co of Birmingham, stated that based on their experience they had expected the line to open at least two months late; the third day after opening to passengers, on 23 September, there was a collision between two trains at Kittybrewster that resulted in the death of a passenger and several serious injuries. The inquiry fo
Muirhead, North Lanarkshire
Muirhead is a small town 7 miles North-East of Glasgow city centre. Nearby villages and towns include Chryston, Gartcosh and Stepps. Muirhead has a population of around 1,390, it is a commuter town to Glasgow with road links with the A80/M80 and frequent bus services the 36, x37, x39 and x3. Muirhead is located two miles from Gartcosh and Stepps railway stations; the name may be related to the nearby Muirside. Some old documents show Muirhead with various spellings including maps by for example William Forrest. Muirhead was little more than a hamlet before a new road was built just south of Chryston at the end of the 18th century. Muirhead was in the parish of Cadder. Industries connected with Muirhead include coal and fire clay mining and distilling; the New Statistical Account of 1845 reported 40 persons in 9 families at Muirhead. Growth in the village followed the opening of The Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway in 1831. Following the First World War a cenotaph was built in 1923 at Muirhead. A primary school, St. Barbara's on Elmira Road, was opened in 1933.
The suburb has a variety of shops including a Co-operative Food, award-winning butcher and plenty of take-away food shops. Two bars which serve the area are The Crowwood; the surrounding area has one high school and two primary schools. A local development to the south of the village is Belhaven Park. Notable residents include Celtic FC footballer Kieran Tierney
Glasgow and South Western Railway
The Glasgow and South Western Railway was a railway company in Scotland. It served a triangular area of south-west Scotland between Glasgow and Carlisle, it was formed on 28 October 1850 by the merger of two earlier railways, the Glasgow, Paisley and Ayr Railway and the Glasgow and Carlisle Railway. Established in Ayrshire, it consolidated its position there and extended southwards reaching Stranraer, its main business was mineral traffic coal, passengers, but its more southerly territory was thinly populated and local traffic and goods, was limited, while operationally parts of its network were difficult. It formed an alliance with the English Midland Railway and ran express passenger trains from Glasgow to London with that company, in competition with the Caledonian Railway and its English partner, who had an easier route. In 1923 the G&SWR formed a constituent of the London Scottish Railway group. Much of the network remains active at the present day. Many of the earlier mineral workings, branches constructed to serve them, have ceased, many local passenger stations in rural areas have closed.
In 1921 the G&SWR had 1,128 miles of line and the company’s capital was about £19 million. In the early 1830s, there were several mineral railways operating in Scotland; the successful operation of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway as an inter-city line, the Grand Junction Railway reaching northwards, caused railway promoters in the west of Scotland to consider that one day, there might be a through railway line to London. The Glasgow, Paisley and Ayr Railway was authorised in 1838, opened its line to Ayr in 1840, it was a locomotive railway, in due time it opened its branch line from Dalry to Kilmarnock, with the intention of extending to Carlisle to meet up with whatever railway might reach that city from the south. The GPK&AR had anticipated constructing its authorised line and the extension, but by 1846 there was a frenzy of competing schemes that threatened to destroy the Company's core business. Few of these were realistic, but the GPK&AR itself felt obliged to promote numerous branches, many of them tactical, in order to keep competing schemes out.
This period of railway promotion was followed by a slump, when money was difficult to come by, these factors prevented the GPK&AR from bringing its Carlisle extension into reality. Enthusiasm for a connection to English railways continued and was intensified by the promotion of other schemes to link central Scotland and England. Interests friendly to the GPK&AR formed the Glasgow and Carlisle Railway to extend from the southern extremity of the GPK&AR to Carlisle. Opposing promoters put forward a so-called central line via Carstairs and Beattock, that had the advantage of a shorter mileage, the capacity to serve Edinburgh directly, but the disadvantage of much heavier gradients and running through a less populous area; this route became known as the Annandale Route. The GD&CR was authorised by Act of Parliament, but the rival Caledonian Railway had had authorisation for building its line on the Annandale route; the GD&CR and the GPK&AR formed the definite intention of merging. However more realistic expectations emerged and by Acts of 1846 and 1847 it was determined that the two companies would merge when the GD&CR had completed construction of its line.
The GPK&AR extended as far as Horsecleugh and the GD&CR reached an end-on junction there, completing the through line on 28 October 1850. Accordingly on 28 October 1850 the G&SWR was formed. Although this was described as a merger, the reality was that the penniless GD&CR was dissolved, its operation was taken over by the GPK&AR, the latter company changed its name to the G&SWR; the GPK&AR had been working the GD&CR's line for it. The new company had lines: from Bridge Street in Glasgow to Ayr; the trains on the Dumfries line now ran through to Carlisle, an arrangement having been made with the Caledonian Railway to permit this. However the CR did not encourage the G&SWR and only on 1 March 1851 was a booking clerk given accommodation at Carlisle Citadel passenger station; this was granted on an undertaking that the G&SWR would never interfere with the business of the CR or the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway, tolls were charged for use of the line from Gretna, for bulk goods passing through Carlisle, whether transshipped or not.
The CR ensured that all traffic between south of Carlisle and Glasgow or Edinburgh was routed over its own line. The accounts for the first half year, produced in Ma
Airdrie, North Lanarkshire
Airdrie is a town in North Lanarkshire, Scotland. It lies on a plateau 400 ft above sea level, is 12 miles east of Glasgow city centre. Part of Lanarkshire, Airdrie forms part of a conurbation with its neighbour Coatbridge, in the former district known as the Monklands; as of 2012, the town had a population of around 37,130. The origin of Airdrie's name first appeared in the Register of the Great Seal of Scotland in 1373 as Ardre. By 1546 it had become Ardry and by 1587 it was known as Ardrie. In 1630 it appeared in the Register as Airdrie. Given the topography of the area, the most interpretation is that the name derives from the Gaelic An Àrd Ruigh meaning a level height or high pasture land. Another possibility is that it is from the Gaelic An Àrd Àirighe meaning a sheiling, a summer pasture/shepherd's hut. A third possibility is the Gaelic Ard Reidh meaning a high plain. Chapelhall, Caldercruix, Glenmavis, Longriggend, Moffat Mills, Stand and Wattston are considered satellite villages of Airdrie.
North Lanarkshire Council divides Airdrie into the following wards and areas: Ward 7 – Airdrie North: Glenmavis, Plains, Thrashbush, Holehills, Greengairs, Longriggend Ward 8 – Airdrie Central: Airdrie Town Centre, Coatdyke, North Cairnhill, Central Park Area, Rawyards Ward 11 – Airdrie South: Craignuek, Moffat Mills, Calderbank, South Cairnhill, Gartness Chalmers' claim in his book Caledonia of a link between the modern town of Airdrie and the ancient battle of Arderyth has no evidence to back it up and is therefore best regarded as spurious. Under the patronage of King Malcolm IV of Scotland Cistercian monks established an abbey at Melrose in 1136. Five years a daughter house was founded at Newbattle Abbey in Lothian. In 1160 Malcolm granted to the monks of Newbattle lands in central Scotland which became known as the "Munklands". Malcolm's Charter constitutes the oldest documentary record of place-names in the Monklands; the area of land granted by the Charter is defined by direct reference to geographical and topographical features thus: Dunpeldre by its right boundaries, namely with Metheraugh and Mayeuth and Clarnephin as far as Dunduffes in the east.
The name Dunpeldre is found in the modern name Drumpellier. The one thing this Charter does not make any reference to is anything resembling Airdrie yet this is where Airdrie is located. Airdrie owes its existence to its location on the'Hogs Back' – a ridge of land running from east to west. One important aspect of the town's history was the Cistercian monks of Newbattle Abbey, why the area is called the Monklands; the monks were farmers and some of their place names survive, e.g. Ryefield and Whifflet. Much of the land they used is known today as'The Four Isles': Mull, Islay and Luing in the Petersburn area of modern Airdrie; the monks of Newbattle had numerous establishments throughout the area including a farm grange at Drumpellier, Coatbridge, a court house at Kipps, a chapel in the area of Chapelhall and a number of corn mills. The Monks were expert in the construction of roads. In the 12th century, they established the original Glasgow to Edinburgh road via Airdrie and Bathgate, to link up with their lands in Newbattle in East Lothian.
In those days travelling was dangerous. Horses could only be afforded by the rich. Low-lying ground was extremely difficult to navigate because of the numerous bogs and burns – not to mention the possibility of ambush by a footpad or robber. Hence, it became much more practical to travel on the high ground where one could avoid the mud and the robbers; these roads became known as the King's Highway. Definitive evidence of the existence of Airdrie as a tenantry was only made clear in 1503; the old monks' road was via Cliftonhill, Airdrie House, Aitchison Street, High Street, Hallcraig Street, Flowerhill Street and Colliertree Road. It was along this road. Development was slow and it was only around 1650 that evidence of the number of inhabitants was known at around 500 for the Airdrie area. A large contingent of Airdrieonians fought at the Battle of Bothwell Brig during the Covenanter Rebellion of 1679. A significant event in Airdrie's history was the 1695 passing of a special Act of Parliament in the Scottish Parliament allowing Robert Hamilton of Airdrie to hold four fairs yearly and a weekly market in the town of'Airdry'.
This helped develop Airdrie from a'farm town' into a thriving'market town'. However, Airdrie came to prominence through its weaving industry. Airdrie Weavers Society was founded in 1781 and flax was being grown in sixteen farms in and around the burgh. In the last decade of the eighteenth century, coal mining was in progress and around thirty colliers were employed. Weaving continued to flourish making up a substantial part of the population of over 2,500 around the turn of the 19th century. Given its large number of weavers, its geo
Charles Tennant was a Scottish chemist and industrialist. He founded an industrial dynasty. Born at Laigh Corton, Ayrshire to John Tennant and his second wife, Margaret McClure; the family were friends with local poet Robert Burns. In Burns' epistle to "James Tennant of Glenconner" Tennant is mentioned as "wabster Charlie"; this referring to the occupation on which Tennant had embarked, namely silk weaving, being apprenticed at the village of Kilbarchan, Renfrewshire. Charles was the ninth of John Tennant's sixteen children; as a baby, he moved from Laigh corton farm to Glenconner, Ayrshire He was fortunate to receive schooling both at home and at the Ochiltree parish school. He was apprenticed by his father to a master handloom weaver; this was a paid occupation, requiring great skill and considerable intelligence. Weavers were to be envied at the end of the eighteenth century for weaving had developed into Scotland's first industry, the counterpart of the woolen industry in England. Most farmers grew flax for their wives to spin and this, along with imported cotton, provided the material for many newly established cotton mills.
Tennant was quick to learn his trade, but to see that the growth of the weaving industry was restricted by the primitive methods used to bleach the cloth. At that time this involved treatment with stale urine and leaving the cloth exposed to sunlight for many months in so called bleachfield. Huge quantities of unbleached cotton piled up in the warehouses. Tennant left, he acquired bleaching fields in 1788, at Darnley, near Barrhead and turned his mind and energy to developing ways to shorten the time required in bleaching. Others had managed to reduce bleaching time from eighteen months to four by replacing sour milk with sulphuric acid. Further, in the last half of the eighteenth century, bleachers started to use lime in the bleaching process, but only in secret due to possible injurious effects. Tennant had the original idea that a combination of chlorine and lime would produce the best bleaching results, he worked on this idea for several years and was successful. His method proved to be effective and harmless.
He was granted patent #2209 on 23 January 1798. He continued his research and developed a bleaching powder for which he was granted patent #2312 on 30 April 1799. While still working in the bleachfields around the year 1794, Tennant formed a partnership with four friends; the first of these, Dr. William Couper, was the legal advisor to the partnership; the second partner was Alexander Dunlop. The third partner, James Knox, managed the sales department. Charles Macintosh, an excellent chemist, was the fourth partner, he is known for his technique of macintosh waterproofing and he assisted in the invention of bleaching powder. After granting of the patent on bleaching and his partners purchased land on the Monkland Canal, just north of Glasgow, to build a factory for the production of bleaching liquor and powder; the area was known after a French holy man. It was close to a good supply of lime, since the area was rural, the land was cheap. Additionally, the nearby canal provided excellent transportation.
Production was swiftly moved from the earlier bleachfields in Darnley, to the new plant in St. Rollox, it became successful. Production increased from 1799, to over 9200 tons the fifth year. A second plant was built at Hebburn, raising production of bleaching powder alone to 20 000 tons by 1865. In 1798 James Knox and Robert Tennant, went to Ireland where they struck a deal with the Irish bleachers, for the use of the process. Although the Irish bleachers admitted a saving of over GB£160,000 in 1799 alone, by using the Tennant process, they never paid for its use as agreed; as a result, the partnership lost a great deal in money. Further losses came from challenges to the patents in England and Ireland and the outright infringement of the process. In spite of these worrisome problems the partnership was a great success, it continued for fourteen years. Charles continued to expand his horizons during this time; when the partnership ended he purchased the company. As a forward thinking business man, he was in a class by himself.
His company, during the 1830s and 1840s was the largest chemical plant in the world. As a dedicated reformer Charles played his full part in the movements of the day. A great deal of unrest followed the Napoleonic wars, which had the effect of increased wealth for the manufacturing classes but poverty for the working classes. Charles and his son John were active in a time, he worked for many years in the reform movement, but it was not until he reached the age of sixty-four that his effort bore fruit with the passage of the Reform Bill of 1832. Following on from the success of the reform Bill of 1832 Charles appears to have been a leading light in the movement to honour Scotland's Political Martyr Thomas Muir of Huntershill, A public dinner was organised to take place on 17 January 1838, Charles was to chair the event at Mosesfield house, the home of James Duncan Esq. Charles was indisposed and unable to attend, his ideas and active support helped create one of the most productive periods of social progress and reform, in every area, in Scotland's history.
Charles Tennant, in spite of the many demands on
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
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The Highland Railway was one of the smaller British railways before the Railways Act 1921, operating north of Perth railway station in Scotland and serving the farthest north of Britain. Based in Inverness, the company was formed by merger in 1865, it continued to expand, reaching Wick and Thurso in the north and Kyle of Lochalsh in the west serving the counties of Caithness, Ross & Cromarty, Perth, Nairn and Banff. Southward it connected with the Caledonian Railway at Stanley Junction, north of Perth, eastward with the Great North of Scotland Railway at Boat of Garten, Elgin and Portessie. During the First World War the British Navy's base at Scapa Flow, in the Orkney Islands, was serviced from Scrabster Harbour near Thurso; the Highland Railway provided transport, including a daily Jellicoe Express passenger special, which ran between London and Thurso in about 22 hours. In 1923, the company passed on 494 miles of line as it became part of the London and Scottish Railway. Although its shorter branches have closed, former Highland Railway lines remain open from Inverness to Wick and Thurso, Kyle of Lochalsh, Keith, as well as the direct main line south to Perth.
The Great North of Scotland Railway was formed in 1845 to build a railway between Inverness and Aberdeen and so link up with the railways to the south. The proposed 108 1⁄4-mile route needed few major engineering works. At the same time, the Perth & Inverness Railway proposed a direct route over the Grampian Mountains to Perth, the Aberdeen, Banff & Elgin Railway suggested a route that followed the coast to better serve the Banffshire and Morayshire fishing ports; the Aberdeen, Banff & Elgin failed to raise funds and the Perth & Inverness Railway was rejected by Parliament because the railway would be at altitudes that approached 1,500 feet and needed steep gradients. The Great North of Scotland Railway Act received Royal Assent on 26 June 1846. Two years the railway mania bubble had burst and the necessary finances could not be raised. Construction began in November 1852, albeit only 39 miles to Huntly, this line was opened on 19 September 1854. An extension to Keith, halfway between Aberdeen and Inverness, opened on 11 October 1856.
The 15-mile Inverness & Nairn Railway was given permission for a line between Inverness and Nairn, together with a 1⁄2-mile branch to Inverness Harbour, on 24 July 1854. The line opened ceremonially on 5 November 1855 when a train of thirty vehicles goods wagons fitted with seats, made a return journey. Intermediate stations opened at Culloden, Fort George and Cawdor. Three trains a day ran between Inverness and Nairn, horse-drawn coaches providing a link to Keith and thereby Aberdeen via the Great North of Scotland Railway; the Inverness & Nairn planned an extension as far as Elgin. The GNoSR offered £40,000 towards a bridge and the Inverness and Aberdeen Junction Railway was given authority for a line from Nairn and Keith in July 1856. A temporary station at Dalvey, west of the River Findhorn, opened on 22 December 1857, to close when the line extended to Elgin on 25 March 1858. Keith, the GNoSR, was reached on 18 August 1858. Three services a day ran between Inverness and Aberdeen, Aberdeen being reached in between 5 hours 55 minutes to 6 hours 30 minutes.
The Spey Bridge was unfinished when the line opened, so passengers walked across the adjacent road bridge as the locomotive was detached and crossed before the carriages were hauled over by ropes. The Inverness and Aberdeen Junction absorbed the Inverness & Nairn in 1861; the Morayshire Railway had opened a 5 1⁄2-mile line between Lossiemouth and Elgin on 10 August 1852, public services starting the next day. Permission was granted to the Morayshire to run over the IAJR to Orton and to build a branch to Rothes; the IAJR opened the line on 18 August 1858 and the Morayshire started running services on 23 August. Conflict soon arose between the IAJR and Morayshire Railway, the directors of the Morayshire responded with plans to build their own line between the two stations; the Great North sponsored the new line and offered to provide services after the lines had been physically connected. Permission was granted on 3 July 1860, goods were carried from 30 December 1861 and passengers from 1 January 1862.
The Morayshire was operated by the Great North of Scotland from 1866 and was absorbed in 1881. Between Forres and Elgin two branches opened; the IAJR opened a 5 1⁄2-mile branch from Alves to Burghead on 22 December 1862. The Inverness & Ross-shire Railway was given permission on 3 July 1860 to build a railway the 31 miles from Inverness to Invergordon. After the section to Dingwall was complete and given the necessary permission by the Board of Trade on 10 June 1862, the line opened to traffic the following day; the terminus at Inverness was not situated to allow through traffic, so additional platforms were built on the west side and the layout arranged as a Y. The Rose Street curve joined the two lines, most arriving trains would take this curve past the station and reverse into the platforms, allowing easy interchange and through carriages; the line to Invergordon opened on 25 March 1863, delayed due to conflict over the line crossing the Ferry Road at Findon. The original plans were for a level crossing, but following protests a brid