Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
George M. Bibb
George Mortimer Bibb was an American politician and the seventeenth United States Secretary of the Treasury. Bibb was born in Prince Edward County, graduated from Hampden–Sydney College in 1791, graduated from the College of William & Mary studied law, he was admitted to the bar and practiced law in Lexington, Kentucky. After making a permanent move to Kentucky he was elected to the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1806, 1810 and again in 1817, he was appointed a judge of the Kentucky Court of Appeals in 1808 and chief justice through 1810. In 1811 he was elected to the United States Senate from Kentucky and served until 1814 when he again returned to Lexington to work as a lawyer, he moved to Frankfort, Kentucky in 1816 and sided with the New Court faction in the Old Court-New Court controversy in the 1820s. He was again named Chief Justice of the Kentucky Court of Appeals in 1827, he was re-elected to the United States Senate in 1829 and served as a Jacksonian Democrat through 1835. During the 21st Congress he was chairman of the U.
S. Senate Committee on Post Office and Post Roads, he was chancellor of the Louisville Chancery Court from 1835 through 1844 and in 1844 became President John Tyler's fourth United States Secretary of the Treasury serving through 1845. He was a aged man when he assumed his Treasury position, dressing "in antique style, with kneebreeches." Bibb's Annual Report on the State of the Finances for 1844 consisted of an elaborate compilation of statistics detailing the financial history of the nation since 1789. In addition, he presented a solid argument for the establishment of a "sinking fund," accumulated through regular deposits and used to pay the interest and principal on the national debt. Bibb advocated using Treasury surplus revenue from customs and internal revenue collection to supply the sinking fund; such a fund had been used to reduce the deficit from 1789 to 1835, but Bibb was unable to revive it. After this he was a lawyer in Washington, D. C. and an assistant in the U. S. Attorney General's office.
He was an active Freemason. He was the first master of Russellville Lodge No. 17, Russellville and was master of Hiram Lodge No. 4, in Frankfort. He was past master of Lexington Lodge No. 1 at Lexington, served as secretary in 1804. In 1804 he was grand master of Kentucky, he died in Georgetown, D. C. in 1859, is buried in Frankfort Cemetery. George M. Bibb at Find a Grave Allen, William B.. A History of Kentucky: Embracing Gleanings, Antiquities, Natural Curiosities and Biographical Sketches of Pioneers, Jurists, Statesmen, Mechanics, Farmers and Other Leading Men, of All Occupations and Pursuits. Bradley & Gilbert. Pp. 258–259. Retrieved 2008-11-10. United States Congress. "George M. Bibb". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
William Lindsay (Kentucky politician)
William Lindsay was a Democratic U. S. Senator from Kentucky from 1893 to 1901. Born near Lexington, Lindsay attended the common schools and settled in Clinton, Kentucky in 1854. There he studied law, he was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Clinton in 1858. During the American Civil War, Lindsay served in the infantry in the Confederate States Army from July 1861 until May 1865, after which he resumed the practice of law in Clinton. Linsay was a member of the Kentucky Senate from 1867 to 1870, he served as judge of the Kentucky Court of Appeals from 1870 to 1878, served as chief justice of the court from 1876 to 1878. He resumed the practice of law in Frankfort, Kentucky, he again joined the Kentucky Senate, serving from 1889 to 1893. He served as United States Commissioner to the World's Columbian Exposition, held at Chicago, Illinois, in 1893. Lindsay was elected to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of John G. Carlisle, he was reelected, served in total from February 15, 1893, until March 3, 1901, chaired the Committee on Indian Depredations and the Committee on Revolutionary Claims.
He was not a candidate for renomination in 1900, but instead moved to New York City and practiced law. He was appointed United States Commissioner to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis, Missouri, in 1901, he died in Frankfort, was interred in the State Cemetery. United States Congress. "William Lindsay". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Dictionary of American Biography. "William Lindsay and the 1896 Party Crisis." Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 66: 22-23. Johnson, E. Polk. A History of Kentucky and Kentuckians: The Leaders and Representative Men in Commerce and Modern Activities. Lewis Publishing Company. Pp. 683–685. Retrieved 2008-11-10. McAfee, John J.. Kentucky politicians: sketches of representative Corncrackers and other miscellany. Louisville, Kentucky: Press of the Courier-Journal job printing company. Pp. 109–112
James Guthrie (Kentucky)
James Guthrie was a Kentucky lawyer, plantation owner, railroad president and Democratic Party politician. He served as the 21st United States Secretary of the Treasury under President Franklin Pierce, became president of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. After serving, part-time, in both houses of the Kentucky legislature as well as Louisville's City Council before the American Civil War, Guthrie became one of Kentucky's United States Senators in 1865. Although Guthrie opposed Kentucky's secession from the United States and attended the Peace Conference of 1861, sided with the Union during the Civil War, he declined President Abraham Lincoln's offer to become the Secretary of War; as one of Kentucky's Senators after the war, Guthrie supported President Andrew Johnson and opposed Congressional Reconstruction. Guthrie was a director of the Louisville and Portland Canal Company, the first president of the University of Louisville, presided over the Kentucky Constitutional Convention of 1849.
During the Civil War, Guthrie resisted federal pressure to nationalize the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, but allowed the Union to use it to move troops and supplies. James Guthrie was born on December 5, 1792 near Bardstown, Nelson County, Kentucky to General Adam Guthrie and his wife, the Pennsylvania-born Hannah Polk. Though his grandparents emigrated from Ireland, Guthrie was of Scottish descent, and his ancestor James Guthrie was a Scottish clergyman executed in 1661 after the Restoration of King Charles I. Adam Guthrie moved from Virginia across the Appalachian Mountains into Kentucky and married Hannah Polk in 1788, they would have five daughters who survived to adulthood. Having fought Native peoples until they left the area after the American Revolutionary War, the senior Guthrie developed a large plantation in Nelson County, twice won election to the Kentucky General Assembly. James Guthrie received some of his early education in a log schoolhouse. During his father's military campaigns, Guthrie studied at McAllister's Military Academy in Bardstown.
In 1812, young James Guthrie took a job on a flatboat transporting goods down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to New Orleans, Louisiana. After three such trips, he decided to change careers, began to study law under Judge John Rowan, along with Ben Hardin and Charles A. Wickliffe. In 1821, Guthrie married Eliza Churchill Prather; the couple had three daughters--Mary Elizabeth, Ann Augusta, Sarah Julia-- before Eliza Prather Guthrie died in 1836. Sarah Julia Guthrie married chemist J. Lawrence Smith, after whom the J. Lawrence Smith Medal is named. Admitted to the Kentucky bar in 1817, Guthrie began his private legal practice in Bardstown. In 1820, Governor John Adair appointed Guthrie as Commonwealth's Attorney for Jefferson County, whereupon Guthrie relocated to what was the town of Louisville. In 1824, he served on a committee which sought to have Louisville recognized by the state legislature as a city; the effort failed, but Guthrie was elected to the town's board of trustees, became its chair.
The following year, Guthrie became a director of the newly formed Louisville and Portland Canal Company. He helped secure federal funding for a bypass around the Falls of the Ohio. However, although Kentucky's long-time Senator Henry Clay supported such internal improvements, his political opponent Andrew Jackson when elected president, cut off these funds shortly after taking office in 1829. Guthrie secured private funds and the canal was completed in late 1830. Within a few years, steamboats became too wide for the canal, their high smokestacks interfedered with bridges, so it became more an impediment than an aid. Jefferson County voters elected Guthrie, who ran as a Democrat, to the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1827. In his first year, he chaired the Internal Improvements Committee. In this capacity, he promoted construction of a number of roads and canals, as well as a railroad connecting Louisville to Frankfort. During his service in the House, Guthrie came to chair the Committee on the Courts of Justice.
In 1828, Guthrie mustered enough support to secure city status for Louisville. He was elected to the new city council, became chair of its most powerful committee, the finance committee. Guthrie served in the House until 1831, when he was elected to the Kentucky Senate. Fellow legislators twice chose him President Pro Tempore, he served on the Education Committees. In 1834, Guthrie helped found the State Bank of Kentucky, served as one of its directors, he unsuccessfully ran for a seat in the U. S. Senate in 1835. Back in Louisville, Guthrie advocated constructing a new building to house both city and county government offices. Secretly, he hoped Kentucky's capital would be moved to Louisville and that building would become the state's capitol. However, the Panic of 1837 halted the courthouse's construction, as well as the water works and a bridge over the Ohio River connecting Louisville to Indiana; some called the unfinished courthouse "Guthrie's Folly", but it was still touted as Louisville sought to become the state's capitol in 1842.
All three projects were completed, Guthrie's Folly became the Jefferson County Courthouse. In 1836, a dispute arose among the me
James B. Beck
James Burnie Beck was a United States Representative and Senator from Kentucky. Born in Dumfriesshire, Beck immigrated to the United States in 1838 and settled in Wyoming County, New York, he moved to Lexington, Kentucky in 1843 and graduated from Transylvania University in 1846. Beck commenced the practice of law in Lexington; until shortly before the Civil War, he was law partner of John C. Breckinridge, the U. S. Vice President who became a Confederate general. After the war Beck was elected as a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives serving Kentucky's district 7, he was appointed to the Committee on Reconstruction where it was expected that as a newcomer and an immigrant he would be no obstacle to Republican intentions, but he became a tenacious advocate of the rights of the defeated states. He was elected to the Fortieth and to the three succeeding Congresses, serving in all from March 4, 1867 to March 3, 1875. In 1876, Beck was appointed a member of the commission to define the boundary line between Maryland and Virginia.
He was elected to the United States Senate in 1876, being reelected twice and serving in all from March 4, 1877, until his death in Washington, D. C. on May 3, 1890. While in the Senate, Beck was the Democratic Conference Chairman from 1885 to 1890, the chairman of the Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard, he was prominent in the discussion of currency questions. He is interred at Lexington Cemetery, his son, George T. Beck, was a noted entrepreneur in the state of Wyoming. List of United States Senators born outside the United States List of United States Congress members who died in office United States Congress. "James B. Beck". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. U. S. Congress. Memorial Addresses for James Beck. 51st Cong. 2nd sess. from 1890 to 1891. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1891. Gilman, D. C.. "Beck, James Burnie". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Wilson, J. G.. "Beck, James Burnie". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography.
New York: D. Appleton
John A. Whitaker
John Albert Whitaker was a U. S. Representative from Kentucky. Whitaker was born in Kentucky, he attended the public schools, Bethel College, the University of Kentucky. He studied law, attained admitted to the bar in 1926, commenced practice in Russellville, he was Logan County Attorney from 1928 to 1948, a delegate to all the State Democratic conventions from 1924 to 1950. Whitaker was elected as a Democrat to the Eightieth Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Earle C. Clements, he was reelected to the Eighty-first and Eighty-second Congresses and served from April 17, 1948, until his death in Russellville, December 15, 1951. He was interred in Russellville's Maple Grove Cemetery. Whitaker was the grandson of Addison James, who served in Congress. List of United States Congress members who died in office United States Congress. "John A. Whitaker". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. John A. Whitaker at Find a Grave John Albert Whitaker, Late a Representative from Kentucky.
Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. 1952. This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
Kentucky House of Representatives
The Kentucky House of Representatives is the lower house of the Kentucky General Assembly. It is composed of 100 Representatives elected from single-member districts throughout the Commonwealth. Not more than two counties can be joined to form a House district, except when necessary to preserve the principle of equal representation. Representatives are elected to two-year terms with no term limits; the Kentucky House of Representatives convenes at the State Capitol in Frankfort. The first meeting of the Kentucky House of Representatives was in Lexington, Kentucky, in 1792, shortly after statehood. During the first legislative session, legislators chose Frankfort, Kentucky to be the permanent state capital. After women gained suffrage in Kentucky, Mary Elliott Flanery was elected as the first female member of the Kentucky House of Representative, she took her seat January 1922 and was the first female legislator elected south of the Mason–Dixon line. In 2017, the Republican party became the majority party in the House.
Section 47 of the Kentucky Constitution stipulates that all bills for raising revenue must originate in the House of Representatives. According to Section 32 of the Kentucky Constitution, a state representative must: be a citizen of Kentucky, be at least 24 years old at the time of election, have resided in the state at least 2 years and the district at least 1 year prior to election. Per section 30 of the Kentucky Constitution, representatives are elected every two years in the November following a regular session of the General Assembly; the Speaker of the Kentucky House of Representatives is the chief presiding officer of the Kentucky House. The Speaker's official duties include maintaining order in the House, recognizing members during debate, appointing committee chairs and determining the composition of committees, determining which committee has jurisdiction over which bill. Traditionally, the Speaker has served as Chair of the Rules Committee and the Committee on Committees; when the Speaker is absent from the floor or otherwise unavailable, the Speaker pro tempore fills in as the chief presiding officer of the House.
In addition to the Speaker and Speaker pro tem, each party caucus elects a floor leader, a whip, caucus chair. † Winner of a special election Kentucky Legislature Kentucky Senate Government of Kentucky American Legislative Exchange Council members Legislative Research Commission