The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to 100 ares and primarily used in the measurement of land as a metric replacement for the imperial acre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres, in 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the are was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 ares or 1⁄100 km2. When the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units, the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, the metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. At the first meeting of the CGPM in 1889 when a new standard metre, manufactured by Johnson Matthey & Co of London was adopted, in 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units, the are did not receive international recognition. The units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, many farmers, especially older ones, still use the acre for everyday calculations, and convert to hectares only for official paperwork.
Farm fields can have long histories which are resistant to change, with names such as the six acre field stretching back hundreds of years. The names centiare, deciare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the base unit of area. The centiare is a synonym for one square metre, the deciare is ten square metres. The are is a unit of area, equal to 100 square metres and it was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside of the modern International System of Units. It is commonly used to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, and in French-, Portuguese-, Slovakian-, Serbian-, Czech-, Polish-, Dutch-, in Russia and other former Soviet Union states, the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large, the decare is derived from deka, the prefix for 10 and are, and is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East, the hectare, although not strictly a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area that is accepted for use within the SI.
The United Kingdom, United States, and to some extent Canada instead use the acre, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used particularly when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation. In many countries, metrication redefined or clarified existing measures in terms of metric units, non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Carl Gottfried Neumann was a German mathematician. Neumann was born in Königsberg, Prussia, as the son of the mineralogist and mathematician Franz Ernst Neumann, Carl Neumann studied in Königsberg and Halle and was a professor at the universities of Halle, Basel, Tübingen, and Leipzig. While in Königsberg, he studied physics with his father, and as a working mathematician, Weber described Neumanns professorship at Leipzig as for higher mechanics, which essentially encompasses mathematical physics, and his lectures did so. Maxwell makes reference to the theory developed by Weber and Neumann in the Introduction to A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field. Neumann worked on the Dirichlet principle, and can be considered one of the initiators of the theory of integral equations. The Neumann series, which is analogous to the geometric series 11 − x =1 + x + x 2 + ⋯, together with Alfred Clebsch Neumann founded the mathematical research journal Mathematische Annalen. The Neumann boundary condition for certain types of ordinary and partial differential equations is named after him, Edmund F.
Carl Neumann, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews. Carl Neumann at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Cheng, A. and D. T. Cheng and early history of the boundary element method, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements,29, 268–302
Fortifications of Copenhagen (17th century)
The fortifications of Copenhagen underwent a comprehensive modernization and expansion in the 17th century. The project was commenced and was largely the masterplan of Christian IV in the early 17th century but was continued and completed by his successors, the ring fortification consisted of four bastioned ramparts and an annexed citadel as well as various outworks. Today only the Christianshavn Rampart and the citadel Kastellet remain intact, Christian IVs modernization of the fortifications of Copenhagen commenced in 1606 and would take 20 years to complete. The course of the fortifications was kept but Slotsholmen was now incorporated into the complex. A large bastion in masonry was constructed on its southwestern tip, in the same time, Østervold was taken around parts of Bremerholm to meet the sea. A total of 12 bastions were constructed and just outside the entire fortification a moat was dug, due to topographical variations in the terrain, it was constructed as a series of basins, separated by dams, to solve the problem of variations in the terrain.
The uppermost basin was fed by water from Peblingesøen, the Western and Northern City Gates were renovated and given tall spires and a new Eastern City Gate was built. From 1618-23 Christianshavn was laid out and incorporated as a market town. Strategically situated in the middle of a shallow-watered, marshy area north of Amager, the rampart was constructed with four and a half bastions and a gate, known as Amager Gate. To guard the entrance to the port, a blockhouse was constructed on the shallow-watered Refshaleø in 1624. On the Zealand side of the harbour, north of the city and this work was begun in 1627. As part of his aspirations to strengthen Copenhagen as a regional centre, as early as 1606, when his modernization of the fortifications began, he had purchased 200 hectares of land outside the Eastern City Gate. His intention was to redevelop this area into a new district referred to as Ny København or Sankt Annæ By, the plan was to change the course of Østervold, which at that time made a bend and ran along what is today Gothersgade and Kongens Nytorv.
The new Østervold would be an extension of Nørrevold, connecting it to Sankt Annæ Skanse. However, the 1630s was a time of crisis and both Sankt Annæ Skanse and the new course of Østervold was delayed with no major work going on during that decade. After both Jutland and Scania had been occupied by forces in the first half of the 1640s. The new Østervold was constructed and a new project for the fortress at Sankt Annæ Skanse, in 1840 Christian VIII appointed a national defense commission which two years recommended that the existing fortifications be decommissioned. At the outbreak of the First Schleswig War in 1848, nothing had happened, in 1852, the Line of Demarcation was partially disabandoned but work to maintain and improve the ramparts were carried out as late as 1856-57
Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger was a Danish scientist and professor of pathological anatomy who won the 1926 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Fibiger had claimed to find an organism he called Spiroptera carcinoma that caused cancer in mice and he received a Nobel prize for this discovery. Later, it was shown that this organism was not the primary cause of the tumors. Moreover, Katsusaburo Yamagiwa, only two in 1915 successfully induced squamous cell carcinoma by painting crude coal tar on the inner surface of rabbits ears. Yamagiwas work has become the basis for this line of research. Because of this, some consider Fibigers Nobel Prize to be undeserved particularly because Yamagiwa did not receive the prize, encyclopædia Britannicas guide to Nobel Prizes in cancer research mentions Yamagiwas work as a milestone without mentioning Fibiger. Fibiger became a doctor in 1890 and studied under Robert Koch. He received his doctorate from the University of Copenhagen in 1895 and became a professor of Pathological Anatomy.
While studying tuberculosis in lab rats, Fibiger found tumors in some of his rats and he discovered that these tumors were associated with parasitic nematode worms that had been living in some cockroaches that the rats had eaten. He thought that these organisms may have been the cause of the cancer, in fact, the rats had been suffering from a vitamin A deficiency and this was the main cause of the tumors. The parasites had merely caused the irritation that drove the damaged cells into cancer. Although the specific link between parasites and cancer was largely ignored, it was discovered that tissue damage by parasites causes cancer and this was an important advance in cancer research and epidemiology. Parasites such as Schistosoma haematobium, Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis are now established to cause cancer in humans, one of his experiments from 1898 is regarded by some as the first controlled clinical trial. Nobel Lectures, Physiology or Medicine 1922–1941, Elsevier Publishing Company, modlin, I M, Kidd, M, Hinoue, T.
Of Fibiger and fables, a tale of cockroaches and Helicobacter pylori. Gluud, C N. Ugeskrift for Læger, stolley, P D, Lasky, T. Johannes Fibiger and his Nobel Prize for the hypothesis that a worm causes stomach cancer. Nobel Prize Biography Biography from WhoNamedIt Biography from YourDictionary
Anton Laurids Johannes Dorph, usually known as Anton Dorph was a Danish painter who is remembered for his altarpieces and his paintings of fishermen. Dorph entered the Danish Academy in 1845 where he studied under Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg, he received lessons from Wilhelm Marstrand. After winning the Academys silver medal, he began to exhibit portraits, with his portrait of the actor C. N. Rosenkilde which was displayed in the foyer of the Royal Danish Theatre he became well known. His full-figured portrait of the sulptor Evens brought him the Neuhausen Prize in 1857, the same year he began painting a series of works representing the fishermen of Zealand. He turned to religious works for altarpieces. Thanks to a stipend from the Academy, he travelled to Italy where he made several paintings including Fiskere i Sorrent. His many altarpieces in the half of the 19th century are of note
There is disagreement concerning the places of Hansens birth and death. Some sources state that he was born in Durban, South Africa, another says Dresden, one source gives his place of death as Kensington and subsequent burial at Garnisons Cemetery, while another says he died in Copenhagen. Hansen was born into a wealthy and well-connected Danish family that settled first in South Africa then, after 1900 and he was educated at preparatory schools in Hazelwood, Limpsfield and Oxted, Surrey, at Eton College. His father, Viggo Julius Hansen, was naturalised as a British citizen in 1910, after officer training at the Royal Military College, Hansen was commissioned into the Lincolnshire Regiment on 4 March 1911. He was appointed as a temporary captain shortly after the outbreak of war in 1914, as Adjutant in the regiments 6th Battalion and he fought with his regiment during the Gallipoli Campaign in summer 1915. On 9 August 1915 at Yilghin Bumu, Hansens battalion was forced to withdraw while assaulting Scimitar Hill and volunteers repeatedly moved back and forth under heavy fire to successfully rescue six wounded men from capture, or death by burning.
Hansen was consequently awarded the Victoria Cross, a month later, he won the Military Cross for performing a reconnaissance mission at Suvla Bay. On the night of 9 September 1915, he carried out a reconnaissance of the coast, carrying only a revolver. He successfully located an important Turkish firing position, due to ill-health, Hansen was eventually transferred to France and appointed brigade major to the 170th Brigade. He remained an officer for the rest of the war. He was made a Companion of the Distinguished Service Order for another daring reconnaissance mission during the Battle of Passchendaele in 1917, Hansen attended the Staff College, Camberley after the war. Hansen served in Second World War, achieving the rank of Brigadier and he is one of only fourteen men not born as either a British or Commonwealth citizen to have received the Victoria Cross. Victoria Cross For most conspicuous bravery on 9th August,1915, at Yilghin Burnu, after the second capture of the Green Knoll his Battalion was forced to retire, leaving some wounded behind, owing to the intense heat from the scrub which had been set on fire.
Distinguished Service Order For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty and he volunteered to carry out a reconnaissance, and brought back valuable information obtained under heavy artillery and machine-gun fire, which had been unprocurable from other sources. Military Cross For conspicuous gallantry at Suvla Bay on 9th September,1915 and he made a reconnaissance of the coast, stripping himself and carrying only a revolver and a blanket for disguise. He swam and scrambled over rocks, which cut and bruised him. On one occasion he met a patrol of 12 Turks who did not see him and he returned to our lines in a state of great exhaustion. Mentioned in Despatches five times Croix de Guerre with Bronze Star Officer of the Legion of Merit Commander of the Royal Order of St Olav
Inger Christensen was a Danish poet, novelist and editor. She is considered the foremost Danish poetic experimentalist of her generation, born in the town of Vejle, on the eastern Jutland coast of Denmark, Christensens father was a tailor, and her mother a cook before her marriage. After graduating from Vejle Gymnasium, she moved to Copenhagen and, later, to Århus and she received her certificate in 1958. During this same period, Christensen began publishing poems in the journal Hvedekorn, and was guided by the noted Danish poet and critic Poul Borum, whom she married in 1959 and divorced in 1976. Her most acclaimed work of the 1960s, was It, which, on one level, explored social and aesthetic issues, but more deeply probed large philosophical questions of meaning. The work, almost incantatory in tone, opposes issues such as fear and love and power and powerlessness. ”In the 1981 poetry collection Alfabet, Christensen used the alphabet along with the Fibonacci mathematical sequence in which the next number is the sum of the two previous ones.
As she explained, The numerical ratios exist in nature, the way a leek wraps around itself from the inside, and her system ends on the n, suggesting many possible meanings including “n’s” significance as any whole number. Sommerfugledalen of 1991 explores through the structure the fragility of life and mortality. Christensen wrote works for children, radio pieces, and numerous essays, the most notable of which were collected in her book Hemmelighedstilstanden in 2000. In 1978, she was appointed to the Royal Danish Academy, in 1994, she became a member of the Académie Européenne de Poésie, in 2001 and she won the Grand Prix des Biennales Internationales de Poésie in 1991, She received the Rungstedlund Award in 1991. Her works have translated into several languages, and she was frequently mentioned as a candidate for the Nobel Prize in literature. Both versions were, recorded by Ars Nova Copenhagen with poetry reading by the poet, archived from the original on 4 July 2013. Poem of Christensen painted on a wall in Copenhagen Obituary in The Independent by Marcus Williamson
Verner Panton is considered one of Denmarks most influential 20th-century furniture and interior designers. During his career, he created innovative and futuristic designs in a variety of materials, especially plastics and his style was very 1960s but regained popularity at the end of the 20th century, as of 2004, Pantons most well-known furniture models are still in production. Panton was an experienced artist in Odense, next, he studied architecture at the Royal Danish Academy of Art in Copenhagen, during the first two years of his career, 1950–1952, he worked at the architectural practice of Arne Jacobsen, another Danish architect and furniture designer. Panton turned out to be an enfant terrible and he started his own design and he became well known for his innovative architectural proposals, including a collapsible house, the Cardboard House and the Plastic House. Near the end of the 1950s, his designs became much more unconventional. In 1960 Panton was the designer of the very first single-form injection-moulded plastic chair, the Stacking chair or S chair, became his most famous and mass-produced design resulting organic shapes inspired by the human body requirements, the tongue.
He is perhaps best known for a series of designs for Bayers yearly product exhibition, held aboard excursion boats. He is known for a hotel in Europe that utilized circular patterns and cylindrical furniture
Garrison Church, Copenhagen
The Garrison Church is a church at Sankt Annæ Plads in Copenhagen, Denmark. In the 17th century, Copenhagen had become home to a sizeable garrison, a military church was built at Kastellet in 1670, but its modest size only allowed it to serve the personnel at the fortress. The rest of the troops in the city had to use Church of Holmen, when Sophie Amalienborg burned down in 1689, its chapel survived the flames and was subsequently put at the disposal of the Army. However, the building which had been built for members of the royal court only served as a temporary solution. When Frederick IV ascended the throne in 1699, he moved the project to a site in the southernmost section of Sophie Amalienborgs former gardens, construction began in 1703, still to Müllers design but under the supervision of Domenico Pelli. The following year it was decided to build the church to a larger and somewhat modified design, the church was inaugurated on 24 March 1706