WPPN is an FM radio station licensed to Des Plaines, Illinois that targets the Chicago metropolitan area. WPPN broadcasts on 106.7 MHz with a Spanish AC format. Due to WPPN's 50,000-watt signal and north suburban location, it can be heard through much of the Rockford and Southern Wisconsin area; the station began broadcasting December 3, 1971, holding the call sign WYEN. The station was owned by Walt-West Enterprises. WYEN aired an all-request format branded "Request Radio". Contemporary and middle of the road music was played on the station."Request Radio" continued airing on the station through the mid–1980s. In 1986, the station was sold to Flint Metro Mass Media for $8 million. On September 1, 1986 the station's call sign was changed to WZRC, the station adopted a hard rock/heavy metal format, becoming the first affiliate of the syndicated Z Rock network. In October 1987, the station's call sign was changed to WTWV, the station adopted a new-age/smooth jazz/soft rock format as "The Wave"; the station was an affiliate of the Satellite Music Network, with programming originating on KTWV in Los Angeles.
In 1989, the station was sold to Salem Communications for $9,250,000, the station adopted a Christian contemporary music format, with its call sign being changed to WYLL. However, the format was short lived, as Salem replaced the Christian contemporary music with Christian talk programming. By 1991, Christian contemporary music was relegated to weekends. Christian talk and teaching programs heard on WYLL included shows hosted by Alistair Begg, Chuck Swindoll, Adrian Rogers, Chuck Smith, Beverly LaHaye, Jay Sekulow, James Dobson, Hank Hanegraaff and Sandy Rios; as a Christian talk and teaching station, WYLL was branded "Your Station For Life" and "Chicago's Word". In 2000, Salem acquired WXRT 1160 for $29 million. In February 2001, Salem moved the Christian talk programming of WYLL to 1160, along with the WYLL call letters. With the move of WYLL to 1160, 106.7's call sign was temporarily changed to WYLL-FM. In early March 2001, the station adopted Christian contemporary format branded "106.7 The Fish", with the slogan "Safe for the Whole Family".
The station was launched with "40 nights" of commercial free music. Shortly thereafter, the station's call sign was changed to WZFS. "The Fish" branding was used by Salem for Christian contemporary stations in other markets, such as Atlanta, on WFSH-FM 104.7, Los Angeles, on 95.9 KFSH-FM. In 2004, Salem agreed to trade WZFS and KSFB 100.7 in the San Francisco area to Univision in exchange for KOBT 100.7 in the Houston area, KHCK 1480 in Dallas, KOSL-FM 94.3 in Sacramento, 560 WIND in Chicago. On November 1, 2004, Univision launched a Spanish-language adult contemporary format on the station, branded "Pasion 106.7". The station's call sign was changed to WPPN shortly thereafter. In October 2005, Univision tweaked the music blend of WPPN, but left the name and the personalities of "Pasion" in place, with the station shifting to a Spanish oldies/adult hits format. On January 28, 2009, sister station WVIV-FM changed its format to Spanish oldies and WPPN adopted a Spanish CHR/Hurban format as "La Kalle."On July 1, 2011, WPPN changed their format back to Spanish adult contemporary, re-branded as "Pasion 106.7", while the previous "La Kalle" format moved to WVIV-FM 103.1 FM/WVIX 93.5 FM.
In March 2014, WPPN rebranded as "Amor 106.7". WPPN transmits in HD Radio. Spanish Rock music is broadcast on the HD2 station under the name "Planeta Rock - Solamente Rock en Espanol". WPPN Website Query the FCC's FM station database for WPPN Radio-Locator information on WPPN Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WPPN
WLS-FM is a commercial FM radio station licensed to serve Chicago, Illinois. The station is owned by Cumulus Media, through licensee Radio License Holdings, LLC, broadcasts a classic hits format. WLS-FM has its studios is located at the NBC Tower on North Columbus Drive in the city's Streeterville neighborhood, the station broadcasts from a tower located atop the Willis Tower at. WLS-FM uses HD Radio, simulcasts the talk radio programming of sister station WLS AM on its HD2 subchannel; the station was launched in 1948 as WENR-FM, owned by the American Broadcasting Company and simulcasting sister station WENR, which shared the 890 kc. frequency with Prairie Farmer-owned WLS. In 1954 WENR and WLS merged their AM stations into one, jointly owned by American Broadcasting-Paramount Theatres and Prairie Farmer and retaining the WLS call letters. WENR-FM began simulcasting WLS, adopted its own separate programming formats for part of the day; the station was operated out of a broom closet with minimal personnel in hopes that FM broadcasting would grow.
In 1964, WENR-FM became WLS-FM, with a beautiful music format broadcasting in stereo from Noon to Midnight, as well as Blackhawks home games. By 1968, WLS-FM expanded its hours on the air to 6 a.m. to Midnight, simulcasting WLS's Clark Weber morning show from 6 to 8 a.m. and carrying Don McNeill's Breakfast Club from 8 to 9 AM. In the summer of 1968, WLS-FM experimented with a locally produced underground progressive rock show. Dubbed "Spoke", using the tag-line "The Flash That Holds The Wheel Of Life Together", the program aired from 10 PM to midnight and featured unnamed announcers using stage-whisper delivery laden with plate reverb, obtuse biker-style free verse intros delivered over backgrounds of electronic music, mid-eastern music and sound effects, it was replaced in 1969 with a syndicated program from the ABC Radio Network entitled "Love", voice-tracked by "Brother John" Rydgren, which aired from 7 PM to 1 AM. Shortly afterwards, WLS-FM adopted a full-time progressive rock format; the station adopted an AOR format when WLS-FM changed call signs to WDAI in 1971 in order to establish a separate identity from WLS and WLS-TV.
The joke at the time was that "DAI" stood for "Develop An Identity". The WDAI call letters had been intended for Detroit's WXYZ-FM, but the FCC instead assigned WDAI to replace WLS-FM and WRIF to WXYZ-FM; the call sign changes were part of the ABC-owned FM group's 1971 AOR format conversions in New York, Detroit, San Francisco, Houston and Los Angeles. WDAI became the original Chicago radio home of Steve Dahl in January 1978, used the slogan "Chicago's Best Rock" with the Morning Sickness with Steve Dahl. WDAI switched to all-disco as Disco "DAI" at the stroke of midnight on New Years 1979 - marking the switch by going from Don McLean's "American Pie" to "Staying Alive" by the Bee Gees. Steve Dahl would wind up the morning host at former crosstown rival WLUP, would anchor the "Disco Demolition Night" promotion in July 1979 that would be cited as a harbinger for the genre's popular collapse in America during 1980; the station stayed with the disco craze until 7 AM on May 22, 1980, after stunting by playing Donna Summer's "Last Dance" on a loop, 94.7 became WRCK-FM, "95 W-ROCK", an Adult Top 40/Oldies hybrid, featured Bob Sirott in mornings for a brief time.
The 1978 switch to disco was the first in a series of format changes that continued up to its switch to classic hits in October 2012. In December 1980, WRCK-FM switched to a Top 40 format with a partial-simulcast of WLS, changed call signs back to WLS-FM; the simulcast included Larry Lujack during the morning drive and Brant Miller's evening show into the mid-1980s, while airing its own programming during the day. WLS-FM was thereafter programmed separately during simulcast WLS AM at night. On January 20, 1986, WLS-FM ended the AM simulcast and became known as WYTZ "Z-95"; the station aired a rock-leaning Top 40 format, but by the late 1980s, the station was more mainstream, as competitor B96 focused on R&B and dance music. WYTZ, rebranded as "Hell" and Hot 94.7 in March 1991, could not withstand the competition from "B96". After a couple years of low ratings, WYTZ again became WLS-FM at 7 p.m. on October 25, 1991. After playing "Everybody's Talkin'" by Harry Nilsson, the station switched formats to talk, again simulcasting WLS AM much of the time.
On June 13, 1994, WLS-FM split off from simulcasting and launched its own "Young Talk" format featuring Robert Murphy, Rich Roeper, Rush Limbaugh, Jay Marvin, Lise Dominique, Turi Ryder and Johnny Vonn, as a way to compete against WLUP-FM's hot talk format. This failed to turn around ratings, WLS-FM went back to a full-time simulcast once again with WLS on June 2, 1995. After still achieving low ratings, WLS-FM separated from WLS AM again on November 22, 1995. After stunting with Christmas music throughout November and December, the station switched to a country music format and became 94.7 Kicks Country, WKXK, at Noon on December 26. The first song aired on "Kicks Country" was "Gone Country" by Alan Jackson. However, Infinity station WUSN continued to do well as the heritage country station, while WKXK was unable to achieve mediocre ratings. On May 1, 1997, WKXK dropped the country format and flipped
A baseball field called a ball field, sandlot or a baseball diamond, is the field upon which the game of baseball is played. The term can be used as a metonym for a baseball park. Unless otherwise noted, the specifications discussed in this section refer to those described within the Official Baseball Rules, under which Major League Baseball is played; the starting point for much of the action on the field is home plate, a five-sided slab of whitened rubber, 17 inches square with two of the corners removed so that one edge is 17 inches long, two adjacent sides are 8.5 inches and the remaining two sides are 12 inches and set at an angle to make a point. The plate is set into the ground such. Adjacent to each of the two parallel 8.5-inch sides is a batter's box. The point of home plate where the two 12-inch sides meet at right angles is at one corner of a 90-foot square; the other three corners of the square, in counterclockwise order from home plate, are called first and third base. Three canvas or rubber bases 15 inches square and 3–5 inches in thickness made of soft material mark the three bases.
Near the center of the square is an artificial hill known as the pitcher's mound, atop, a white rubber slab known as the pitcher's plate, colloquially the "rubber." The specifications for the pitcher's mound are described below. All the bases, including home plate, lie within fair territory. Thus, any batted ball that touches those bases must be in fair territory. While the first and third base bags are placed so that they lie inside the 90-foot square formed by the bases, the second base bag is placed so that its center coincides with the "point" of the ninety-foot square. Thus, although the "points" of the bases are 90 feet apart, the physical distance between each successive pair of base markers is closer to 88 feet; the lines from home plate to first and third bases extend to the nearest fence, stand or other obstruction and are called the foul lines. The portion of the playing field between the foul lines is fair territory; the area within the square formed by the bases is called the infield, though colloquially this term includes fair territory in the vicinity of the square.
Most baseball fields are enclosed with a fence. The fence is set at a distance ranging from 300 to 420 feet from home plate. Most professional and college baseball fields have a right and left foul pole; these poles are at the intersection of the foul lines and the respective ends of the outfield fence and, unless otherwise specified within the ground rules, lie in fair territory. Thus, a batted ball that passes over the outfield wall in flight and touches the foul pole is a fair ball and the batter is awarded a home run. First base is the first of four bases that must be touched by a player on the batting team in order to score a run. Unlike when an offensive player reaches second or third base, it is permissible for a batter-runner to overrun first base without being in jeopardy of being put out. After contact is made with the base, the batter-runner may slow down and return to first base at his leisure, so long as he makes no move or attempt to advance to second base; the first baseman is the defensive player responsible for the area near first base.
A professional first baseman is a slow runner and tall. A tall first baseman presents a large target to which other fielders can throw, his height gives him a larger range in reaching and catching errant throws. Players who are left-handed are marginally preferable for first base because: first, it is easier for a left-handed fielder to catch a pick-off throw from the pitcher and tag the baserunner. A right-handed first baseman must, when setting himself up to receive a throw from an infielder, execute a half-pivot near the base. There are three infield positions that can only be occupied by right-handed players: 2nd base, 3rd base, shortstop; this is. It takes a left-handed thrower more time to make that pivot and in the fast-paced major league game, that time is critical; as a result, there are fewer positions a left-handed player can occupy, if that player is not fast, the outfield may not be a good fit. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the first baseman is assigned the number 3.
Second base is the second of four stations on a baseball diamond which must be touched in succession by a base runner in order to score a run for that player's team. Second base is defended by the second baseman and the shortstop. Second base is known as the keystone sack. A runner on second base is said to be in "scoring position," owing to the high likelihood of reaching home plate and scoring a run from second base on most base hits. Since second is the farthest base from home plate, it is the most common target of base stealing. Ideally, the second baseman and shortstop possess quick hands and feet and the ability to release the ball and with accuracy. One will cover second base when the other attempts to field the ball. Both players must communicate well to be able to make a double play. Particular agility is required of the second baseman in double play situations, which forces the player to t
Comiskey Park was a baseball park in Chicago, located in the Armour Square neighborhood on the near-southwest side of the city. The stadium served as the home of the Chicago White Sox of the American League from 1910 through 1990. Built by White Sox owner Charles Comiskey and designed by Zachary Taylor Davis, Comiskey Park hosted four World Series and more than 6,000 Major League Baseball games. In one of the most famous boxing matches in history, the field was the site of the 1937 heavyweight title match in which Joe Louis defeated champion James J. Braddock in eight rounds that launched Louis' unprecedented 11-plus year run as the heavyweight champion of the world; the Chicago Cardinals of the National Football League called Comiskey Park home when they weren't playing at Normal Park or Soldier Field. They won the 1947 NFL Championship Game over the Philadelphia Eagles at Comiskey Park. Much less popular than the Bears, the Cardinals' last season at Comiskey was 1958, they left for St. Louis in March 1960.
The Chicago American Giants of the Negro American League called Comiskey Park home from 1941–1950. Adjacent to the south, a new ballpark opened in 1991, Comiskey Park was demolished the same year. Called Comiskey Park, it was renamed U. S. Cellular Field in 2003 and Guaranteed Rate Field in 2016; the park was built on a former city dump that Comiskey bought in 1909 to replace the wooden South Side Park. White Sox Park, within three years it was renamed for White Sox founder and owner Charles Comiskey; the original name was restored in 1962 it changed back to Comiskey Park in 1976. Comiskey Park was modern for its time, it was the third concrete-and-steel stadium in the major leagues to be built since 1909. As built, it seated 32,000, a record at the time, it retained the nickname "The Baseball Palace of the World." The park's design was influenced by Sox pitcher Ed Walsh, was known for its pitcher-friendly proportions. Changes were made, but the park remained more or less favorable to defensive teams.
For many years this reflected on the White Sox style of play: solid defense, short, quick hits. The park was unusual in that no player hit 100 home runs there: Carlton Fisk set the record with 94; the first game in Comiskey Park was a 2–0 loss to the St. Louis Browns on July 1, 1910; the first no-hitter at Comiskey Park was in 1935, hurled by Vern Kennedy on August 31, a 5–0 win over Cleveland. The Sox won their first home night game, over St. Louis on August 14, 1939, 5–2. Comiskey Park was the site of four World Series. In 1917, the Chicago White Sox won games 1, 2 and 5 at Comiskey Park and went on to defeat the New York Giants four games to two. In 1918, Comiskey Park hosted the World Series between the Chicago Boston Red Sox; the Cubs borrowed Comiskey Park for the series because of its larger seating capacity. The Red Sox defeated the Cubs four games to two. Games one and three were played at Comiskey Park; the Red Sox won games three. Attendance was under capacity in that war year; the best crowd was game 3, with some 27,000 patrons.
In 1919, the White Sox lost the infamous "Black Sox" World Series to the Cincinnati Reds, five games to three in a nine-game series. Games three, four and eight were played at Comiskey Park; the White Sox won game three and lost games four and eight. In 1959, the White Sox lost four games to two to the Los Angeles Dodgers. Games one and six were played at Comiskey Park; the White Sox lost games two and six. With their win in Game 6 at Comiskey Park, the Los Angeles Dodgers became the first West Coast team to win a World Series. Comiskey saw its last post-season action in 1983, when the White Sox lost the American League Championship Series to the Baltimore Orioles, 3 games to 1, with games 3 and 4 in Chicago. Baltimore went on to win the World Series. Comiskey Park was the site of three Major League Baseball All-Star Games, each marked a turn in the direction of dominance by one league or the other: The first-ever All-Star Game was held in 1933, it began as a promotion by Arch Ward, sports editor of the Chicago Tribune, in connection with the 1933 Century of Progress Exposition being held on Chicago's lakefront.
The Americans defeated the Nationals, helped in part by a home run by Babe Ruth, nearing the end of his career, but could still swing a mighty bat. The game inaugurated a stretch when the Americans dominated, winning 12 of the first 16; the park next hosted the July classic in 1950, a game best remembered for Ted Williams' collision with the outfield wall that broke his elbow and ended his playing season. Less remembered is that it began a turnaround for the Nationals, who won the game in extra innings and started to win a trend that continued for more than three decades, building up an astounding 30 wins against only 6 losses and 1 tie; the 50th Anniversary All-Star Game in 1983 was held at Comiskey Park in commemoration of the first All-Star Game at that same venue. The American League's lopsided win, including the first-ever grand slam in an All-Star Game, by Fred Lynn, turned out to signal an end to the National League's dominance in the mid-summer classic. During the last eight years of the park's existence the Americans went 5-3.
Hosting a winning All-Star Game was a good omen for the Sox, as they won their division in 1983, the first baseball title of any kind in Chicago since the Sox won the 1959 pennant. Comiskey Park was the most frequent home to the Negro League East-West All-Star Game from 1933 to 1960; the Negro Leagues' All-Star
The American League of Professional Baseball Clubs, or the American League, is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball in the United States and Canada. It developed from the Western League, a minor league based in the Great Lakes states, which aspired to major league status, it is sometimes called the Junior Circuit because it claimed Major League status for the 1901 season, 25 years after the formation of the National League. At the end of every season, the American League champion plays in the World Series against the National League champion. Through 2018, American League teams have won 66 of the 114 World Series played since 1903, with 27 of those coming from the New York Yankees alone; the New York Yankees have won 40 American League titles, the most in the league's history, followed by the Philadelphia/Kansas City/Oakland Athletics and the Boston Red Sox. A minor league known as the Western League which existed 1885 to 1899, with teams in Great Lakes states, the newly organized Western League developed into a rival major league after the previous American Association disbanded after ten seasons as a competitor to the older National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, founded in 1876.
In its early history of the late 1880s, the minor Western League struggled until 1894, when Ban Johnson became the president of the league. Johnson led the Western League into elevation as claiming major league status and soon became the president of the newly renamed American League of Professional Baseball Clubs in 1901; the American League was founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin at the former Republican Hotel by five Irishmen. George Herman Ruth, noted as one of the most prolific hitters in Major League Baseball history, spent the majority of his career in the American League with the Boston Red Sox and the New York Yankees; the American League has one notable difference versus the rival National League, in that in modern times since 1973 it has had the designated hitter rule. Under the rule, a team may use a batter in its lineup, not in the field defensively, replacing the pitcher in the batting order, compared to the old rule that made it mandatory for the pitcher to bat. In the last two decades, the season schedule has allowed occasional interleague play.
Until the late 1970s, league umpires working behind home plate wore large, balloon-style chest protectors worn outside the shirt or coat, while their brethren in the National League wore chest protectors inside the shirt or coat. In 1977, new umpires had to wear the inside chest protector, although those on staff wearing the outside protector could continue to do so. Most umpires made the switch to the inside protector, led by Don Denkinger in 1975 and Jim Evans the next year, although several did not, including Bill Haller, Lou DiMuro, George Maloney, Jerry Neudecker, who became the last MLB umpire to use the outside protector in 1985. In 1994, the league, along with the National League, reorganized again, into three divisions and added a third round to the playoffs in the form of the American League Division Series, with the best second-place team advancing to the playoffs as a wild-card team, in addition to the three divisional champions. In 1998, the newly franchised Tampa Bay Devil Rays joined the league, the Arizona Diamondbacks joined the National League: i.e. each league each added a fifteenth team.
An odd number of teams per league meant that at least one team in each league would have to be idle on any given day, or alternatively that odd team out would have had to play an interleague game against its counterpart in the other league. The initial plan was to have three five-team divisions per league with inter league play year-round—possibly as many as 30 interleague games per team each year. For various reasons, it soon seemed more practical to have an number of teams in both leagues; the Milwaukee Brewers agreed moving from the AL Central to the NL Central. At the same time, the Detroit Tigers were moved from the AL East to the AL Central, making room for the Devil Rays in the East. Following the move of the Houston Astros, in the NL for 51 years since beginning as an expansion team in 1962, to the American League in 2013, both leagues now consist of 15 teams, a far cry from their original 8 for the first half-century of the 20th century. For the first 96 years, American League teams faced their National League counterparts only in exhibition games or in the World Series.
Beginning in 1997, interleague games have been played during the regular season and count in the standings. As part of the agreement instituting interleague play, the designated-hitter rule is used only in games where the American League team is the home team. There were eight charter teams in 1901, the league's first year as a major league, the next year the original Milwaukee Brewers moved to St. Louis to become the St. Louis Browns; these franchises constituted the league for 52 seasons, until the Browns moved to Baltimore and took up the name Baltimore Orioles. All eight original franchises remain in the American League, although only four remain in the original cities; the eight original teams and their counterparts in the "Classic Eight" were: original Baltimore Orioles (went b
William Louis Veeck Jr. known as "Sport Shirt", was an American Major League Baseball franchise owner and promoter. Veeck was at various times the owner of the Cleveland Indians, St. Louis Browns and Chicago White Sox; as owner and team president of the Indians in 1947, Veeck signed Larry Doby, thus beginning the integration of the American League, the following year won a World Series title as Cleveland's owner/president. Veeck was the last owner to purchase a baseball franchise without an independent fortune, is responsible for many innovations and contributions to baseball. Finding it hard to financially compete, Veeck retired after the 1980 Chicago White Sox season, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1991. Bill Veeck was born on February 1914, in Chicago, Illinois. While Veeck was growing up in Hinsdale, his father, William Veeck Sr. became president of the Chicago Cubs. Veeck Sr. was a local sports writer who wrote several columns about how he would have run the Cubs differently, the team's owner, William Wrigley Jr. took him up on it.
While growing up, the younger Veeck worked as a popcorn vendor for the Cubs. In 1937, he came up with the idea of planting ivy on the walls of Wrigley Field. Veeck attended Phillips Academy in Massachusetts. In 1933, when his father died, Veeck left Kenyon College and became club treasurer for the Cubs. In 1935, he married Eleanor. In 1940, Veeck left Chicago and, in partnership with former Cubs star and manager Charlie Grimm, purchased the American Association Triple-A Milwaukee Brewers. After winning three pennants in five years Veeck sold his Milwaukee franchise in 1945 for a $275,000 profit. According to his autobiography Veeck – As in Wreck, Veeck claimed to have installed a screen to make the right field target a little more difficult for left-handed pull hitters of the opposing team; the screen was on wheels, so any given day it might be in place or not, depending on the batting strength of the opposing team. There was no rule against that activity as such, but Veeck took it to an extreme, rolling it out when the opponents batted, pulling it back when the Brewers batted.
Veeck reported that the league passed a rule against it the next day. However, extensive research by two members of the Society for American Baseball Research suggests that this story was made up by Veeck; the two researchers could not find any references to a moveable fence or any reference to the gear required for a moveable fence to work. While a co-owner of the Brewers, Veeck served for nearly three years in the United States Marine Corps during World War II in an artillery unit. During this time a recoiling artillery piece crushed his leg, requiring amputation first of the foot, shortly after of the leg above the knee. Over the course of his life he had 36 operations on the leg. He, as an inveterate smoker, cut holes in them to use as an ashtray. Veeck had been a fan of the Negro Leagues since his early teens, he had admired Abe Saperstein's Harlem Globetrotters basketball team, based in Chicago. Saperstein saved Veeck from financial disaster early on in Milwaukee by giving him the right to promote the Globetrotters in the upper Midwest in the winter of 1941–42.
In the fall of 1942, Veeck met with Gerry Nugent, president of the Philadelphia Phillies, to discuss the possibility of buying the struggling National League team. He wrote in his memoirs that he intended to buy the Phillies and stock the team's roster with stars from the Negro Leagues. Although no formal rules barred African-American players from the majors, none had appeared in organized baseball since the 1890s. Veeck secured financing to buy the Phillies, agreed in principle to buy the team from Nugent. While on his way to Philadelphia to close on the purchase, Veeck decided to alert MLB Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis of his intentions. Although Veeck knew Landis was an ardent segregationist, he did not believe Landis would dare say black players were unwelcome while blacks were fighting in World War II. By the time he arrived in Philadelphia, Veeck discovered the Phillies had been taken over by the National League and that a new owner was being sought; the authors of a controversial article in the 1998 issue of SABR's The National Pastime argued that Veeck invented the story of buying the Phillies and filling their roster with Negro leaguers, claiming Philadelphia's black press made no mention of a prospective sale to Veeck.
Subsequently, the article was challenged by historian Jules Tygiel, who refuted it point-by-point in an article in the 2006 issue of SABR's The Baseball Research Journal, in an appendix, entitled "Did Bill Veeck Lie About His Plan to Purchase the ’43 Phillies?", published in Paul Dickson's biography, Bill Veeck: Baseball's Greatest Maverick. Joseph Thomas Moore wrote in his biography of Larry Doby, "Bill Veeck planned to buy the Philadelphia Phillies with the as yet unannounced intention of breaking that color line." In 1946, Veeck became the owner of the Cleveland Indians. He put the team's games on radio, he moved the team to Cleveland Municipal Stadium permanently in 1947. The team had split their games between the larger Municipal Stadium and the smaller League Park since the 1930s, but Veeck concluded that League Park was far too small and deteriorated to be viable. In July of that year he signed the first black player to play in the American League. Doby's first game was on July 5 and before the game, Doby was introduced to his teammates by player-manager Lou Boudreau.
"One by one, Lou introduced me to each player.'Thi
A radio personality or radio presenter is a person who has an on-air position in radio broadcasting. A radio personality who hosts a radio show is known as a radio host, in India and Pakistan as a radio jockey. Radio personalities who introduce and play individual selections of recorded music are known as disc jockeys or "DJs" for short. Broadcast radio personalities may include talk radio hosts, AM/FM radio show hosts, satellite radio program hosts. Notable radio personalities include pop music radio hosts Martin Block, Dick Clark, Casey Kasem, Delilah Luke, Alan Freed, Ameen Sayani, Herb Kent, Wolfman Jack. A radio personality can be someone who discusses genres of music; the radio personality may broadcast use voice-tracking techniques. In the 2010s, radio personalities are expected to supplement their on-air work by posting information online, such as on a blog or on another web forum; this may be either to connect with listeners. With the exception of small or rural radio stations, much of music radio broadcasting is done by broadcast automation, a computer-controlled playlist airing MP3 audio files which contain the entire program consisting of music, a radio announcer's pre-recorded comments.
In the past, the term "disc jockey" was used to describe on-air radio personalities who played recorded music and hosted radio shows that featured popular music. Unlike the modern club DJ who uses beatmatching to mix transitions between songs to create continuous play, radio DJs played individual songs or music tracks while voicing announcements, comments and commercials in between each song or short series of songs. During the 1950s,'60s and'70s, radio DJs exerted considerable influence on popular music during the Top 40 radio era, because of their ability to introduce new music to the radio audience and promote or control which songs would be given airplay. Although radio personalities who specialized in news or talk programs such as Dorothy Kilgallen and Walter Winchell existed since the early days of radio, exclusive talk radio formats emerged and multiplied in the 1960s, as telephone call in shows, interviews and public affairs became more popular. In New York, WINS switched to a talk format in 1965, WCBS followed two years later.
Early talk radio personalities included Sally Jesse Raphael. The growth of sports talk radio began in the 1960s, resulted in the first all-sports station in the US, WFAN that would go on to feature many sports radio personalities such as Marv Albert and Howie Rose. FM/AM radio – AM/FM personalities play music, talk, or both; some examples are Elvis Duran, Big Boy, Kidd Kraddick, John Boy and Billy, The Bob and Tom Show, The Breakfast Club, Rickey Smiley. Talk radio – Talk radio personalities discuss social and political issues from a particular political point of view; some examples are Rush Limbaugh, Art Bell, George Noory, Brian Kilmeade, Brian Lehrer, Don Geronimo and John Gibson. Sports talk radio – Sports talk radio personalities are former athletes, sports writers, or television anchors and discuss sports news; some examples are Dan Patrick, Tony Kornheiser, Dan Sileo, Colin Cowherd, Mike Francesa. Satellite radio – Satellite radio personalities are not subject to government broadcast regulations and are allowed to play explicit music.
Howard Stern and Anthony, Dr. Laura, Chris "Mad Dog" Russo are some of the notable personalities who have made the move from terrestrial radio to satellite radio. Internet radio - Internet radio personalities appear on internet radio stations that offer news, sports and various genres of music that are carried by streaming media outlets such as AccuRadio, Pandora Radio, Slacker Radio and Jango. Radio personality salaries are influenced by years of education. In 2013, the median salary of a radio personality in the US was $28,400. 1–4 years: $15,200–39,400, 5–9 years: $20,600–41,700, 10–19 years: $23,200–51,200, 20 or more years: $26,300–73,000. A radio personality with a bachelor's degree had a salary range of $19,600–60,400; the salary of a local radio personality will differ from a national radio personality. National personality pay can be in the millions because of the increased audience size and corporate sponsorship. For example, Rush Limbaugh was paid $38 million annually as part of the eight-year $400 million contract he signed with Clear Channel Communications.
Due to radio personalities' vocal training, opportunities to expand their careers exist. Over time a radio personality could be paid to do voice-overs for commercials, television shows, movies. Universities offer classes in radio broadcasting and have a college radio station, where students can obtain on-the-job training and course credit. Prospective radio personalities can intern at radio stations for hands-on training from professionals. Training courses are available online. Many radio personalities do not have a post-high school education, but some do hold degrees in audio engineering. If a radio personality has a degree it's a bachelor's degree level qualification in radio-television-film, mass communications, journalism, or English. A radio personality position has the following requirements: Good clear voice with excellent tone and modulation Great communication skills and creativity to interact with listeners