Garth Marenghi's Darkplace
Garth Marenghi's Darkplace is a British horror parody television series created for Channel 4 by Richard Ayoade and Matthew Holness. The show focuses on fictional horror author Garth Marenghi and his publisher Dean Learner, characters who originated in the Garth Marenghi's Fright Knight stage show. Darkplace is presented as a lost classic: a television series produced in the 1980s, though only broadcast at the time; the presentation features commentary from many of the "original" cast, where characters such as Marenghi and Learner reflect on making the show. Darkplace parodies the fashion, special effects, production gaffes, music of low-budget'80s television, as well as the modern practice of including commentary tracks on DVD releases of old films and television shows. Darkplace was broadcast in a late-night timeslot, with little advertising, met with poor viewing figures, it nonetheless built up a significant internet following, leading Channel 4 to repeat the series and produce a DVD release.
In 2005, Channel 4's Film Four asked Holness and Ayoade to write a script for a movie version of their programme. The show was broadcast in the United States on the Sci-Fi Channel and Adult Swim; the spoof comedy series, released in 2004, lampoons 1980s television drama horror, sci-fi, "the rampant egotism of self-appointed'mastermind' authors." The show presents Garth Marenghi's Darkplace as though it were a real, low-budget television series, produced in the 1980s, now getting its first screening, framed as part of a director's commentary series. Darkplace's fictional show-within-a-show includes deliberately poor production and special effects, sub-par acting, choppy editing and storylines that are "severely flawed and open-ended"; this is interspersed with "present-day" interviews with the "cast". The series' fictional premise is that some time in the 1980s, best-selling horror author Garth Marenghi and his publisher/publicist, Dean Learner, made their own low-budget television series with a single intent: "to change the evolutionary course of Man over a series of half-hour episodes."
Set in Darkplace Hospital, "over the gates of Hell", in Romford, Garth Marenghi's Darkplace shows the adventures of Dr. Rick Dagless, M. D. as he fights the forces of darkness while coping with the pressures of "day to day admin." Within this fictional context, Marenghi wrote 63 teleplays from. And they did it because I knew the truth."In 2004, due to the "worst artistic drought in broadcast history", Channel 4 decided to air six of the original episodes. The makers of Darkplace endeavoured to make the show seem authentic. From "the retro Channel 4 logo at the start to the distortion of the analogue music track at the start of scenes", "the fashion... the texture of film stock," " deliberately poor continuity, cheesy lines, wooden acting and cheap special effects". Included are "present-day interviews", in which the character "Marenghi", with co-stars "Dean Learner" and "Todd Rivers", comment on the show-within-the-show; the interview segments further reveal the delusional and self-absorbed attitudes of Marenghi and Learner.
As with promotion for their earlier Perrier Award-winning stage show, the official website speaks of Garth Marenghi, other characters as though they were real people, while making no mention of the real actors. Press releases contained "realistic looking fake back stories for Marenghi and the other characters instead of making any mention of what the real cast have appeared in", an article by "Garth Marenghi" appeared in The Daily Telegraph discussing his "groundbreaking television series". "More than a few" people and media outlets were caught out by this fictional framing. The show's musical soundtrack parodies the same subjects as the writing, gained its composer Andrew Hewitt a BAFTA Nomination as Best New Composer for Film and T. V.. Matthew Holness as Garth Marenghi, "author, dream weaver, plus actor", who plays Dr. Rick Dagless, M. D.:'Dag' is a Vietnam and Falklands War veteran and former warlock. He keeps a Magnum revolver on him at all times, his wife is played by Lydia Fox. Richard Ayoade as Dean Learner, Garth's publisher, who plays Thornton Reed, a hospital administrator who bears a trademark shotgun and answers to unseen hospital boss "Won Ton".
Learner's acting is bad by the standards of the series, remarked upon in some of the in-character cast interviews. Ayoade himself stated in an interview in the Scottish Metro that "My acting is that shit. I'm not pretending"; the character Dean was in the Korean war, in which he lost a testicle and became a POW. Matt Berry as Todd Rivers, an actor who plays Dr. Lucien Sanchez: Improbably handsome with the disconcerting habit of losing lip-synch, with "impossibly coiffured hair", a voice an octave lower than it should be, he uses an automatic pistol. He served with Dag in Vietnam. All of Todd Rivers' lines are looped-in, with Matt Berry providing the most off-sync and over the top readings possible. Alice Lowe as Madeleine Wool, an actress who plays Dr. Liz Asher: a stereotypical fluffy blonde with occasional psychic powers. Madeleine Wool has disappeared since the making of the programme, it is implied through the in-character episode commentaries that Dean had something to do with her disappearance and claims she is probably
A parody. As the literary theorist Linda Hutcheon puts it, "parody... is imitation, not always at the expense of the parodied text." Another critic, Simon Dentith, defines parody as "any cultural practice which provides a polemical allusive imitation of another cultural production or practice". Parody may be found in art or culture, including literature, animation and film; the writer and critic John Gross observes in his Oxford Book of Parodies, that parody seems to flourish on territory somewhere between pastiche and burlesque. Meanwhile, the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot distinguishes between the parody and the burlesque, "A good parody is a fine amusement, capable of amusing and instructing the most sensible and polished minds; when a formula grows tired, as in the case of the moralistic melodramas in the 1910s, it retains value only as a parody, as demonstrated by the Buster Keaton shorts that mocked that genre. According to Aristotle, Hegemon of Thasos was the inventor of a kind of parody.
In ancient Greek literature, a parodia was a narrative poem imitating the style and prosody of epics "but treating light, satirical or mock-heroic subjects". Indeed, the components of the Greek word are παρά para "beside, against" and ᾠδή oide "song". Thus, the original Greek word παρῳδία parodia has sometimes been taken to mean "counter-song", an imitation, set against the original; the Oxford English Dictionary, for example, defines parody as imitation "turned as to produce a ridiculous effect". Because par- has the non-antagonistic meaning of beside, "there is nothing in parodia to necessitate the inclusion of a concept of ridicule." Old Comedy contained parody the gods could be made fun of. The Frogs portrays the hero-turned-god Heracles as a glutton and the God of Drama Dionysus as cowardly and unintelligent; the traditional trip to the Underworld story is parodied as Dionysus dresses as Heracles to go to the Underworld, in an attempt to bring back a Poet to save Athens. In the 2nd century AD, Lucian of Samosata, a Greek-language writer in Syria, created a parody of travel/geography texts like Indica and The Odyssey.
He described the authors of such accounts as liars who had never traveled, nor talked to any credible person who had. In his named book True History Lucian delivers a story which exaggerates the hyperbole and improbable claims of those stories. Sometimes described as the first Science Fiction, along the lines of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, the characters travel to the moon, engage in interplanetary war with the help of aliens they meet there, return to the earth to experience civilization inside a 200 mile long creature interpreted as being a whale; this is a parody of Ctesias' claims that India has a one-legged race of humans with a single foot so huge it can be used as an umbrella, Homer's stories of one-eyed giants, so on. Roman writers explained parody as an imitation of one poet by another for humorous effect. In French Neoclassical literature, parody was a type of poem where one work imitates the style of another to produce a humorous effect; the Ancient Greeks created satyr plays which parodied tragic plays with performers dressed like satyrs.
In classical music, as a technical term, parody refers to a reworking of one kind of composition into another. More a parody mass or an oratorio used extensive quotation from other vocal works such as motets or cantatas; the term is sometimes applied to procedures common in the Baroque period, such as when Bach reworks music from cantatas in his Christmas Oratorio. The musicological definition of the term parody has now been supplanted by a more general meaning of the word. In its more contemporary usage, musical parody has humorous satirical intent, in which familiar musical ideas or lyrics are lifted into a different incongruous, context. Musical parodies may imitate or refer to the peculiar style of a composer or artist, or a general style of music. For example, The Ritz Roll and Rock, a song and dance number performed by Fred Astaire in the movie Silk Stockings, parodies the Rock and Roll genre. Conversely, while the best-known work of Weird Al Yankovic is based on particular popular songs, it often utilises wildly incongruous elements of pop culture for comedic effect.
The first usage of the word parody in English cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is in Ben Jonson, in Every Man in His Humour in 1598: "A Parodie, a parodie! to make it absurder than it was." The next citation comes from John Dryden in 1693, who appended an explanation, suggesting that the word was in common use, meaning to make fun of or re-create what you are doing. In the 20th century, parody has been heightened as the central and most representative artistic device, the catalysing agent of artistic creation and innovation; this most prom
Man to Man with Dean Learner
Man to Man with Dean Learner is a British comedy chat show, first broadcast on Channel 4 on 20 October 2006 and released on DVD on 3 September 2007. It features Matthew Holness. Called Deano's After Dark, the show features Dean Learner chatting to a range of guest characters including folk singer Merriman Weir and horror writer Garth Marenghi. Holness and Ayoade spent time testing out material in front of a live audience in December 2005; these included Glynn Nimron, a sci-fi — or "S. F.", as he preferred it — actor with a new biography detailing his close relationship with a director. Bafta Nominated composer Andrew Hewitt, who scored Darkplace scored sections of Man to Man. An amount of the humour stems from Learner's dubious business activities and anachronistically androcentric tendencies — with Finnish model Satu Suominen being the target of many of his jibes, most of the guests having some sort of business connection to Learner, sometimes declared upfront and sometimes revealed in the course of the episode.
Original Transmission Date: 20 October 2006Marenghi discusses his humorous side and how it caused him to lose an ear, his latest movie War Of The Wasps which turns out to be an allegory for a future war with the Dutch, his new interest in painting having done one exhibition and working on another. Many elements of the Marenghi character bear similarities to fiction author Harlan Ellison. Dean Learner goes into his first of several tirades; this initial one is about philosophy. Original Transmission Date: 27 October 2006Steve'The Accelerator' Pising is known to his public as former four time Formula Five Motor Racing World Champion, he is hospitalised in the early 1990s after a horrific accident due to mysterious brake failure, which ended his motor racing career. In this episode of Man to Man, we learn of Steve's love of camels and his hatred of his brother Barry. We get a sneak peek at Dean's new reality show with Steve called The Learner. Dean has a short rant here. Pising has many similarities to British F1 champion Nigel Mansell.
Original Transmission Date: 3 November 2006Glynn Nimron is a true legend in his field. A pioneering half-Hawaiian actor most famous for his role as'Bot' in the classic Sci-Fi series Galacticops, Glynn will be celebrating the release of his 3000th film, Space Bandits From Pluto and their Pirate Pals this year. Nimron has many similarities to Star Trek actor Leonard Nimoy and speaks with a voice reminiscent of George Takei and Kryten from the British comedy series Red Dwarf. Original Transmission Date: 10 November 2006Merriman Weir is a legendary folk guitarist famed for classic songs of melancholy and regret; this is Weir's first television appearance in a 30-year career and follows his much publicised bar-fight with James Blunt at this year's Big Chill festival. Don't miss this rare and classic acoustic set. Original Transmission Date: 17 November 2006Amir Chanan is a self-confessed'Master of the Psychic Arts'. Rediscovered by a new generation of fans after his classic'Mind Fondle' appears on Richard and Judy, Amir talks to Dean about conspiracy theories, comfort feeding, mind control for the under fives and his bath-time therapy for the dispossessed.
Chanan has many similarities to Israeli psychic Uri Geller. Original Transmission Date: 24 November 2006The underrated character actor Randolph Caer grants his first television interview in 28 years following his traumatic'live' mauling by TV's Lennard Ritter. Celebrated for his groundbreaking performances in films such as Bitch Killer, Pew! What A Scorcher! and That Duck! 2:, Randolph appears on Man to Man for a birthday celebration special. Due to the death of Caer shortly before the programme's transmission, all guests from the previous five episodes were invited on to pay their respects. Over the course of the episode it is apparent that many of these guests, Dean himself, bear some responsibility for Caer's downward spiral, which began after Caer became a social pariah due to his role in Bitch Killer. Caer's career slide is similar to that of respected British director Michael Powell whose career never recovered from the critical mauling it received for Peeping Tom, a serial killer film loathed at the time by the press but which now is regarded by many, including Martin Scorsese, as a seminal masterpiece.
Garth Marenghi's Darkplace Man to Man with Dean Learner on IMDb
Richard Ellef Ayoade is a British actor, writer and television presenter. He is best known for his role as the awkward IT technician Maurice Moss in Channel 4 sitcom The IT Crowd, for which he won the 2014 BAFTA for Best Male Comedy Performance, he has worked alongside Noel Fielding, Julian Barratt, Matt Berry, Matthew Holness and Rich Fulcher. Born in Hammersmith, Ayoade served as the president of Footlights at St Catharine's College, Cambridge. Ayoade and Matthew Holness debuted their respective characters Dean Learner and Garth Marenghi at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in 2000, bringing the characters to television with Garth Marenghi's Darkplace and Man to Man with Dean Learner. Ayoade appeared in the comedy shows The Mighty Boosh and Nathan Barley, before gaining exposure and recognition for his role in The IT Crowd. After directing music videos for the Arctic Monkeys, Vampire Weekend, Yeah Yeah Yeahs and Kasabian, Ayoade wrote and directed the comedy-drama film Submarine in 2010, he co-starred in the American science fiction comedy film The Watch in 2012 and his second film, the black comedy The Double, premiered in 2013.
Ayoade has appeared on panel shows prominently on The Big Fat Quiz of the Year and served as a team captain on Was It Something I Said? in 2013. Ayoade presents the factual shows Gadget Man, its spin-off Travel Man and the 2017 revival of The Crystal Maze. Ayoade has provided his voice to a number of animated projects, including the films The Boxtrolls and Early Man, the television shows Strange Hill High and Apple & Onion. Ayoade has written two comedic books centring around film, Ayoade on Ayoade: A Cinematic Odyssey and The Grip of Film. Ayoade was born in Hammersmith, the son of a Nigerian father and a Norwegian mother, on 23 May 1977, his father was an electrical engineer. The family moved to Suffolk when he was young. At fifteen, Ayoade developed an interest for film "beyond Star Wars and Back to the Future", began exploring the works of directors Woody Allen, Ingmar Bergman and Federico Fellini. Ayoade studied at St Joseph's College and read law at St Catharine's College, where he won the Martin Steele Prize for play production and was president of the amateur theatrical club Footlights from 1997 to 1998.
He and Footlights vice-president John Oliver wrote and performed in several productions together, appearing in both Footlights' 1997 and 1998 touring shows: Emotional Baggage and Between a Rock and a Hard Place. He says that his parents would not approve of studies considered to be of the "Regency era", adding that "a non-vocational degree seemed such an outlandish indulgence". Ayoade states that his degree in law is no longer a viable "fallback" for him and that he would need to "go back to square one". Ayoade co-wrote the stage show Garth Marenghi's Fright Knight with Matthew Holness, whom he met at the Footlights, appearing in the show with Holness at the Edinburgh Fringe in 2000 where it was nominated for a Perrier Award; the show saw the debut of Holness' character Garth Marenghi, a fictional horror writer, Ayoade's character Dean Learner, Marenghi's publisher. In 2001, he won the Perrier Comedy Award for co-writing and performing in Garth Marenghi's Netherhead, the sequel to Fright Knight.
In 2004, Ayoade and Holness took the Marenghi character to Channel 4, creating the spoof horror comedy series Garth Marenghi's Darkplace. Ayoade wrote and appeared in the series, which saw Marenghi and Learner star in a 1980s television drama, never broadcast. Learner played a hospital administrator. Along with Matt Berry, Ayoade directed, co-wrote and co-starred in AD/BC: A Rock Opera, which parodies life-of-Christ rock operas and aired on BBC Three in December 2004. Ayoade was a writer on the sketch show Bruiser in 2000, which starred former Footlights president David Mitchell and Robert Webb, featured Holness. Ayoade was featured in a bit-part as a reporter in the HBO television film The Life and Death of Peter Sellers. After appearing in Julian Barratt and Noel Fielding's radio series The Boosh, Ayoade was part of the original cast of Barratt and Fielding's The Mighty Boosh television show, he was selected to play the role of dangerous villain Dixon Bainbridge. However, by the time the radio series transferred to television he was under contract by Channel 4 and was only able to act in the pilot before leaving The Boosh.
The part was taken by eventual IT Crowd co-star Matt Berry. He returned in the second series in 2005, to play the part of the belligerent shaman Saboo. Ayoade continued his association with The Mighty Boosh in the third series, reprising his role and acting as script editor. In 2005, he played the role of Ned Smanks in Chris Morris' and Charlie Brooker's sitcom Nathan Barley. Ayoade's Dean Learner character was resurrected in 2006 to host a comedy chat show, Man to Man with Dean Learner, on Channel 4; the different guests were played each week by Holness. Ayoade appeared in the satirical comedy series Time Trumpet in 2006, set in the year 2031 and saw Ayoade and other celebrities reminiscing about the year 2007 onwards. In February 2006, Ayoade began playing the technically brilliant but awkward IT technician Maurice Moss in the sitcom The IT Crowd on Channel 4, appearing alongside Chris O'Dowd, Katherine Parkinson, Chris Morris, on, Matt Berry; the series' creator Graham Linehan wrote the part for Ayoade to play.
In 2008, he won the award for an outstanding actor in a television comedy series at the Monte-Carlo Television Fe
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Stephen Edwin King is an American author of horror, supernatural fiction, science fiction, fantasy. His books have sold more than 350 million copies, many of which have been adapted into feature films, television series, comic books. King has published six non-fiction books, he has written 200 short stories, most of which have been published in book collections. King has received Bram Stoker Awards, World Fantasy Awards, British Fantasy Society Awards. In 2003, the National Book Foundation awarded him the Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters, he has received awards for his contribution to literature for his entire oeuvre, such as the World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement, the Grand Master Award from the Mystery Writers of America. In 2015, King was awarded with a National Medal of Arts from the United States National Endowment for the Arts for his contributions to literature, he has been described as the "King of Horror". King was born September 1947, in Portland, Maine, his father, Donald Edwin King, was a merchant seaman.
Donald was born under the surname Pollock, but as an adult, used the surname King. King's mother was Nellie Ruth; when Stephen King was two years old, his father left the family. King's mother raised Stephen and his older brother, David, by herself, sometimes under great financial strain; the family moved to De Pere, Fort Wayne and Stratford, Connecticut. When King was 11, his family returned to Durham, where his mother cared for her parents until their deaths, she became a caregiver in a local residential facility for the mentally challenged. King lost his belief in organized religion while in high school. While no longer religious, King chooses to believe in the existence of God; as a child, King witnessed one of his friends being struck and killed by a train, though he has no memory of the event. His family told him that after leaving home to play with the boy, King returned, speechless and in shock. Only did the family learn of the friend's death; some commentators have suggested that this event may have psychologically inspired some of King's darker works, but King makes no mention of it in his memoir On Writing.
King related in detail his primary inspiration for writing horror fiction in his non-fiction Danse Macabre, in a chapter titled "An Annoying Autobiographical Pause." King compares his uncle's dowsing for water using the bough of an apple branch with the sudden realization of what he wanted to do for a living. That inspiration occurred while browsing through an attic with his elder brother, when King uncovered a paperback version of an H. P. Lovecraft collection of short stories he remembers as The Lurker in the Shadows, that had belonged to his father. King told Barnes & Noble Studios during a 2009 interview, "I knew that I'd found home when I read that book."King attended Durham Elementary School and graduated from Lisbon Falls High School, in Lisbon Falls, Maine. He displayed an early interest in horror as an avid reader of EC's horror comics, including Tales from the Crypt, he began writing for fun while still in school, contributing articles to Dave's Rag, the newspaper his brother published with a mimeograph machine, began selling to his friends stories based on movies he had seen.
The first of his stories to be independently published was "I Was a Teenage Grave Robber". That story was published the following year in a revised form as "In a Half-World of Terror" in another fanzine, Stories of Suspense, edited by Marv Wolfman; as a teen, King won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award. From 1966, King studied at the University of Maine, graduating in 1970 with a Bachelor of Arts in English; that year, his daughter Naomi Rachel was born. He wrote a column, Steve King's Garbage Truck, for the student newspaper, The Maine Campus, participated in a writing workshop organized by Burton Hatlen. King held a variety of jobs to pay for his studies, including janitor, gas pump attendant, worker at an industrial laundry. King met his future wife, fellow student Tabitha Spruce, at the University's Fogler Library after one of Professor Hatlen's workshops. King sold his first professional short story, "The Glass Floor," to Startling Mystery Stories in 1967. After graduating from the University of Maine, King earned a certificate to teach high school but, unable to find a teaching post initially supplemented his laboring wage by selling short stories to men's magazines such as Cavalier.
Many of these early stories have been republished in the collection Night Shift. The short story The Raft was published in a men's magazine. After being arrested for driving over a traffic cone, he was fined $250 and had no money to pay the petty larceny fine. However, payment arrived for the short story The Raft, King was able to pay the fine. In 1971, King was hired as a teacher at Hampden Academy in Maine, he worked on ideas for novels. In 1973, King's novel Carrie was accepted by publishing house Doubleday. Carrie was King's fourth novel, it was written on a portable typewriter. The novel began as a short story intended for Cavalier magazine, but King tossed the first three pages of his work in the garbage can. Tabith
Edinburgh Comedy Awards
The Edinburgh Comedy Awards or Eddies are presented to the comedy shows deemed to have been the best at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in Scotland. Established in 1981, they are the most prestigious comedy prize in the United Kingdom; the awards have been directed and produced by Nica Burns since 1984. The main prize, for many years the only prize, is now known as the Best Comedy Show, is awarded "for the funniest, most outstanding, up-and-coming comic / comedy show / act" at the Fringe; the winner receives a cash prize of £10,000 and an invitation to perform at the Montreal and Chicago Just for Laughs Comedy Festivals. The Best Newcomer Award category was introduced in 1992, is given to the best "performer or act, performing their first full-length show"; the prize is £5,000. Newcomers are eligible for the Best Comedy Show Award, but no act is allowed to appear on both shortlists in the same year. A further prize, the Panel Prize, was inaugurated in 2006. All shows are eligible, the award may not be awarded at all, if the panel so choose.
This happened in 2017. In 2008, it had been awarded to "every comedian on the Fringe". Like Best Newcomer, the Panel Prize winner receives a cash prize of £5,000; the original award was created by Perrier in 1981 as a way of supporting young talent. Prior to this, there had been no award recognition for comedy shows on the Fringe; the Scotsman had introduced Fringe Firsts in 1973 for theatre. However, revues the dominant type of comedy at the Fringe, were excluded; the first Perrier in fact advertised itself as for the "most outstanding revue", thus overlooking stand-up, beginning to emerge as a force due to the influence of the alternative comedy scene. The inaugural award and £1,000 prize was presented to the Cambridge Footlights, a cast that included Stephen Fry, Emma Thompson, Hugh Laurie and Tony Slattery, their show, entitled The Cellar Tapes played at St Mary Street Hall and was promoted in the programme with the line, "one of the strongest casts for several years, has toured in southern England with great success."
The award was presented by Rowan Atkinson, who had performed with the Oxford Revue in 1976. The success of these initial winners would boost the profile of the awards. However, former Oxbridge revue members had always been able to find success in light entertainment, so the effect of the award on their careers may be exaggerated. Nonetheless, the 1981 Award retains symbolic power for new comedians wanting to find fame at the Fringe. Many other award winners and nominees have gone on to forge successful careers in comedy and the media industry including Lee Evans, Milton Jones, Garth Marenghi's Darkplace creators Richard Ayoade and Matt Holness, double act Alexander Armstrong and Ben Miller, QI panellist Alan Davies and Mock the Week panellist Chris Addison. Australian Comedian Brendon Burns has said that he is "arguably the least successful winner" of the award. A stand-up first won the award in 1987. A Best Newcomer Award was added in 1992, in 2006, the inaugural Panel Prize was given out; the panel prize was awarded to'all performers' in 2008, the £4,000 prize money was put behind their bar at the end of August party.
2013 was the first year that all three awards went to shows in Independent venues outside the so-called'big four. John Kearns won Best Newcomer, Bridget Christie won Best Show and Adrienne Truscott won the panel prize. In 2014, John Kearns became the first comedian to win Best Newcomer and Best Comedy Show in consecutive years. In 2017, for the first time, two awards were given for Best Show. No panel prize was awarded in 2017. From their inception in 1981 until 2005 the awards were sponsored by mineral water brand Perrier, during which time they were known as the Perrier Comedy Awards. Sponsorship passed to the Scottish-based bank Intelligent Finance and for 2006, the first year of their involvement, the awards were known as the if.comeddies, changing to the if.comedy awards for 2007 and 2008. In March 2009 Intelligent Finance announced; the 2009 awards were known as the Edinburgh Comedy Award, sponsored by AbsoluteRadio.co.uk. From 2010 until 2015 the awards were sponsored by Foster's Lager. Since 2016 the awards have been sponsored by lastminute.com.
In order to avoid confusion due to the frequency of name changes, past winners are now said to have won "the Eddie", a popular colloquial term for the award, rather than referring to a specific year's sponsor. In 1995, Perrier was bought by Nestlé, the subject of a long-running boycott based on alleged violations of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, leading to calls to boycott or to eliminate the awards taken up by some Fringe venues and performers, including former winners Emma Thompson, Steve Coogan, Stewart Lee and Rob Newman, led a campaign of protest against the award, beginning in 2001, called Baby Milk Action; the Nestlé boycott led to the alternative Tap Water Awards which ran from 2001 to 2006, aimed to promote access to safe supplies of drinking water and sanitation in developing countries. Multiple winners were chosen each year, including established comedians like Stewart Lee and Robert Newman, and, in the award's final year, promoter Peter Buckley Hill for his Free Fringe initiative.
The 2002 awards were criticised because no female acts were shortlisted, the second consecutive year in which, the case. In 2009, they were again criticised for all the n