Kintyre is a peninsula in western Scotland, in the southwest of Argyll and Bute. The peninsula stretches about 30 miles, from the Mull of Kintyre in the south to East Loch Tarbert in the north; the area north of Kintyre is known as Knapdale. Kintyre is long and narrow, at no point more than 11 miles from west coast to east coast, is less than two miles wide where it connects to Knapdale; the east side of the Kintyre Peninsula is bounded by Kilbrannan Sound, with a number of coastal peaks such as Torr Mor. The central spine of the peninsula is hilly moorland; the coastal areas and hinterland, are rich and fertile. Kintyre has long been a prized area for settlers, including the early Scots who migrated from Ulster to western Scotland and the Vikings or Norsemen who conquered and settled the area just before the start of the second millennium; the principal town of the area is Campbeltown, a royal burgh since the mid-18th century. The area's economy has long relied on fishing and farming, although Campbeltown has a reputation as a producer of some of the world's finest single malt whisky.
Campbeltown Single Malts include the multi-award-winning Springbank. Kintyre Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary, one of the officers of arms at the Court of the Lord Lyon, is named after this peninsula. Kintyre, like Knapdale, contains several stone age sites. Remains from the Iron Age are no less present, with the imposing Dun Skeig, a Celtic hillfort, located at the northern edge of Kintyre; the history of the presumed Pictish inhabitants of Kintyre is not recorded, but a 2nd century BC stone fort survives at Kildonan, it is not implausible that they continued to use Dun Skeig. The tip of Kintyre is just 12 miles from Ulster, there has long been interaction across the straits of Moyle, as evidenced by neolithic finds in Kintyre, such as flint tools characteristic of Antrim. In the early first millennium, an Irish invasion led to Gaelic colonisation of an area centred on the Kintyre peninsula, establishing the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata; the latter was divided into a handful of regions, controlled by particular kin groups, of which the most powerful, the Cenél nGabráin, ruled over Kintyre, along with Knapdale, the region between Loch Awe and Loch Fyne and Moyle.
The kingdom thrived for a few centuries, formed a springboard for Christianisation of the mainland. Sanda, an island adjacent the south coast of Kintyre, is associated with Ninian, the first known missionary to the Picts, contains an early 5th century chapel said to have been built by him. In 563, Columba arrived in Kintyre, to pay his respects to the kings of Dal Riata, before continuing to Iona, where he established a base for missionary activity throughout the Pictish regions beyond. Dál Riata was destroyed when Norse vikings invaded, established their own domain, spreading more extensively over the islands north and west of the mainland. Following the unification of Norway, they had become the Norwegian Kingdom of the Isles, locally controlled by Godred Crovan, known by Norway as Suðreyjar, meaning southern isles; the former territory of Dal Riata acquired the geographic description Argyle: the Gaelic coast. In 1093, the Norwegian king, launched a military campaign to assert his authority over the isles.
Malcolm, the king of Scotland, responded with a written agreement, accepting that Magnus' had sovereign authority of over all the western lands that Magnus could encircle by boat. The unspecific wording led Magnus to have his boat dragged across the narrow isthmus at Tarbert, while he rode within it, so that he would thereby acquire Kintyre, in addition to the more natural islands of Arran and Bute. Magnus's campaign had been part of a conspiracy against Malcolm, by Donalbain, Malcolm's younger brother; when Malcolm was killed in battle a short time Donalbain invaded, seized the Scottish kingdom, displaced Malcolm's sons from the throne. Donalbain's apparent keenness to do this, weakened his support among the nobility, Malcolm's son, was able to depose him. A few years following a rebellion against Magnus' authority in the Isles, he launched another, expedition. In 1098, aware of Magnus' actions, the new Scottish king, quitclaimed to Magnus all sovereign authority over the isles, the whole of Kintyre and Knapdale.
In the mid 12th century, the husband of Godred Crovan's granddaughter, led a successful revolt against Norway, transforming Suðreyjar into an independent kingdom. After his death, nominal Norwegian authority was re-established, but de-facto authority was split between Somerled's sons and the Crovan dynasty; the exact allocation to Somerled's sons is unclear, but following a family dispute, Somerled's grandson, acquired Kintyre, together with Knapdale and Jura. Donald's father, established Saddell Abbey, in 1207. In the mid 13th century, increased tension between Norway and Scotland led to a series of Battles, culminating in the Battle of Largs, shortly after which the Norwegian king died. In 1266, his more peaceable successor ceded his nominal authority over Suðreyjar to the Scottish king by the Treaty of Perth, in return for a large sum of money. Although Alexander III g
University College Cork
University College Cork – National University of Ireland, Cork is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland, located in Cork. The university was founded in 1845 as one of three Queen’s Colleges located in Belfast and Galway, it became University College, under the Irish Universities Act of 1908. The Universities Act 1997 renamed the university as National University of Ireland, a Ministerial Order of 1998 renamed the university as University College Cork – National University of Ireland, though it continues to be universally known as University College Cork. Amongst other rankings and awards, the university was named Irish University of the Year by the Sunday Times on five occasions. In 2015, UCC was named as top performing university by the European Commission funded U-Multirank system, based on obtaining the highest number of "A" scores among a field of 1200 partaking universities. UCC became the first university to achieve the ISO 50001 standard in energy management in 2011.
Queen's College, was founded by the provisions of an act which enabled Queen Victoria to endow new colleges for the "Advancement of Learning in Ireland". Under the powers of this act, the three colleges of Belfast and Galway were incorporated on 30 December 1845; the college opened in 1849 with 181 students. A year the college became part of the Queen's University of Ireland; the original site chosen for the college was considered appropriate as it was believed to have had a connection with the patron saint of Cork, Saint Finbarr. His monastery and school of learning were close by at Gill Abbey Rock and the mill attached to the monastery is thought to have stood on the bank of the south channel of the River Lee, which runs through the College lower grounds; this association is reflected in the College motto "Where Finbarr Taught, Let Munster Learn", the university motto. Adjacent to Gillabbey and overlooking the valley of the river Lee, the site was selected in 1846; the Tudor Gothic quadrangle and early campus buildings were designed and built by Sir Thomas Deane and Benjamin Woodward.
Queen's College Cork opened its doors in 1849, with further buildings added including the Medical/Windle Building in the 1860s. In the following century, the Irish Universities Act formed the National University of Ireland, consisting of the three constituent colleges of Dublin and Galway, the college was given the status of a university college as University College, Cork; the Universities Act, 1997, made the university college a constituent university of the National University and made the constituent university a full university for all purposes except the awarding of degrees and diplomas which remains the sole remit of the National University. As of 2016, University College Cork had 21,000 students; these included 15,000 in undergraduate programmes, 4,400 in postgraduate study and research, 2,800 in adult continuing education across undergraduate and short courses. The student base is supported by 2,800 academic and administrative staff; as of 2017, UCC had 150,000 alumni worldwide. Student numbers, at over 21,000 in 2016, increased from the late 1980s, precipitating the expansion of the campus by the acquisition of adjacent buildings and lands.
This expansion continued with the opening of the Alfred O'Rahilly building in the late 1990s, the Cavanagh Pharmacy building, the Brookfield Health Sciences centre, the extended Áras na MacLéinn, the Lewis Glucksman Gallery in 2004, Experience UCC and an extension to the Boole Library – named for the first professor of mathematics at UCC, George Boole, who developed the algebra that would make computer programming possible. The University completed the Western Gateway Building in 2009 on the site of the former Cork Greyhound track on the Western Road as well as refurbishment to the Tyndall institute buildings at the Lee Maltings Complex. In 2016, UCC acquired the Cork Savings Bank building on Lapps Quay in the centre of Cork city; as of 2017, the university is rolling out a programme to increase the space across its campuses, with part of this development involving the creation of a'student hub' to support academic strategy, to add 600 new student accommodation spaces, to develop an outdoor sports facility.
In 2006, the University re-opened the Crawford Observatory, a structure built in 1880 on the grounds of the university by Sir Howard Grubb. Grubb, son of the Grubb telescope building family in Dublin, designed the observatory and built the astronomical instruments for the structure; the University paid for an extensive restoration and conservation of the building and the three main telescopes, the Equatorial, the Transit Circle and Sidereostatic telescopes. In November 2009, a number of UCC buildings were damaged by flooding; the floods affected other parts of Cork City, with many students being evacuated from accommodation. The college authorities postponed academic activities for a week, indicated that it would take until 2010 before all flood damaged property would be repaired. Impacted was the newly opened Western Gateway Building, with the main lecture theatre requiring a total refit just months after opening for classes; the university is one of Ireland’s leading research institutes, with among the highest research income in the state.
In 2016, UCC secured research funding of over €96 million, a 21% increase over a five-year period and a high for the university. The university had seven faculties: Arts and Celtic Studies, Commer
King Bridei III was king of the Picts from 672 until 693. Bridei may have been born as early as 616, but no than the year 628, he was the son of King of Alt Clut. His claim to the Fortrean Kingship came through King Nechtan of the Picts. Nennius' Historia Brittonum tells us that Bridei was King Ecgfrith's fratruelis, i.e. maternal first cousin. Bridei's mother was a daughter of King Edwin of Deira. Bridei was one of the more active of Fortrean monarchs, he attacked Dunnottar in 680/681, campaigned against the Orcadian sub-kingdom in 682, a campaign so violent that the Annals of Ulster said that the Orkney Islands were "destroyed" by Bridei. It is recorded that, in the following year, in 683, War broke out between the Scots of Dál Riata under Máel Dúin mac Conaill and Bridei's Picts; the Scots attacked Dundurn in Strathearn. Dundurn was Bridei's main powerbase in a great ` nuclear' hilltop fortress; the Scots did not take Dundurn, Bridei backed up with an attack on Dunadd, the capital of Dal Riata.
We do not know if Bridei took Dunadd, but the presence of Pictish-style carvings of that time period in Dunadd may mean that he took and occupied Dunadd. The lack of reputable contemporary sources of this conflict means that not much is known about the Scottish-Pict war of 683, but it is clear that, from his base in Fortriu, Bridei was establishing his overlordship of the lands to the north, those to the south putting himself in a position to attack the Anglian possessions which existed in the far south. It is possible that Bridei was regarded by Ecgfrith as his sub-king; the traditional interpretation is that Bridei severed this relationship, causing the invervention of Ecgfrith. This led to the famous Battle of Dun Nechtain in 685, in which the Anglo-Saxon army of Ecgfrith was annihilated. One Irish source reports that Bridei was "fighting for his grandfather's inheritance", suggesting that either Ecgfrith was challenging Bridei's kingship, or more given Bridei's earlier campaigns, that Bridei was seeking to recover the territories ruled by his grandfather in Fife and Circinn, but since taken by the English.
The consequences of this battle were the expulsion of Northumbrians from southern Pictland and permanent Fortrean domination of the southern Pictish zone. Bridei's death is recorded by both the Annals of Ulster and the Annals of Tigernach under the year 693. Traditions attributed a surviving lament for Bridei's death to Saint Adomnán, abbot of Iona. Annals of Tigernach Annals of Ulster Historia Brittonum
Abernethy, Perth and Kinross
Abernethy is a village in Perth and Kinross, situated 8 mi south-east of Perth. The village's name is Brythonic, means "mouth of the Nethy"; the earliest recorded form being Apurnethige. The Nethy Burn flows down from the Ochil Hills past the present village; the name of the Nethy is believed to be cognate with that of the River Nith and Neath. The Gaelic form of the name derives from the same roots as the English name; the village was once the "capital" of the kingdom of the Picts. The parish church, which sits on land given by Nechtan,a king of the Picts, is dedicated to Saint Brigid of Kildare of, the church is said to have been founded by Dairlugdach, second abbess of Kildare, one of early Christian Ireland's major monasteries. Abernethy was the site of the Treaty of Abernethy in 1072 between William the Conqueror and Malcolm III of Scotland. Abernethy is believed to have been the seat of an early Pictish bishopric, its diocese extending westward along Strathearn. In the 12th century the bishop's seat was moved to Muthill Dunblane, so that Abernethy, no longer being a residential bishopric is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.
Abernethy remained the site of a small priory of Augustinian canons, founded 1272. In the 15th century, this priory was suppressed in favour of a collegiate church under the patronage of the Douglas Earls of Angus. Remains of the collegiate church survived until 1802 within the present village graveyard, when they were replaced by the present plain red sandstone church, still dedicated to Saint Brigid; the village has one of Scotland's two surviving Irish-style round towers. The tower stands 74 ft high, it is possible to climb to the top, using a modern metal spiral staircase; the tower was evidently built in two stages, dates to the 11th-early 12th centuries. Several pieces of Pictish or early medieval sculpture have been found in Abernethy, including an incomplete Pictish symbol stone attached to the base of the round tower; the location "Afarnach's Hall" referred to in the earliest mediaeval Arthurian literature is identified as Abernethy. The small but well stocked museum, open 2pm to 5pm from Wednesday to Sunday between May and September, has exhibits on the history of the village and holds a key to the tower.
Over the years local industry and commerce has declined. A general store is the only shop remaining on the Main Street. However, the village still manages to support a tea room. A mobile post office visits the village most weekdays. A Gala / Fete Day is held annually on the first or second Saturday in June, with a race to the top of nearby Castle Law taking place the following day; the village is located near the M90 motorway and has regular bus services connecting to nearby towns. Abernethy railway station served the village until 1955, when it was closed by the British Transport Commission. 1.^ The foundation of Abernethy is to be found in the Pictish Chronicle and links it to Nechtan Morbet. However, it may have been Nechtan nepos Uerb, the Nechtan mac Der-Ilei may have been confused with the previous two
Nechtan mac Der-Ilei
Nechtan mac Der-Ilei or Nechtan mac Dargarto was king of the Picts 706-724 and 728-729. He succeeded his brother Bridei in 706, he is associated with significant religious reforms in Pictland. He became a monk. In 728 and 729 he fought in a four-sided war for the Pictish throne, it has been argued that Nechtan son of Derile should be identified with the Nechtan son of Dargart mentioned in the Annals of Ulster in 710. Dargart is taken to be the Dargart mac Finguine who died in 686, a member of the Cenél Comgaill kindred of Dál Riata. On this basis, because Bede mentions that the Picts allowed for matrilineal succession in exceptional cases, it is thought that Der-Ilei was Nechtan's mother. Other brothers and half-brothers of Nechtan and Bridei would include Ciniod or Cináed, killed in 713, Talorgan son of Drest, a half-brother or foster-brother, held captive by Nechtan in the same year, Congas son of Dar Gart who died in 712. A number of figures, including the Talorgan son of Drest, king of Atholl, executed by drowning in 739, the Talorgan son of Congus, defeated in 731 and drowned in 734, his unnamed brother, may be associated with Nechtan's family.
Bede claimed that relations between the Northumbria were peaceful in his time. However, the Annals of Ulster for 711 report a Pictish defeat at Northumbrian hands, "in Mag Manonn" in the area around Stirling where the kingdom of Manau had once been, where Finnguine son of Deile Roith was killed. Nothing more is known of Finnguine, but as he bore Nechtan's paternal grandfather's name, it may be that he was a kinsman of the Pictish king. Bede's Ecclesiastical History includes a letter from Abbot Ceolfrid of the twin monasteries of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow to Nechtan on the subject of the dating of Easter, sent around 710. Ceolfrid assumes his correspondent is an educated man, going some way to justifying Thomas Owen Clancy's description of Nechtan as a philosopher king. Nechtan was convinced by Ceolfrid, the expulsion of clergy associated with Iona in 717 may be related to the controversy over Easter and the manner of tonsures. Portrayed as a struggle between the so-called Celtic Church and Rome, it is evident that the majority of Irish clerics had long accepted the Roman method of calculating the date of Easter.
As well as providing Nechtan with guidance on the Easter controversy, Ceolfrid sent masons and craftsmen to aid in building stone churches. Bede's claim that Nechtan dedicated his kingdom to Saint Peter has led to Nechtan being linked to the Peterkirks at Rosemarkie, Duffus and elsewhere in north-east Scotland. Two sons of Nechtan are thought to have died in 710, it is not known whether he had any surviving sons or daughters; the Annals of Tigernach note, in 724. Although the identification must be uncertain, it is assumed that this Drest is the son of Nechtan's half-brother. King Drest may not have had a secure hold on power. One Simul son of Drest yet another sibling of Nechtan, was imprisoned by Drest in 725. In the same year, Brec of Fortriu died, he is assumed from the context to be the bishop of Fortriu certainly appointed by Nechtan and the earliest known bishop in Pictland. In 726, Drest had Nechtan imprisoned; this may have involved no more than removing the former king from one monastery, where he had friends and influence, to another where Drest's partisans were in control.
In 728, Óengus son of Fergus defeated the shadowy Alpín. It seems that at this time, if not earlier, Nechtan had left the monastic life and was warring with Drest and Alpín. After Alpín was defeated a second time, the Annals of Tigernach say that Nechtan was restored to the kingship. A battle between Óengus's army and Nechtan's enemies at Monith Carno ended with the defeat of Nechtan's enemies, among whom are named Biceot son of Moneit, Finguine son of Drostan and Feroth son of Finguine. After being restored to power, Nechtan reigned until 732, he was succeeded by Óengus. It has been suggested that the St Andrews Sarcophagus was commissioned by Óengus to hold Nechtan's remains, although it is more supposed that the sarcophagus was for Óengus himself. Nechtan's attachment to Saint Peter may have led chroniclers, writing in a period when Saint Andrew was of far greater importance, to have emphasised ninth-century kings who had supported the cult of Saint Andrew. A number of traditions associating earlier Pictish kings named Nechtan with the monastic foundation at Abernethy may have confused them with this Nechtan.
Nechtan's ecclesiastical reforms are seen as having led to closer links between Pictland and Northumbria, with notable results in artistic forms. His expulsion of Ionan clerics, rather than being a submission to Rome and Northumbria marks the coming of age of an independent Pictish church, which nonetheless remained close to Iona and to Ireland. In addition, it speaks to a considerable degree of royal control over the church in Pictland, which appears to have been contentious in the ninth century. Annals of Ulster, part 1 at CELT, translation. Annals of Tigernach at CELT, translation in progress. Bede's Ecclesiastical History and the Continuation of Bede, at CCEL, translated by A. M. Sellar
Thomas Mowbray Charles-Edwards is an emeritus academic at Oxford University. He held the post of Jesus Professor of Celtic and is a Professorial Fellow at Jesus College, he was educated at Ampleforth College before reading History at Corpus Christi College, where he studied for a doctorate after taking the Diploma in Celtic Studies under Sir Idris Foster. He studied at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies from 1967 to 1969, he was a Junior Research Fellow and a Fellow in History at Corpus Christi College before being appointed to the chair of Celtic. His expertise is in the fields of the history and language of Wales and Ireland, during the so-called Irish Dark Age and the general "Dark Ages", which followed the collapse of the Roman Empire in the west, he is a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society, a Fellow of the British Academy and a Founding Fellow of the Learned Society of Wales. He was elected honorary member of the Royal Irish Academy in 2007, he is a great-grandson of first Principal of Aberystwyth University.
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Skye, or the Isle of Skye, is the largest and northernmost of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. The island's peninsulas radiate from a mountainous centre dominated by the Cuillin, the rocky slopes of which provide some of the most dramatic mountain scenery in the country. Although it has been suggested that the Gaelic Sgitheanach describes a winged shape there is no definitive agreement as to the name's origins; the island has been occupied since the Mesolithic period, its history includes a time of Norse rule and a long period of domination by Clan MacLeod and Clan Donald. The 18th century Jacobite risings led to the breaking up of the clan system and subsequent Clearances that replaced entire communities with sheep farms, some of which involved forced emigrations to distant lands. Resident numbers declined from over 20,000 in the early 19th century to just under 9,000 by the closing decade of the 20th century. Skye's population increased by 4 per cent between 1991 and 2001.
About a third of the residents were Gaelic speakers in 2001, although their numbers are in decline, this aspect of island culture remains important. The main industries are tourism, agriculture and forestry. Skye is part of the Highland Council local government area; the island's largest settlement is Portree, its capital, known for its picturesque harbour. There are links to various nearby islands by ferry and, since 1995, to the mainland by a road bridge; the climate is mild and windy. The abundant wildlife includes red deer and Atlantic salmon; the local flora are dominated by heather moor, there are nationally important invertebrate populations on the surrounding sea bed. Skye has provided the locations for various novels and feature films and is celebrated in poetry and song; the first written references to the island are Roman sources such as the Ravenna Cosmography, which refers to Scitis and Scetis, which can be found on a map by Ptolemy. One possible derivation comes from skitis, an early Celtic word for winged, which may describe how the island's peninsulas radiate out from a mountainous centre.
Subsequent Gaelic-, Norse- and English-speaking peoples have influenced the history of Skye. Various etymologies have been proposed, such as the "winged isle" or "the notched isle" but no definitive solution has been found to date. In the Norse sagas Skye is called Skíð, for example in the Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar and a skaldic poem in the Heimskringla from c. 1230 contains a line that translates as "the hunger battle-birds were filled in Skye with blood of foemen killed". The island was referred to by the Norse as Skuy, Skýey or Skuyö; the traditional Gaelic name is An t-Eilean Sgitheanach, An t-Eilean Sgiathanach being a more recent and less common spelling. In 1549 Donald Munro, High Dean of the Isles, wrote of "Sky": "This Ile is callit Ellan Skiannach in Irish, to say in Inglish the wyngit Ile, be reason it has mony wyngis and pointis lyand furth fra it, throw the dividing of thir foirsaid Lochis." But the meaning of this Gaelic name is unclear. Eilean a' Cheò, which means island of the mist, is a poetic Gaelic name for the island.
At 1,656 square kilometres, Skye is the second-largest island in Scotland after Harris. The coastline of Skye is a series of peninsulas and bays radiating out from a centre dominated by the Cuillin hills. Malcolm Slesser suggested that its shape "sticks out of the west coast of northern Scotland like a lobster's claw ready to snap at the fish bone of Harris and Lewis" and W. H. Murray, commenting on its irregular coastline, stated that "Skye is sixty miles long, but what might be its breadth is beyond the ingenuity of man to state". Martin Martin, a native of the island, reported on it at length in a 1703 publication, his geological observations included a note that: There are marcasites black and white, resembling silver ore, near the village Sartle: there are in the same place several stones, which in bigness, shape, &c. resemble nutmegs, many rivulets here afford variegated stones of all colours. The Applesglen near Loch-Fallart has agate growing in it of different colours. Stones of a purple colour flow down the rivulets here after great rains.
The Black Cuillin, which are composed of basalt and gabbro, include twelve Munros and provide some of the most dramatic and challenging mountain terrain in Scotland. The ascent of Sgùrr a' Ghreadaidh is one of the longest rock climbs in Britain and the Inaccessible Pinnacle is the only peak in Scotland that requires technical climbing skills to reach the summit; these hills make demands of the hill walker that exceed any others found in Scotland and a full traverse of the Cuillin ridge may take 15–20 hours. The Red Hills to the south are known as the Red Cuillin, they are composed of granite that has weathered into more rounded hills with many long scree slopes on their flanks. The highest point of these hills is one of only two Corbetts on Skye; the northern peninsula of Trotternish is underlain by basalt, which provides rich soils and a variety of unusual rock features. The Kilt Rock is named after the tartan-like patterns in the 105 metres cliffs; the Quiraing is a spectacular series of rock pinnacles on the eastern side of th