Kibworth is an area of the Harborough district of Leicestershire, that contains two civil parishes: the villages of Kibworth Beauchamp and Kibworth Harcourt. According to the 2011 census, Kibworth Beauchamp had a population of 5,433 and Kibworth Harcourt of 990; the two villages are divided by the A6. Kibworth is close to Foxton Locks, Market Harborough, Leicester. Kibworth has a number of shops, a community newspaper, since 2002 new shops, including a branch of Co-op UK. New housing continues causing periodic controversy; the village snooker team, Kibworth Snooker based at the village Working Men's Club, won the Market Harborough snooker league in 2011 and 2012 enjoying cup successes in both these years. However recent seasons have not been as fruitful; the local cricket club won the ECB National Club Cricket Championship in 2004. In the village there are clubs for golf and football, dance schools; the Bookshop, opened in the High Street in 2009, won a regional award of Independent Bookseller of The Year in 2012.
The X7 Stagecoach and X3 Arriva bus services to Leicester and Market Harborough run through the village. The X3 bus serves Kibworth Meadows estate; the Midland Main Line runs through the area, but Kibworth railway station, which served both villages, closed in 1968. In 1270 Walter de Merton, the founder of Merton College, bought a large part of the parish of Kibworth Harcourt from Saer de Harcourt, forced to sell the estate following his support for the unsuccessful "barons' rebellion" led by Simon de Montfort. A large part of the parish has remained property of Oxford to the present day. There is a stained glass window depicting Walter de Merton in the bell tower of the parish church, St Wilfrid's, the warden and scholars of the college are joint patrons with the Bishop of Leicester; the church is a Grade II* listed building. Kibworth Harcourt was the birthplace of the writer/reformer Anna Laetitia Barbauld and her brother John Aikin, their father, John Aikin, kept a dissenting academy there and served as minister of a nearby Presbyterian chapel.
The family moved in 1757 to Warrington. On 23 July 1825 the ancient spire of St Wilfrid's collapsed. In September 2010, Kibworth was the central feature of Michael Wood's Story of England, a documentary aired on both BBC Four, BBC Two, repeated on the UKTV channel Yesterday, PBS America, presented by Michael Wood about the history of England framed through Kibworth. A book of the same name was published by Viking; the series was likened to Who Do You Think You Are? for a whole community. Villagers have created a new website and requested a grant of £48,200 from the Heritage Lottery Fund to continue the legacy of the TV series by creating a Kibworth Guide Booklet, several interpretation panels around the three villages, ongoing study materials for the three tiers of local schools and an online Archive to be produced during 2011 and 2012. In birth order: John Aikin, Unitarian preacher and father of Anna Laetitia Barbauld and taught in Kibworth in 1730–58. Anna Laetitia Barbauld, essayist, children's author and daughter of John Aikin, was born in Kibworth Harcourt.
John Aikin, physician and brother of Anna Laetitia Barbauld, was born in Kibworth Harcourt. James Beresford, Anglican cleric and humorist writer, was rector of Kibworth from 1812 until his death in 1840. Colonel John Worthy Chaplin, awarded the Victoria Cross for gallantry in 1860 in the Second China War, was buried in Kibworth New Cemetery. Edmund Knox, Anglican bishop, Evangelical writer and father of Ronald Knox, was rector of Kibworth 1884–91. Samuel Perkins Pick, was educated at Kibworth Grammar School. T. E. R. Phillips, Anglican cleric and astronomer specializing in planets, was born in Kibworth. Wilfred Knox, Anglican theologian and brother of Ronald Knox, was born in Kibworth. Ronald Knox, Roman Catholic monsignor and religious writer, was born in Kibworth. Sir Nicholas Harold Lloyd Ridley, inventor of the Intraocular lens, was born in Kibworth. Stu Williamson and inventor of the Triflector, is based in Kibworth. Kibworth Parish Walks A History of Kibworth Harcourt and Beauchamp: the tale of two villages Kibworth at genuki.org
Leicestershire is a landlocked county in the English Midlands. The county borders Nottinghamshire to the north, Lincolnshire to the north-east, Rutland to the east, Northamptonshire to the south-east, Warwickshire to the south-west, Staffordshire to the west, Derbyshire to the north-west; the border with most of Warwickshire is Watling Street. Leicestershire takes its name from the city of Leicester located at its centre and administered separately from the rest of the county; the ceremonial county has a total population of just over 1 million, more than half of which lives in'Greater Leicester'. Leicestershire was recorded in the Domesday Book in four wapentakes: Guthlaxton, Framland and Gartree; these became hundreds, with the division of Goscote into West Goscote and East Goscote, the addition of Sparkenhoe hundred. In 1087, the first recorded use of the name was as Laegrecastrescir. Leicestershire's external boundaries have changed little since the Domesday Survey; the Measham-Donisthorpe exclave of Derbyshire has been exchanged for the Netherseal area, the urban expansion of Market Harborough has caused Little Bowden in Northamptonshire to be annexed.
In 1974, the Local Government Act 1972 abolished the county borough status of Leicester city and the county status of neighbouring Rutland, converting both to administrative districts of Leicestershire. These actions were reversed on 1 April 1997, when Rutland and the City of Leicester became unitary authorities. Rutland became a distinct Ceremonial County once again, although it continues to be policed by Leicestershire Constabulary; the symbol of the county council, Leicestershire County Cricket Club and Leicester City FC, is the fox. Leicestershire is considered to be the birthplace of fox hunting. Hugo Meynell, who lived in Quorn, is known as the father of fox hunting. Melton Mowbray and Market Harborough have associations with fox hunting, as has neighbouring Rutland. Leicestershire and Herefordshire are the only three English counties lacking a registered flag. A design was proposed for Leicestershire in 2017 based on symbols associated with the county – a fox and a cinquefoil; the River Soar together with its tributaries and canalisations constitutes the principal river basin of the county, although the River Avon and River Welland through Harborough and along the county's southern boundaries are significant.
The Soar rises between Hinckley and Lutterworth, towards the south of the county near the Warwickshire border, flows northwards, bisecting the county along its north/south axis, through'Greater' Leicester and to the east of Loughborough where its course within the county comes to an end. It continues north marking the boundary with Nottinghamshire for some 10 kilometres before joining the River Trent at the point where Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire meet; the geographical centre of England is in Leicestershire, near Fenny Drayton in the southwest of the county. In 2013, the Ordnance Survey calculated. A large part of the north-west of the county, around Coalville, forms part of the new National Forest area extending into Derbyshire and Staffordshire; the highest point of the county is Bardon Hill at 278 metres, a Marilyn. 150–200 metres and above in nearby Charnwood Forest and to the east of the county around Launde Abbey. The lowest point, at an altitude of about 20 metres, is located at the county's northernmost tip close to Bottesford where the River Devon flowing through the Vale of Belvoir leaves Leicestershire and enters Nottinghamshire.
This results in an altitude differential of around 257.5 metres and a mean altitude of 148.75 metres. The population of Leicestershire is 609,578 people; the county covers an area of 2,084 km2. Its largest population centre is the city of Leicester, followed by the town of Loughborough. Other large towns include Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Hinckley, Market Harborough, Melton Mowbray, Oadby and Lutterworth; some of the larger of villages are:Burbage Birstall, Broughton Astley, Castle Donington, Kibworth Beauchamp, Great Glen, Ibstock and Kegworth. One of the most expanding villages is Anstey, which has seen a large number of development schemes; the United Kingdom Census 2001 showed a total resident population for Leicester of 279,921, a 0.5% decrease from the 1991 census. 62,000 were aged under 16, 199,000 were aged 16–74, 19,000 aged 75 and over. 76.9% of Leicester's population claim they have been born in the UK, according to the 2001 UK Census. Mid-year estimates for 2006 indicate that the population of the City of Leicester stood at 289,700 making Leicester the most populous city in East Midlands.
The population density is 3,814/km2 and for every 100 females, there were 92.9 males. Of those aged 16–74 in Leicester, 38.5% had no academic qualifications higher than 28.9% in all of England. 23.0% of Leicester's residents were born outside of the United Kingdom, more than double than the English average of 9.2%. Engineering has long been an important part of the economy of Leicestershire. John Taylor Bellfounders co
Gaulby is a village in Leicestershire, England, 7 miles east of the city of Leicester. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 131. Including King's increasing to 241 at the 2011 census. In the Domesday Book of 1086 the village was recorded as Galbi, one of 230 manors in Leicestershire held by Hugh de Grandmesnil. Through the 12th and 13th centuries the manor was held by the Earls of Leicester, the last Earl being John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. Subsequently, the title of Lord of the Manor passed to the Marmion family and thence by marriage to the Haselwood family. In 1610 William Whalley, Lord of the Manor of King's Norton, purchased the lands from the Haselwoods for £600, he received 8 messuages, 4 cottages, a windmill and a dovecote. Excluded from this purchase were the Rectory and the lands of the Dands and Goodmans. From 1614 Whalley, John Dand and George Goodman, by private agreement, carried out piecemeal land enclosure of the open field system; this process was completed in 1649.
His descendant, Bernard Whalley, died in 1752, the two manors were inherited by William Fortrey through Fortrey's mother, a Whalley. Fortrey financed the rebuilding of the nave and tower of the parish church of St. Peter in 1741; the church had been rebuilt in 1520, from this 16th-century building the chancel and communion rail survive as the vicar, Thomas Shaw, refused to let Fortrey touch it. The architect was John Wing the Elder. On Fortrey's death his nephew Henry Green inherited the manors. In 1791 they were sold to Peers Anthony Keck of Stoughton Grange, they remained in the hands of the Keck family until 1913 when the majority of the land was sold to the Co-Operative Society and the Wyggeston Hospital Charitable Trust. "Galby and Frisby". A History of the County of Leicestershire. 5. London: Victoria County History. 1964. Media related to Gaulby at Wikimedia Commons
The Via Devana was a Roman Road in England that ran from Colchester in the south-east, through Cambridge in the interior, on to Chester in the north-west. These were important Roman military centres and it is conjectured that the main reason the road was constructed was military rather than civilian; the Latin name for Chester is Deva and it was thus'The Chester Road'. Colchester was Colonia Victricensis,'the City of Victory', lays claim to be the oldest Roman city in Britain; the Via Devana had little civilian rationale and the road fell into disuse as it was not possible to maintain extensive public works following withdrawal of the last Roman legion from Britain in 407. As a result, its route is difficult to find today in its more northern reaches, it is omitted from some historians' maps for this reason but most nowadays accept its existence. The undocumented name Via Devana was coined by Charles Mason, D. D. of Trinity College, rector of Orwell and Woodwardian Professor of Fossils at Cambridge University.
During his life, Mason compiled a complete map of Cambridgeshire, published in 1808, long after his death. Its route ran north and west as follows: Colchester - Colonia Victricensis Wixoe - Cambridge -, now the main road through Cambridge from the station to Madgalene Bridge Huntingdon / Godmanchester where it crossed Ermine Street Corby Medbourne - The stretch from Medbourne to Leicester is broken, but where it exists is nowadays known as the "Gartree Road" and "Evington Footway" Leicester-, meeting Fosse WayThere is speculation that finds in Moira indicates the Mason's route, reported in 1831, may have some factual basis. Mancetter where it joined Watling Street until Water Eaton - to Newport, Shropshire - it is here that it followed the same route as the A41 towards Whitchurch, Shropshire - Chester Roman roads in Britain Via Devana in Leicestershire
Hundred (county division)
A hundred is an administrative division, geographically part of a larger region. It was used in England, some parts of the United States, Southern Schleswig, Finland and Norway, it is still used in other places, including South Australia, The Northern Territory. Other terms for the hundred in English and other languages include wapentake, herad, hérað, härad or hundare, Satakunta or kihlakunta and cantref. In Ireland, a similar subdivision of counties is referred to as a barony, a hundred is a subdivision of a large townland; the use of "hundred" for a division of a county has what the OED describes as an "exceedingly obscure" etymology. It may once have referred to an area of 100 hides, though a "hide" is not a specific area: instead it was conceptually the amount of land required to support a family. Alternatively it may have been based on the area liable to provide 100 men under arms, or because it was an area settled by 100 men at arms. There was an equivalent traditional Germanic system, in Old High German a huntari, a division of a gau, but the OED believes that the link between the two is not established.
In England a hundred was the division of a shire for military and judicial purposes under the common law, which could have varying extent of common feudal ownership, from complete suzerainty to minor royal or ecclesiastical prerogatives and rights of ownership. Until the introduction of districts by the Local Government Act 1894, hundreds were the only used assessment unit intermediate in size between the parish, with its various administrative functions, the county, with its formal, ceremonial functions; the term "hundred" is first recorded in the laws of Edmund I as a measure of land and the area served by a hundred court. In the Midlands, they covered an area of about 100 hides, but this did not apply in the south; the Hundred Ordinance, which dates to the middle of the century, provided that the court was to meet monthly, thieves were to be pursued by all the leading men of the district. The name of the hundred was that of its meeting-place. During Norman times, the hundred would pay geld based on the number of hides.
To assess how much everyone had to pay, a clerk and a knight were sent by the king to each county. There would be two knights from each hundred. After it was determined what geld had to be paid, the bailiff and knights of the hundred were responsible for getting the money to the sheriff, the sheriff for getting it to the Exchequer. Above the hundred was the shire, under the control of a sheriff. Hundred boundaries were independent of both parish and county boundaries, although aligned, meaning that a hundred could be split between counties, or a parish could be split between hundreds. Exceptionally, in the counties of Kent and Sussex, there was a sub-division intermediate in size between the hundred and the shire: several hundreds were grouped together to form lathes in Kent and rapes in Sussex. At the time of the Norman conquest of England, Kent was divided into seven lathes and Sussex into four rapes; the system of hundreds was not as stable as the system of counties being established at the time, lists differ on how many hundreds a county had.
In many parts of the country, the Domesday Book contained a radically different set of hundreds from that which became established. The numbers of hundreds in each county varied widely. Leicestershire had six, whereas Devon, nearly three times the size, had 32. Over time, the principal functions of the hundred became the administration of law and the keeping of the peace. By the 12th century, the hundred court was held twelve times a year; this was increased to fortnightly, although an ordinance of 1234 reduced the frequency to once every three weeks. In some hundreds, courts were held at a fixed place; the main duty of the hundred court was the maintenance of the frankpledge system. The court was formed of freemen. According to a 13th-century statute, freeholders did not have to attend their lord's manorial courts, thus any suits involving them would be heard in a hundred court. For serious crimes, the hundred was under the jurisdiction of the Crown. However, many hundreds came into private hands, with the lordship of the hundred being attached to the principal manor of the area and becoming hereditary.
Helen Cam estimated that before the Conquest, over 130 hundreds were in private hands. Where a hundred was under a lord, a steward, acting as a judge and the chief official of the lord of the manor, was appointed in place of a sheriff; the importance of the hundred courts declined from the 17th century, most of their powers were extinguished with the establishment of county courts in 1867. The remaining duty of the inhabitants of a hundred to make good damages caused by riot was ended by the Riot Act 1886, when the cost was transferred to the county police rate
An electoral district, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body. Only voters who reside within the district are permitted to vote in an election held there. From a single district, a single member or multiple members might be chosen. Members might be chosen by a first-past-the-post system or a proportional representative system, or another voting method entirely. Members might be chosen through a direct election under universal suffrage, an indirect election, or another form of suffrage; the names for electoral districts vary across countries and for the office being elected. The term constituency is used to refer to an electoral district in British English, but it can refer to the body of eligible voters or all the residents of the represented area or only those who voted for a certain candidate; the terms precinct and election district are more common in American English. In Australia and New Zealand, electoral districts are called electorates, however elsewhere the term electorate refers to the body of voters.
In India electoral districts are referred to as "Nirvachan Kshetra" in Hindi, which can be translated to English as "electoral area" though the official English translation for the term is "constituency". The term "Nirvachan Kshetra" is used while referring to an electoral district in general irrespective of the legislature; when referring to a particular legislatorial constituency, it is referred to as "Kshetra" along with the name of the legislature, in Hindi. Electoral districts for municipal or other local bodies are called "wards". In Canada, districts are colloquially called ridings. Local electoral districts are sometimes called wards, a term which designates administrative subdivisions of a municipality. In local government in the Republic of Ireland voting districts are called "electoral areas". District magnitude is the number of representatives elected from a given district to the same legislative body. A single-member district has one representative. Voting systems that seek proportional representation inherently require multi-member districts, the larger the district magnitude the more proportional a system will tend to be Non-proportional systems may use multi-member districts, as in the House of Commons until 1950, Singapore's Group Representation Constituency, or the New Hampshire House of Representatives.
Under proportional representation systems, district magnitude is an important determinant of the makeup of the elected body. With a larger number of winners, candidates are able to represent proportionately smaller minorities; the geographic distribution of minorities affects their representation - an unpopular nationwide minority can still secure a seat if they are concentrated in a particular district. District magnitude can sometimes vary within the same system during an election. In the Republic of Ireland, for instance, national elections to Dáil Éireann are held using a combination of 3, 4, 5 member districts. In Hong Kong, the magnitude ranged from 3 to 5 in 1998, when the current electoral system was introduced for Legislative Council geographical constituency elections, will range from 5 to 9 in the forthcoming election in September 2012; the only democracies with one single nationwide electoral district and no other territorial correctors are Fiji, The Netherlands, Mozambique, South Africa and Serbia.
Main articles: Apportionment and RedistrictingApportionment is the process of allocating a number of representatives to different regions, such as states or provinces. Apportionment changes are accompanied by redistricting, the redrawing of electoral district boundaries to accommodate the new number of representatives; this redrawing is necessary under single-member district systems, as each new representative requires their own district. Multi-member systems, vary depending on other rules. Ireland, for example, redraws its electoral districts after every census while Belgium uses its existing administrative boundaries for electoral districts and instead modifies the number of representatives allotted to each. Israel and the Netherlands avoid the need for apportionment by electing legislators at-large. Apportionment is done on the basis of population. Seats in the United States House of Representatives, for instance, are reapportioned to individual states every 10 years following a census, with some states that have grown in population gaining seats.
By contrast, seats in the Cantonal Council of Zürich are reapportioned in every election based on the number of votes cast in each district, only made possible by use of multi-member districts, the House of Peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by contrast, is apportioned without regard to population. Malapportionment occurs when voters are under- or over-represented due to variation in district population. Given the complexity of this process, softwa