National Library of Latvia
The National Library of Latvia known as Castle of Light is a national cultural institution under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture of Latvia. The National Library of Latvia was formed in 1919 after the independent Republic of Latvia was proclaimed in 1918; the first supervisor of the Library was Jānis Misiņš, a librarian and the founder of the Latvian scientific bibliography. Today the Library plays an important role in the development of Latvia's information society, providing Internet access to residents and supporting research and lifelong education; the National Library was founded on 29 August 1919, one year after independence, as the State Library. Its first chief librarian and bibliographer was Jānis Misiņš who made his immense private collection the basis of the new library. Within a year, until 1920, the stocks had grown to 250,000 volumes. Starting in the same year, all publishers were obliged to hand in a deposit copy of their works. Since 1927, the Library has published the National Bibliography of Latvia.
There were significant additions in 1939 and 1940, when the State Library took over many of the libraries and collections of the Baltic Germans, most of whom resettled to the Reich. Among these was a large part of the collection of the Society for History and Archaeology of Russia's Baltic Provinces, est. 1834, the primary historical society of the Baltic Germans. In 1940, holdings encompassed 1.7 million volumes, so that they had to be stored in two different locations in the Old Town. During the German occupation of Riga, the State Library was renamed Country Library, eliminating reference to a sovereign Latvian state). Under Soviet rule, it was known as State Library of the Latvian SSR. According to Soviet customs, in 1966 it received an honorary name, commemorating Vilis Lācis, a writer and the late prime minister of Soviet Latvia. From 1946, literature deemed'dangerous' from the Soviet perspective was withdrawn from the shelves and could be accessed only with a special permit until 1988.
In 1956, the State Library moved into its new building at Krišjāņa Barona iela. Since the reestablishment of national independence 1991, the institution has been called National Library of Latvia. In 1995, it received as a permanent loan the Baltic Central Library of Otto Bong, a collection pertaining to the history, regional studies and languages of the Baltic countries. In 2006, the National Library joined the European Library online service; the Library's holdings today encompass more than 5 million titles, incl. about 18,000 manuscripts from the 14th century up to modern times. One of the characteristic cornerstones of the NLL, which characterizes every national library, is the formation of the collection of national literature, its eternal storage and long-term access; the NLL is a centre of theoretical research and practical analyses of the activities of Latvian libraries. The Library carries out the functions of the centre of Latvia Interlibrary Loan, ensures the library and information service to the Parliament of the Republic of Latvia – the Saeima, implements the standardisation of the branch.
Since the outset, its main concern has been the national bibliography. The massive union catalogue Seniespiedumi latviešu valodā received the Spīdola Prize in 2000 and was awarded The Beautiful Book of the Year 99. In 2005, the Letonikas grāmatu autoru rādītājs was published, providing information about versatile branches of science and representatives of various nations, Latvia being the main focus of their publications; the NLL includes several collections of posters. Digitising collections at the NLL started in 1999. At present the Latvian National Digital Library Letonica, formed in 2006, holds digitized collections of newspapers, maps, sheet-music and audio recordings. In 2008 NLL launched two major digital projects. Periodika.lv is the NLL's collection of digitized historical periodicals in Latvian with the possibility to read full texts and search page by page. Latvia has Dance Festivals organized every four years; the historical materials from the first Song Festival in 1864 till the Latgale Song Festival in 1940 can be explored in another digital collection of the National Library of Latvia.
The first discussions about the need for a new National Library had started in 1928, the significance of the project of this century was further confirmed by the high-level international recognition. In 1999 all 170 UNESCO member states during its General Conference adopted a resolution, calling the member states and the international community to ensure all possible support for the implementation of the NLL project; the continuous growth of the Library had made it necessary to transfer parts of the stocks into other buildings. Thus, in 2013, NLL was distributed between five locations in Riga. Furthermore, some stocks were being stored since 1998 in a depot in Silakrogs outside the capital; these inconveniences convinced the Parliament to approve a new building on the left bank of the Daugava. On 15 May 2008, after discussions lasting for many years, the state agency Three New Brothers and the Union of National Construction Companies signed the contract on the construction of the new National Library of Latvia.
On 18 May 2014, the main facility of the Library at Krišjāņa Barona iela was close
Jacksonville is a city in Jackson County, United States 5 miles west of Medford. It was named for Jackson Creek, which flows through the community and was the site of one of the first placer gold claims in the area, it includes Jacksonville Historic District, designated a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 1966; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 2,785, up from 2,235 at the 2000 census. Jacksonville was founded following discovery of gold deposits in 1851–1852. With the creation of Jackson County, it became the county seat, a role, transferred to nearby Medford in 1927. Jacksonville was home to the first Chinatown in Oregon, founded by immigrants from San Francisco. Physical evidence of this chapter of history was uncovered early in March 2004 when road work uncovered artifacts dating to the 1850s and 1860s. Construction was halted, their findings included broken Chinese bowls and tea cups, handmade bottles, fragments of opium paraphernalia and Chinese coins. As the gold deposits were worked out in the 1860s and the railway bypassed Jacksonville in 1884, the city's economy slowed.
This had the unintended benefit of preserving a number of structures, which led to Jacksonville's being designated a National Historic District in 1966, covering over 100 buildings. It was cited as a "mid-19th century inland commercial city significant for its magnificent group of surviving unaltered commercial and residential buildings; the city was the principal financial center of southern Oregon until it was bypassed by the railroad." Jacksonville is in west-central Jackson County, 5 miles west of Medford in the valley of Jackson Creek at the base of Miller Mountain. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.89 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,785 people, 1,377 households, 808 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,473.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,548 housing units at an average density of 819.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.6% White, 0.4% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.6% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.9% of the population. There were 1,377 households, of which 18.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.3% were non-families. 36.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.02 and the average family size was 2.62. The median age in the city was 54.9 years. 15.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.2% male and 53.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,235 people, 1,034 households, 661 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,230.7 people per square mile. There were 1,102 housing units at an average density of 606.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.11% White, 0.72% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.31% African American, 0.40% from other races, 2.10% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.46% of the population. The largest ancestry groups in Jacksonville, include: German, Irish and Italian. There were 1,034 households, out of which 22.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.4% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.0% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.68. Jacksonville's population is spread out with 18.9% under the age of 18, 4.3% from 18 to 24, 20.1% from 25 to 44, 32.0% from 45 to 64, 24.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $41,250, the median income for a family was $57,333. Males had a median income of $42,917 versus $28,661 for females.
Jacksonville's per capita income is $28,152. About 5.3% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.8% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over. Jacksonville is home to Jacksonville Elementary School; the Great Northfield Minnesota Raid was filmed around Jacksonville. The 1946 Technicolor film Western Canyon Passage takes place in Jacksonville. Though it is fiction, the location itself, a small gold mining town, is important to the theme and plot. Jacksonville is home to the Britt Festival, a seasonal music festival that takes place at an open-air amphitheater; the site was selected in 1963 because of the acoustic qualities of the surrounding hills. The popular concert series draws national pop, country and contemporary music acts, it is named after a pioneer and owner of the land now used for Britt Park. The Southern Oregon Historical Society was formed in 1946 to save the endangered 1880s Jackson County Courthouse; the society opened the Jacksonville Museum in the courthouse building on July 10, 1950, operated it until it closed in 2006 because of lack of funding.
Campbell is a city in Santa Clara County and part of Silicon Valley, in the San Francisco Bay Area. As of the 2016 U. S. Census, Campbell's population is 42,584. Although not a major high-tech city like many of its neighbors, Campbell is the original home of eBay and of its creator, Pierre Omidyar. Campbell is home to the Pruneyard Shopping Center, a sprawling open-air retail complex, involved in a famous U. S. Supreme Court case that established the extent of the right to free speech in California. Today, the Pruneyard Shopping Center is home to the South Bay offices of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Campbell is bordered on the east and north by San Jose, on the south by Los Gatos, on the west by a small portion of Saratoga. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.9 square miles. 5.8 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. Of the total area, 1.49% is water, consisting of percolation ponds in Los Gatos Creek Park and in other locations.
Residents are able to reach Los Gatos by continuing on the creek trail. Downtown Campbell contains many local stores and shops, every Sunday the downtown street close from 8am-1pm for a local farmers market. State Route 17 runs parallel to Los Gatos Creek on its eastern side; the 2010 United States Census reported that Campbell had a population of 39,349. The population density was 6,685.2 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Campbell was 26,315 White, 7,247 Hispanic or Latino of any race, 6,320 Asian, 1,158 African American, 275 Native American, 161 Pacific Islander. A remaining 2,713 identified as other races, 2,407 from two or more races; the Census reported that 39,148 people lived in households, 79 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 122 were institutionalized. There were 16,163 households, out of which 4,897 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 7,133 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,741 had a female householder with no husband present, 812 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 1,092 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 138 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 4,805 households were made up of individuals and 1,328 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42. There were 9,686 families; the population was spread out with 8,271 people under the age of 18, 2,982 people aged 18 to 24, 12,834 people aged 25 to 44, 10,868 people aged 45 to 64, 4,394 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.2 males. There were 16,950 housing units at an average density of 2,879.7 per square mile, of which 8,093 were owner-occupied, 8,070 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.8%. 20,975 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 18,173 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 39,200 people, 15,920 households, 9,122 families residing in the city; the population density was 6,802.8 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 16,286 housing units at an average density of 2,905.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 72.78% White, 2.53% African American, 0.65% Native American, 14.16% Asian, 0.23% Pacific Islander, 4.87% from other races, 4.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.33% of the population. 28.0% of the households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.6% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.7% were non-families. 30.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.02. The city population was 21.6% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 40.2% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 9.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.7 males. About 48% of the adult population has at least one college-level degree.
However, this has declined in recent years as a greater number of working-class immigrants move into the city. The median income for a household in the city was $67,214, the median income for a family was $78,663. Males had a median income of $52,454 versus $43,750 for females; the per capita income for the city was $34,441. About 3.2% of families and 4.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.2% of those under age 18 and 8.3% of those age 65 or over. Campbell has a Mediterranean climate, characterized by warm, dry summers. Barracuda Networks, ChargePoint, Hightail and ZURB are among the companies based in Campbell. According to the City's 2016 Comprehensi
Spokane is a city in Spokane County in the state of Washington in the northwestern United States. It is located on the Spokane River west of the Rocky Mountain foothills in eastern Washington, 92 miles south of the Canada–US border, 18 miles from the Washington–Idaho border, 228 miles east of Seattle along Interstate 90. Known as the birthplace of Father's Day, Spokane's official nickname is the "Lilac City". A pink, double flower lilac variety known as'Syringa Spokane' is named for the city, it is the seat of Spokane County and the economic and cultural center of the Spokane Metropolitan Area, the Spokane–Coeur d'Alene combined statistical area, the Inland Northwest. The city, along with the whole Inland Northwest, is served by Spokane International Airport, 5 miles west of downtown Spokane. According to the 2010 Census, Spokane had a population of 208,916, making it the second-largest city in Washington, the 101st-largest city in the United States; the first people to live in the area, the Spokane tribe, lived off plentiful game.
David Thompson explored the area with the westward expansion and establishment of the North West Company's Spokane House in 1810. This trading post was the first long-term European settlement in Washington. Completion of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1881 brought settlers to the Spokane area; the same year it was incorporated as a city with the name of Spokane Falls. In the late 19th century and silver were discovered in the Inland Northwest; the local economy depended on mining and agriculture until the 1980s. Spokane hosted the first environmentally themed World's Fair at Expo'74. Many of the downtown area's older Romanesque Revival-style buildings were designed by architect Kirtland Kelsey Cutter after the Great Fire of 1889; the city features Riverfront and Manito parks, the Smithsonian-affiliated Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture, the Davenport Hotel, the Fox and Bing Crosby theaters. The Cathedral of Our Lady of Lourdes is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Spokane, the city is the center of the Mormon Spokane Washington Temple District.
The Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist represents the Anglican community. Gonzaga University was established in 1887 by the Jesuits, the private Presbyterian Whitworth University was founded three years and moved to north Spokane in 1914 In sports, the Gonzaga Bulldogs collegiate basketball team competes at the Division I level. Professional and semi-professional sports teams include the Spokane Chiefs in junior ice hockey, the Spokane Indians Minor League Baseball team located in nearby Spokane Valley; as of 2010, Spokane's only major daily newspaper, The Spokesman-Review, had a daily circulation of over 76,000. The first humans to live in the Spokane area were hunter-gatherer societies that lived off plentiful fish and game; the Spokane tribe, after which the city is named, are believed to be either their direct descendants, or descendants of people from the Great Plains. When asked by early white explorers, the Spokanes said their ancestors came from "up North." Early in the 19th century, the Northwest Fur Company sent two white fur trappers west of the Rocky Mountains to search for fur.
These were the first white men met by the Spokanes, who believed they were sacred, set the trappers up in the Colville River valley for the winter. The explorer-geographer David Thompson, working as head of the North West Company's Columbia Department, became the first European to explore the Inland Empire. Crossing what is now the Canada–US border from British Columbia, Thompson wanted to expand the North West Company further south in search of furs. After establishing the Kullyspell House and Saleesh House trading posts in what are now Idaho and Montana, Thompson attempted to expand further west, he sent out two trappers, Jacques Raphael Finlay and Finan McDonald, to construct a fur trading post on the Spokane River, which flows west from Lake Coeur d'Alene to the Columbia River, trade with the local Indians. This post was established in 1810, at the confluence of the Little Spokane and Spokane rivers, becoming the first enduring European settlement of significance in what became Washington state.
Known as the Spokane House, or "Spokane", it was in operation from 1810 to 1826. Operations were run by the British North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, the post was the headquarters of the fur trade between the Rocky and Cascade mountains for 16 years. After the latter business absorbed the North West Company in 1821, the major operations at the Spokane House were shifted north to Fort Colville, reducing the post's significance. In 1836, Reverend Samuel Parker visited the area and reported that around 800 Native Americans were living in Spokane Falls. A medical mission was established by Marcus and Narcissa Whitman to cater for Cayuse Indians and hikers of the Oregon Trail at Walla Walla in the south. After the Whitmans were killed by Indians in 1847, Reverend Cushing Eells established Whitman College in their memory setting up the first church in Spokane. In 1853, two years after the establishment of the Washington Territory, the first governor, Isaac Stevens, made an initial effort to make a treaty with Chief Garry and the Spokanes at Antoine Plantes' Ferry, not far from Millwood.
After the last campaign of the Yakima Indian War, the Coeur d'Alene War of 1858 was brought to a close by the actions of Col. George Wright, who won decisive victories agai
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Carrie Amelia Nation was an American woman, a radical member of the temperance movement, which opposed alcohol before the advent of Prohibition. She is remembered for attacking alcohol-serving establishments with a hatchet. Nation was concerned about tight clothing for women. In fact, she refused to wear a corset and urged women not to wear them because of their harmful effects on vital organs, she described herself as "a bulldog running along at the feet of Jesus, barking at what He doesn't like", claimed a divine ordination to promote temperance by destroying bars. The spelling of her first name varies. Official records say "Carrie". Upon beginning her campaign against liquor in the early 20th century, she adopted the name "Carry A. Nation", saying it meant "Carry A Nation for Prohibition". After gaining her notoriety, Carrie registered "Carry" as a trademark. Nation was born in Kentucky, to George and Mary Moore, her father was a successful farmer, stock trader, slaveholder of Irish descent. During much of her early life, her health was poor and her family experienced financial setbacks.
The family moved several times in Kentucky and settled in Belton, Missouri in 1854. She had informal learning. In addition to their financial difficulties, many of her family members suffered from mental illness, her mother at times having delusions. There is speculation that the family did not stay in one place long because of rumors about Nation's mother's mental state; some writers have speculated that Nation's mother, believed she was Queen Victoria because of her love of finery and social airs. Mary lived in an insane asylum in Nevada, from August 1890 until her death on September 28, 1893. Mary was put in the asylum through legal action by her son, although there is suspicion that Charles instigated the lawsuit because he owed Mary money; the family moved to Texas as Missouri became involved in the Civil War in 1862. George did not fare well in Texas, he moved his family back to Missouri; the family returned to High Grove Farm in Cass County. When the Union Army ordered them to evacuate their farm, they moved to Kansas City.
Carrie nursed wounded soldiers after a raid on Missouri. The family again returned to their farm. In 1865 Carrie met Charles Gloyd, a young physician who had fought for the Union, a severe alcoholic. Gloyd taught school near the Moores' farm while deciding, he settled on Holden and asked Nation to marry him. Nation's parents objected to the union because they believed he was addicted to alcohol, but the marriage proceeded, they were married on November 21, 1867, separated shortly before the birth of their daughter, Charlien, on September 27, 1868. Gloyd died in 1869 of alcoholism. Influenced by the death of her husband, Nation developed a passionate activism against alcohol. With the proceeds from selling her inherited land, she built a small house in Holden, she moved there with her mother-in-law and Charlien, attended the Normal Institute in Warrensburg, earning her teaching certificate in July 1872. She taught at a school in Holden for four years, she studied the influence of Greek philosophers on American politics.
In 1874, Carrie married David A. Nation, an attorney, newspaper journalist, father, 19 years her senior; the family purchased a 1,700 acre cotton plantation on the San Bernard River in Brazoria County, Texas. As neither knew much about farming, the venture was unsuccessful. David Nation moved to Brazoria to practice law. In about 1880, Carrie moved to Columbia to operate the hotel owned by Jesse W. Park, her name is on the Columbia Methodist Church roll. She lived at the hotel with her daughter, Charlien Gloyd, "Mother Gloyd", David's daughter, Lola, her husband operated a saddle shop just southwest of this site. The family soon moved to Texas to operate a hotel. David Nation became involved in the Jaybird–Woodpecker War; as a result, he was forced to move back north to Medicine Lodge, Kansas in 1889, where he found work preaching at a Christian church and Carrie ran a successful hotel. She began her temperance work in Medicine Lodge by starting a local branch of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and campaigning for the enforcement of Kansas' ban on the sale of liquor.
Her methods escalated from simple protests to serenading saloon patrons with hymns accompanied by a hand organ, to greeting bartenders with pointed remarks such as, "Good morning, destroyer of men's souls." She helped her mother and her daughter who had mental health problems. Dissatisfied with the results of her efforts, Nation began to pray to God for direction. On June 5, 1900, she felt; as she described it:The next morning I was awakened by a voice which seemed to me speaking in my heart, these words, "GO TO KIOWA," and my hands were lifted and thrown down and the words, "I'LL STAND BY YOU." The words, "Go to Kiowa," were spoken in a murmuring, musical tone and soft, but "I'll stand by you," was clear and emphatic. I was impressed with a great inspiration, the interpretation was plain, it was this: "Take something in your hands, throw at these places in Kiowa and smash them." Responding to the revelation, Nation gathered several rocks – "smashers", she called them