East Fremantle Football Club
The East Fremantle Football Club, nicknamed the Sharks, is an Australian rules football club playing in the West Australian Football League. The team's home ground is East Fremantle Oval. East Fremantle are the most successful club in WAFL history, winning 29 premierships since their entry into the competition in 1898; the East Fremantle Football Club was formed in 1898 and has won 29 league premierships in the West Australian Football League, making the club the second most successful in Australia, after Port Adelaide in the SANFL. East Fremantle has a fierce rivalry with its Port cousin, South Fremantle, the Foundation Day Derby between the two sides is a much anticipated highlight of the local football calendar. East Fremantle's success has thus far eclipsed that of South Fremantle, who have won just 13 WAFL premierships. Up until 1987, Western Australia was immersed in WAFL culture and East Fremantle enjoyed a strong following. In 1987, a Perth-based club – the West Coast Eagles – joined an expanded Victorian Football League.
West Coast's initial squad included many East Fremantle players and they were coached by former East Fremantle premiership player and coach, Ron Alexander. Interest in the semi-national competition saw attendances at WAFL games start to fall, with severe consequences for the club's support base and finances. By the middle 2000s, East Fremantle was in severe trouble on and off the field, winning only nineteen of eighty matches between 2003 and 2006 and suffering severe financial difficulties, though since the clubs has recovered without winning a thirtieth premiership; the Sharks once pulled on average 10,000 people to a home game. Now 1,500 people to a home game is considered a strong attendance; the East Fremantle Football Club team song is sung to the tune of "Notre Dame Victory March". Cheer, Cheer the Blue and the White Honour the Sharks by day and by night Lift that loyal banner high Shake out the thunder from the sky Whether the odds be great or be small We'll go out and win over all While our players keep on fighting Onwards to victory West Australian Football League Premiers: 1900, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1906, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1914, 1918, 1925, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1933, 1937, 1943, 1945, 1946, 1957, 1965, 1974, 1979, 1985, 1992, 1994, 1998 Runners-up: 1899, 1901, 1905, 1907 1912, 1916, 1917, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1923, 1924, 1934, 1938, 1939, 1941, 1944, 1954, 1955, 1958, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1977, 1984, 1986, 1997, 2000, 2012 West Australian State Premiership: 1904, 1906, 1909, 1910 Reserves Premierships: 1926, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1950, 1951, 1962, 1970, 1989, 1993, 1994, 2001, 2008 Colts Premierships: 1962, 1966, 1969, 1973, 1981, 1987, 1992, 1998, 2001, 2010, 2017 Fourths Premierships: 1972, 1974 Rodriguez Shield: 1957, 1977, 1985, 1996, 1997, 1998 Wooden Spoons: 1898, 2004, 2006, 2018 Sandover Medallists: 1931: Lin Richards, 1950: Jim Conway, 1957: Jack Clarke, 1961 & 1963: Ray Sorrell, 1971: David Hollins, 1974: Graham Melrose, 1977: Brian Peake, 1985: Murray Wrensted, 1995: Craig Treleven, 1998: Adrian Bromage, 2013: Rory O'Brien Simpson Medallists: 1945: Alan Ebbs, 1957: Frank Conway, 1962: Ray Sorrell, 1964: Norm Rogers, 1965: Dave Imrie, 1947: Gary Gibellini 1979: Kevin Taylor, 1992: Clinton Browning, 1994: Mark Amaranti, 1998: Adrian Bromage Simpson Medallists: 1962: Ray Sorrell,1982: Kevin Taylor, 1991: Paul Harding, 1995: Craig Treleven, 1999: Rod Tregenza Bernie Naylor Medallists: 1904: Ernest Kelly, 1905: Henry Sharpe, 1907: Henry Sharpe, 1908: Charles Doig, 1909: Charles Doig, 1917: Arthur Rawlinson, 1919:Joseph Lawn, 1923: Dinney Coffey, 1933: George Doig, 1934: George Doig, 1935: George Doig, 1936: George Doig, 1937: George Doig, 1941: George Doig, 1949: George Prince, 1966: Bob Johnson, 1979: Kevin Taylor, 1989: Neil Lester-Smith, 1999: Rod Tregenza, 2000: Rod Tregenza Prendergast Medallists: 1954: Bill Taggart, 1977: Joe Angel, 1978: Kevin Taylor, 1994: Jon Stagg, 2002: Leigh Willison, 2007: Morgan Cooper, 2008: Conor Davidson, 2010: James Murray, 2011: Timothy Viney, 2017: Benjamin Harding Jack Clarke Medallists: 1985: Mark Amaranti, 1989: Graham Ralph, 2000: Matthew Cremin, 2001: Andrew Green, 2013: Jacob Green Chesson Medallists: 1972: Greg Brown, 1973: Doug Winning All Australians: 1953, 1956, 1958 & 1961: Jack Clarke, 1958: Alan Preen, 1958: Norm Rogers, 1958 & 1961: Ray Sorrell, 1979 & 1980: Brian Peake, 1979: Tony Buhagiar, 1983: Kevin Taylor, 1986: Peter Wilson Tassie Medallists: 1979: Brian Peake Highest Score: Round 17, 1944 – 33.23 vs.
South Fremantle at Fremantle Oval Lowest Score: Round 13, 1898 – 1.2 vs. West Perth at The WACA Greatest Winning Margin: Round 17, 1944 – 201 points vs. South Fremantle at Fremantle Oval Greatest Losing Margin: Round 10, 1981 – 178 points vs. West Perth at Leederville Oval Most games: Brian Peake 304 Most goals: George Doig 1111 Record Home Attendance: Round 3, 1979 – 21,317 vs. South Fremantle Record Finals Attendance: 1979 Grand Final – 52,781 vs. South Fremantle at Subiaco Oval Most consecutive victories: 35, between 28 July 1945 and 17 May 1947, including the 1945 and 1946 premierships Most consecutive losses: 13 1 between 18 May 1968 and 17 August 1968 2 between 11 April 1970 and 11 July 1970 On Saturday 2 June 2012 the East Fremantle Football Club inducted 52 individuals into the inaugural East Fremantle Football Club Hall of Fame. 9 inductees were given'Legend' status. Only Players and Volunteers that served the club between 1898 and 1986 were deemed worthy to be indu
North Melbourne Football Club
The North Melbourne Football Club, nicknamed the Kangaroos or less formally the Roos, the Kangas or North, is the fourth oldest Australian rules football club in the Australian Football League and is one of the oldest sporting clubs in Australia and the world. It is based at the Arden Street Oval in the inner Melbourne suburb of North Melbourne, but plays its home matches at the nearby Docklands Stadium; the club's mascot is a grey kangaroo, its use dates from the middle of the 20th century. The club is unofficially known as "The Shinboners", a term which dates back to its 19th-century abattoir-worker origins; the club's motto is Victoria amat curam, Latin for "Victory Demands Dedication". In two aspects North Melbourne stands second to none. One is the loyalty of its supporters; the other is the determination to carry on, despite its disadvantages. In the face of adversity, which might well have broken the spirit of most men, we find that from the earliest days there were always enthusiasts to fight for North Melbourne.
North Melbourne Football Club originated in the year 1869, when a football team was formed for local cricketers desiring to keep fit over the winter months. One thought is that the club was connected to the St Mary's Church of England Cricket Club, now the St Mary's Anglican Church North Melbourne, whose colours – blue and white – are reflected in the North Melbourne's colours today; the association between the St Mary's Church of England Cricket Club and the establishment of the North Melbourne Football Club is believed to have been an informal gathering to play some competitive sport. Information on the club's first match is limited, but it is known that it took place in Royal Park, which served as the club's home ground until 1882; the ball used in the match was purchased by a local resident called Tom Jacks, who sold some roofing iron to pay for it. James Henry Gardiner is considered the founder of the club, he continued an active role with North Melbourne until his death in 1921. Regular premiership matches of Australian Football commenced in Victoria in 1870.
Although North Melbourne was a part of this, it was classed as a "junior club". The Australasian noted them as being "one of the best of many junior clubs"; the club continued graduating to senior ranks in 1874 finishing 4th. Along with the promotion, the club adopted its first uniform of white horizontal stripes. In 1876 North Melbourne disbanded and many of its player and members joined Albert-park, giving the club such a strong North Melbourne character that many described it as "Albert-park cum North Melbourne". In 1877, the club was re-established as a stand-alone club under the new name of "Hotham". Football took a giant step forward in 1877, with the formation of Victoria's first colonial football league, the VFA. Hotham were prime movers in establishing this league and were afforded a place in light of their previous contributions to Australian Football; the 1880s marked the emergence of the modern identity today. In 1882, the club amalgamated with the Hotham Cricket Club and moved into the North Melbourne Recreation Reserve, which remains the home of the club today.
The joint venture was aimed at affecting improvements at the Hotham Cricket Ground, the name of the Reserve at the time. Four years the club adopted the traditional uniform of blue and white vertical stripes at the insistence of the VFA, who wanted a visible contrast between Geelong's and Hotham's uniforms; the third significant development occurred in 1888 with the club returning to its original name of the North Melbourne Football Club. This followed the name of the local area reverting from Hotham to North Melbourne; the 1880s saw the club develop a penchant for inter-colonial travel with trips to Tasmania and South Australia. Hotham found itself well represented at the first inter-colonial representative game in 1879 with four players from the club gaining selection for Victoria; the VFA grew to 13 senior clubs in the 1890s. Led by Geelong and Essendon, the largest clubs of the VFA formed their own break away league, the Victorian Football League, in 1896. Despite finishing 6th in 1896, North Melbourne was not invited to the breakaway competition.
The main reasons for being excluded were: North had not won a premiership yet, thus was not considered a powerful club The industrialisation of the locality had drained the club's income streams The club had a strong reputation for hooliganism from their fans There was a lot of bad blood between Collingwood and North following a torrid engagement in the previous season Essendon felt threatened by the proximity of North Melbourne A court case against the North Melbourne Cricket Club had damaged the Football Club's statusNorth continued on in the depleted VFA, emerging as a powerhouse, finishing 2nd in 1897, 1898 and 1899. In 1903, after 34 years of competing, the club won its first premiership, defeating Richmond in the final; the club became back to back premiers in 1904 after Richmond forfeited the grand final due to the appointment of an umpire whose performance when the two teams met earlier in the year was criticised by Richmond players and officials. North merged with fellow VFA football club West Melbourne in 1907, which at the time had lost its home ground.
The joint venture saw a chance of promotion, the club applied for admission to the more prestigious VFL in 1908, but Richmond and University were admitted instead. North was kicked out of the VFA during the 1907/08 offseason as a result of applying to join the VFL, before the local community reestablished the North Melbourne Football Club under a new committee enabling the club to play in the VFA in the 1908 season; the reformation of the Club necessitated a
The Northern Territory is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It shares borders with Western Australia to the west, South Australia to the south, Queensland to the east. To the north, the territory looks out to the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria, including Western New Guinea and other Indonesian islands; the NT covers 1,349,129 square kilometres, making it the third-largest Australian federal division, the 11th-largest country subdivision in the world. It is sparsely populated, with a population of only 246,700, making it the least-populous of Australia's eight states and major territories, with fewer than half as many people as Tasmania; the archaeological history of the Northern Territory begins over 40,000 years ago when Indigenous Australians settled the region. Makassan traders began trading with the indigenous people of the Northern Territory for trepang from at least the 18th century onwards; the coast of the territory was first seen by Europeans in the 17th century.
The British were the first Europeans to attempt to settle the coastal regions. After three failed attempts to establish a settlement, success was achieved in 1869 with the establishment of a settlement at Port Darwin. Today the economy is based on tourism Kakadu National Park in the Top End and the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park in central Australia, mining; the capital and largest city is Darwin. The population is concentrated along the Stuart Highway; the other major settlements are Palmerston, Alice Springs, Katherine and Tennant Creek. Residents of the Northern Territory are known as "Territorians" and as "Northern Territorians", or more informally as "Top Enders" and "Centralians". Indigenous Australians have lived in the present area of the Northern Territory for an estimated 40,000 years, extensive seasonal trade links existed between them and the peoples of what is now Indonesia for at least five centuries. With the coming of the British, there were four early attempts to settle the harsh environment of the northern coast, of which three failed in starvation and despair.
The Northern Territory was part of colonial New South Wales from 1825 to 1863, except for a brief time from February to December 1846, when it was part of the short-lived colony of North Australia. It was part of South Australia from 1863 to 1911. Under the administration of colonial South Australia, the overland telegraph was constructed between 1870 and 1872. From its establishment in 1869 the Port of Darwin was the major Territory supply for many decades. A railway was built between Palmerston and Pine Creek between 1883 and 1889; the economic pattern of cattle raising and mining was established so that by 1911 there were 513,000 cattle. Victoria River Downs was at one time the largest cattle station in the world. Gold was found at Grove Hill in 1872 and at Pine Creek, Brocks Creek and copper was found at Daly River. On 1 January 1911, a decade after federation, the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and transferred to federal control. Alfred Deakin opined at this time "To me the question has been not so much commercial as national, second and last.
Either we must accomplish the peopling of the northern territory or submit to its transfer to some other nation." In late 1912 there was growing sentiment. The names "Kingsland", "Centralia" and "Territoria" were proposed with Kingsland becoming the preferred choice in 1913. However, the name change never went ahead. For a brief time between 1927 and 1931 the Northern Territory was divided into North Australia and Central Australia at the 20th parallel of South latitude. Soon after this time, parts of the Northern Territory were considered in the Kimberley Plan as a possible site for the establishment of a Jewish Homeland, understandably considered the "Unpromised Land". During World War II, most of the Top End was placed under military government; this is the only time since Federation that part of an Australian state or territory has been under military control. After the war, control for the entire area was handed back to the Commonwealth; the Bombing of Darwin occurred on 19 February 1942. It was the largest single attack mounted by a foreign power on Australia.
Evidence of Darwin's World War II history is found at a variety of preserved sites in and around the city, including ammunition bunkers, oil tunnels and museums. The port was damaged in the 1942 Japanese air raids, it was subsequently restored. In the late 1960s improved roads in adjoining States linking with the territory, port delays and rapid economic development led to uncertainty in port and regional infrastructure development; as a result of the Commission of Enquiry established by the Administrator, port working arrangements were changed, berth investment deferred and a port masterplan prepared. Extension of rail transport was not considered because of low freight volumes. Indigenous Australians had struggled for rights to fair wages and land. An important event in this struggle was the strike and walk off by the Gurindji people at Wave Hill Cattle Station in 1966; the federal government of Gough Whitlam set up the Woodward Royal Commission in February 1973, which set to enquire into how land rights might be achieved in the Northern Territory.
Justice Woodward's first report in July 1973 recommended that a Central Land Council and a Northern Land Council be established to present to him the views of
Fremantle Football Club
The Fremantle Football Club, nicknamed the Dockers, is a professional Australian rules football team that competes in the Australian Football League. The club represents and was based in the port city of Fremantle at the mouth of the Swan River in Western Australia and now has their training and headquarters at Cockburn ARC in Cockburn Central. In 1995 it became the second team from Western Australia after the West Coast Eagles to be admitted to the AFL, honouring the rich footballing tradition and history associated with Fremantle. High-profile players since the club's inception include former captain and six time All-Australian Matthew Pavlich, 2015 Brownlow Medallist Nat Fyfe, the league's tallest player Aaron Sandilands, Peter Bell, Shaun McManus, former number one draft pick Clive Waterhouse, winners of the AFL Rising Star award Paul Hasleby and Rhys Palmer, Jeff Farmer, David Mundy, Michael Johnson, Luke McPharlin, Ryan Crowley and Hayden Ballantyne; the club is coached by Ross Lyon following the sacking of Mark Harvey at the end of the 2011 AFL home and away season.
Fremantle is one of only three active clubs that has not won a premiership during its time in the AFL, however it did win the minor premiership in 2015, reached the 2013 AFL Grand Final which it lost to Hawthorn. Fremantle has had a team in the AFL Women's league since its inception in 2017, they are captained by Kara Donnellan. The port city of Fremantle has long been a stronghold of Australian rules football in Western Australia, hosting the state's first game in 1881; the East Fremantle and South Fremantle Football Clubs dominated the early years of the West Australian Football League, winning 24 of the first 34 premierships. Since 1897, Fremantle Oval has been the main venue for Australian rules football matches in the city; the AFL match attendance record in Western Australia remained unchallenged at 52,781 at Perth's Subiaco Oval for the 1979 WANFL Grand Final between East Fremantle and South Fremantle, until this was broken in 2018 at Perth Stadium. Champion players who forged careers playing for Fremantle-based clubs include, among many others, Steve Marsh, Jack Sheedy, John Todd, George Doig, William Truscott and Bernie Naylor.
Negotiations between East Fremantle and South Fremantle to enter into the VFL as a merged club began in 1987. However, due to an exclusive rights clause granted to the West Coast Eagles this would be impossible until the end of the 1992 season. Further applications were made by the clubs to join but their model was out of favour with the West Australian Football Commission; the AFL announced on 14 December 1993 that a new team, to be based in Fremantle, would enter the league in 1995. The names "Fremantle Football Club", "Fremantle Dockers" and the club colours of purple, red and white were announced on 12 July 1994; the decision to base the new club in Fremantle was due to the long association of Australian rules football in Fremantle. However, it was not represented in a national club competition until 1995, eight years after the first expansion of the Victorian Football League into Western Australia in 1987 with the creation of the West Coast Eagles, their first training session was held on 31 October 1994 at Fremantle Oval.
The team endured some tough years near the bottom of the premiership ladder, until they finished fifth after the home and away rounds in 2003 and made the finals for the first time. The elimination final against eighth-placed Essendon at Subiaco Oval was the club's biggest game, but ended in disappointment for the home team, with the finals experience of Essendon proving too strong for the young team, they missed making the finals in the following two seasons, finishing both years with 11 wins, 11 losses and only 1 game outside the top eight. After an average first half to the 2006 AFL season, Fremantle finished the year with a club-record nine straight wins to earn themselves third position at the end of the home and away season with a club-best 15 wins. In the qualifying final against Adelaide at AAMI Stadium, the Dockers led for the first three quarters before being overrun by the Crows; the following week saw the club win its first finals game in the semi-final against Melbourne at Subiaco Oval.
The club subsequently earned a trip to Sydney to play in its first preliminary final, where they lost by 35 points at ANZ Stadium to the Sydney Swans. In 2007, following Chris Connolly's resignation midway through the season, Mark Harvey, a three-time premiership player with Essendon, was appointed caretaker coach for the club. During his seven matches for 2007, Harvey coached the Dockers to three losses; the club came 11th that year, Harvey was appointed full-time coach at the end of the season. The following year saw the club slump to 14th. In Round 15, 2009, Fremantle recorded the lowest score in its history and of the 2000s, scoring only 1.7 to the Adelaide Crows' 19.16. It scored just one point in the only goal scored came in the third quarter. After finishing sixth in 2010, the club played in the finals for the first time since 2006; the team played Hawthorn at Subiaco Oval, despite being considered underdogs, went on to win by 30 points. The win came from strong performances from Luke McPharlin and Adam McPhee who limited the impact of Lance Franklin and Luke Hodge, respectively.
The team's second win in a finals match qualified them for a semi-final to be played against the Geelong Cats at the MCG the following week. In a one-sided contest, Geelong won by 69 points; the 2011 season saw Fremantle lose just once in the first six rounds before ending the year in 11th position after losing their final seven games. Fremantl
Richmond Football Club
The Richmond Football Club, nicknamed the Tigers, is a professional Australian rules football club playing in the Australian Football League, the sport's premier competition. Between its inception in Richmond, Melbourne in 1885 and 1907, the club competed in the Victorian Football Association, winning two premierships. Richmond joined the Victorian Football League in 1908 and has since won eleven premierships, most in 2017. Richmond's headquarters and training facilities are located at its original home ground, the Punt Road Oval, which sits adjacent to the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the club's playing home since 1965. Richmond traditionally wears a black guernsey with a yellow sash; the club is coached by Damien Hardwick and its current captain is Trent Cotchin. Five Richmond players have been inducted into the Australian Football Hall of Fame as "Legends" of the sport: Kevin Bartlett, Jack Dyer, Royce Hart, Kevin Sheedy and Ian Stewart. A short-lived football club named Richmond formed in 1860 with Tom Wills, one of the founders of Australian rules football, serving as its inaugural secretary and captain.
Wills' cousin H. C. A. Harrison captained Richmond in the early 1860s before moving to Geelong; this club has no continuity to the present club. A number of teams formed in Richmond during the game's rapid expansion in early 1880s. However, all played at a junior level and it was considered an anomaly that Richmond, one of Melbourne's most prominent suburbs, did not boast a senior side; the wait ended when the Richmond Football Club was formed at the Royal Hotel in Richmond on 20 February 1885. A successful application for immediate admission to the Victorian Football Association followed; the club shared the Punt Road Oval with the Richmond Cricket Club, one of the strongest cricket clubs in Australia, playing on the ground since 1856. At first the team wore blue guernseys and caps with yellow and black stripes in the style of the Richmond Cricket Club; the football club soon adopted black as its official colours. The team was variously called the "Richmondites", the "Wasps" or, most the "Tigers".
During the late 1880s, Richmond struggled to make an impression in the VFA, after a promising season in 1888, the club slipped backwards, in the process losing players to more successful sides. As the local economy slipped into severe depression in the early 1890s and the crowds began to dwindle, some of the VFA's strongest clubs began to agitate for a reform of the competition. Richmond was not considered part of this elite group, which voted as a bloc at VFA meetings. In 1896, Richmond walked off the field in a match against South Melbourne to protest the umpiring, in the season, the Tigers had their half-time score annulled against Essendon when it was discovered that they had too many men on the ground. In the closing three weeks of the season, Richmond's cut of the gate takings amounted to just five pounds, they finished the season with the wooden spoon. In October 1896, the cabal of six strong clubs broke with the association to form the Victorian Football League; as a struggling club with a poor following, Richmond was not invited to join the new league.
Richmond's performances did not improve in the emaciated VFA until the turn of the century. The Tigers were boosted by a significant country recruit in 1901. George "Mallee" Johnson was the first true star player at the club. Richmond leapt to third place and in 1902, with Johnson dominating the ruck, Richmond entered the closing weeks of the season neck and neck with Port Melbourne at the head of the ladder, but Port Melbourne faltered against Williamstown to hand Richmond its first flag. Having missed a potential bonanza from a premiership play-off, the VFA decided to emulate the VFL and introduce a finals series in 1903, a fateful decision for the Tigers. After recruiting the competition's leading goalkicker, Jack Hutchinson, finishing the season as minor premier, Richmond lost both finals and were runner-up; the following season, the club became embroiled in a feud with umpire Allen, whom the Tigers accused of failing to curb field invasions or the dubious tactics of arch-rival North Melbourne.
When the two clubs were scheduled to meet in the 1904 VFA Grand Final, Richmond announced that they wouldn't play with Allen as umpire. The VFA called Richmond's bluff, appointed Allen as umpire for the match, meaning that the Grand Final was scratched and North Melbourne won the premiership on forfeit. Richmond were now at odds with the VFA, matters failed to improve in the next few years; the club was campaigning against violence, ungentlemanly conduct and poor sportsmanship, issues that plagued the VFA to a far greater extent than the rival VFL since the 1896 split. Richmond cultivated links with some VFL clubs by playing. Richmond knew that they were a major asset to the VFA, had built up a large following and played on one of the best grounds in the competition, where they remained unbeaten for five years. In 1905, Richmond confirmed their status with a second premiership, this time overcoming bitter rivals North Melbourne, "Mallee" Johnson had moved to Carlton, but youngster Charlie Ricketts dominated the season and won plaudits among the pressmen, who voted him the best player in the VFA.
However, Ricketts was lost to the VFL and injury hit the club hard. In 1906–07, the Tigers played finals without looking to win the flag; the club earned a rebuke from the VFA for scheduling a practice match against Geelong before the 1907 season went ahead with the commitment and earned further censure. La
Arnhem Land is one of the five regions of the Northern Territory of Australia. It is located in the north-eastern corner of the territory and is around 500 km from the territory capital Darwin; the region has an area of 97,000 km2, which covers the area of Kakadu National Park, a population of 16,230. In 1623, Dutch East India Company captain William van Colster sailed into the Gulf of Carpentaria and Cape Arnhem is named after his ship, the Arnhem, which itself was named after the city of Arnhem in the Netherlands; the area covers about 97,000 km2 and has an estimated population of 16,000, of whom 12,000 are Yolngu, the traditional owners. The region's service hub is Nhulunbuy, 600 km east of Darwin, set up in the early 1970s as a mining town. Other major population centres are Yirrkala, Gunbalanya and Maningrida. A substantial proportion of the population, Aboriginal, lives on small outstations; this outstation movement started in the early 1980s. Many Aboriginal groups moved to very small settlements on their traditional lands to escape the problems on the larger townships.
These population groups have little Western influence culturally speaking, Arnhem Land is arguably one of the last areas in Australia that could be seen as a separate country. Many of the region's leaders have called and continue to call for a treaty that would allow the Yolngu to operate under their own traditional laws. In 2013–14, the entire region contributed around $1.3 billion or 7% to the Northern Territory's gross state product through bauxite mining. Arnhem Land has been occupied by indigenous people for tens of thousands of years and is the location of the oldest-known stone axe, which scholars believe to be 35,500 years old; the Gove Peninsula was involved in the defence of Australia during World War II. At least since the 18th century Muslim traders from Makassar of Sulawesi visited Arnhem Land each year to trade and process sea cucumbers or trepang; this marine animal is prized in Chinese cuisine, for folk medicine, as an aphrodisiac. This Macassan contact with Australia is the first recorded example of interaction between the inhabitants of the Australian continent and their Asian neighbours.
This contact had a major effect on local indigenous Australians. The Makassans exchanged goods such as cloth, knives and alcohol for the right to trepang coastal waters and employ local labour. Makassar pidgin became a lingua franca along the north coast among several indigenous Australian groups who were brought into greater contact with each other by the seafaring Makassan culture; these traders from the southwest corner of Sulawesi introduced the word balanda for white people, long before western explorers set foot on the coasts of northern Australia. In Arnhem Land, the word is still used today to refer to white Australians; the Dutch started settling in Sulawesi Island in the early 17th century. Archeological remains of Makassar contact, including trepang processing plants from the 18th and 19th centuries, are still found at Australian locations such as Port Essington and Groote Eylandt; the Makassans planted tamarind trees. After processing, the sea slugs were traded by the Makassans to Southern China.
In 2014, an 18th-century Chinese coin was found in the remote area of Wessel Islands off the coast on a beach on Elcho Island during a historical expedition. The coin was found near known Macassan trepanger fishing sites where several other Dutch coins have been discovered nearby, but never a Chinese coin; the coin was made in Beijing around 1735. The area is from Port Roper on the Gulf of Carpentaria around the coast to the East Alligator River, where it adjoins Kakadu National Park; the major centres are Jabiru on the Kakadu National Park border, Maningrida at the Liverpool River mouth, Nhulunbuy in the far north-east, on the Gove Peninsula. Gove is the site of large-scale bauxite mining with an associated alumina refinery, its administrative centre is the town of Nhulunbuy, the fourth-largest population centre in the Northern Territory. The climate of Arnhem Land is tropical monsoon with a dry season; the temperature has little seasonal variation. Declared an Aboriginal Reserve in 1931, it remains one of the largest Aboriginal Reserves in Australia and is best known for its isolation, the art of its people, the strong continuing traditions of its indigenous inhabitants.
Northeast Arnhem Land is home to the indigenous Yolngu people, one of the largest indigenous groups in Australia, who have succeeded in maintaining a vigorous traditional indigenous culture. The Malays and Makassans are believed to have had contact with the coastal Aboriginal groups and traded with them prior to European settlement of Australia; the 2006 film Ten Canoes captures life in Arnhem Land through a story tapping into the Aboriginal mythic past. The film and the documentary about the making of the film, The Balanda and the Bark Canoes, give a remarkable testimony to the indigenous struggle to keep their culture alive – or rather revive it in the wake of considerable relative modernisation and influence of white cultural imposition; the Aboriginal community of Yirrkala, just outside Nhulunbuy, is internationally known for bark paintings, promoting the rights of Indige
Captain (Australian rules football)
A captain of an Australian rules football team, sometimes known as a skipper is a player who, during the course of a match and off the field, has several additional roles and responsibilities over and above those of a regular player. They are second to the coach and an onfield leader who has various roles including to inspire the players and sometimes address umpires and the media; when a coach appoints multiple captains, the following captaincy roles may be appointed. Co-captain vice-captain deputy vice captain Before the start of a match, a coin toss between the captains is used to determine which end of the ground each team will kick to; the away captain calls the coin toss, the winning captain makes the choice of end. The decision depends on the weather conditions and the weather forecast the direction and strength of the wind, which can give a significant advantage to a team. Before the game and during the quarter and half time breaks, a captain will be asked by the coach to address the players in a huddle after the coach address.
Whereas the coach address discusses strategy and field positions, the captain's address is purely motivational. The captain is the only player on the ground, allowed to address an umpire to question or discuss a decision. Any other player who does so can be reported. A captain may be reported if they become abusive; the umpires will visit the rooms of each team before a game and introduce themselves to the captain and advise the captains on any rule interpretations that they will be strict on and what they will and won't tolerate on the field. The captain will take a particular role in media relations on behalf of the team. Although not always, the captain may be asked to participate on the selection committee to determine which players do or do not make the squad; the captain and the leadership group represents the playing group. If a player does something to the detriment of the playing group the captain will act in the interests of the playing group and request that the club or league take appropriate action.
The captain of the team may request the game to be stopped for a head count, to determine whether or not the opposition team is fielding too many players. It is tradition during a grand final that the captain and coach hold up the premiership cup before it is handed to the players; the captain is required to make a speech, including thanking the opposition team. See: List of Australian Football League premiership captains and coaches Captain