Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Edward C. Prescott
Edward Christian Prescott is an American economist. He received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics in 2004, sharing the award with Finn E. Kydland, "for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"; this research was conducted while both Kydland and Prescott were affiliated with the Graduate School of Industrial Administration at Carnegie Mellon University. According to the IDEAS/RePEc rankings, he is the 19th most cited economist in the world today. In August 2014, Prescott was appointed as an Adjunct Distinguished Economic Professor at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. Prescott was born in New York, to Mathilde Helwig Prescott and William Clyde Prescott. In 1962, he received his bachelor's degree in mathematics from Swarthmore College, where he was a member of the Delta Upsilon fraternity, he received a master's degree from Case Western Reserve University in operations research in 1963, a PhD in Economics at Carnegie Mellon University in 1967.
From 1966 to 1971, Prescott taught at the University of Pennsylvania. He returned to Carnegie Mellon until 1980, when he moved to the University of Minnesota, where he taught until 2003. In 1978, he was a visiting professor at the University of Chicago, where he was named a Ford Foundation Research Professor. In the following year, he visited Northwestern University and stayed there until 1982. Since 2003, he has been teaching at Arizona State University. Prescott has been an economic advisor at the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis since 1981. In 2004, he held the Maxwell and Mary Pellish Chair in Economics at the University of California, Santa Barbara. In 2006, he held the Shinsei Bank Visiting Professorship at New York University. In August 2014, Prescott was appointed an Adjunct Distinguished Professor at Research School of Economics of the Australian National University; the Research Papers in Economics project ranked him as the 19th most influential economist in the world as of August 2012 based on his academic contributions.
Working as an economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis and as a professor at Arizona State University's W. P. Carey School of Business, he is a major figure in macroeconomics the theories of business cycles and general equilibrium. In his "Rules Rather Than Discretion: The Inconsistency of Optimal Plans," published in 1977 with Finn E. Kydland, he analyzed whether central banks should have strict numerical targets or be allowed to use their discretion in setting monetary policy, he is well known for his work on the Hodrick–Prescott filter, used to smooth fluctuations in a time series. Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland Nobel prize for economics was based on two papers Prescott and Kydland wrote. In the first paper, written in 1977 "Rules Rather than Discretion:: The inconsistency of optimal planning" Prescott and Kydland argue that purpose and goals of economic planning and policy is to trigger a desired response from the economy; however and Kydland realized that these sectors are made up of individuals, individuals who make assumptions and predictions about the future.
As Prescott and Kydland stated "Even if there is a fixed and agreed upon social objective function and policy makers know the timing and magnitude of the effects of their actions... correct evaluation of the end-of-point position does not result in the social objective being maximized." Prescott and Kyland were pointing out that agents in the economy factor into their decision making the assumed response by policy makers to a given economic climate. Additionally Prescott and Kydland felt that the policy makers due to their relationship with government suffered from a credibility issue; the reason for this dynamic is that the political process is designed to fix problems and benefit its citizens today. Prescott and Kydland demonstrated this with a convincing example. In this example they take an area, shown to flood and the government has stated that the "socially optimal outcome" is to not have houses be built in that area and therefore the government states that it will not provide flood protection rational agents will not live in that area.
However, rational agents are forward planning creatures and know that if they and others build houses in the flood plain the government which makes decisions based on current situations will provide flood protection in the future. While Prescott never uses these words he is describing a moral hazard; the second paper, written in 1982, "Time to Build and Aggregate Fluctuations" Prescott and Kydland argued that shifts in supply caused by changes and improvements in technology accounted "Not only long term increases in living standards but to many of the short term fluctuations in business cycles." To study this hypothesis Prescott established a model to study the change in output, consumption, labor productivity, employment, between the end of the Second World War and 1980. Using this model the two economists were able to correlate 70% of the fluctuation in output to changes and growth in technology, their main contribution, was the way of modeling macroeconomic variables with microfoundations.
In January 2009 Prescott, along with more than 250 other economists and professors, signed an open letter to President Barack Obama opposing the passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The letter was sponsored by libertarian think tank, the Cato Institute, was printed as a paid advertisement in several newspapers including The New York Times and the Arizona Republic, his writings more have foc
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system, it offers 337 graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university; the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Science; as of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, five Turing Award winners, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States. UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference; the Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U. S. participated in since 1932. In March 1881, the California State Legislature authorized the creation of a southern branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
The Los Angeles branch of the California State Normal School opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. The facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children; that elementary school is related to the present day UCLA Lab School. In 1887, the branch campus became independent and changed its name to Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. In 1917, UC Regent Edward Augustus Dickson, the only regent representing the Southland at the time, Ernest Carroll Moore, Director of the Normal School, began to lobby the State Legislature to enable the school to become the second University of California campus, after UC Berkeley, they met resistance from UC Berkeley alumni, Northern California members of the state legislature, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California from 1899 to 1919, who were all vigorously opposed to the idea of a southern campus.
However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, did not share Wheeler's objections. On May 23, 1919, the Southern Californians' efforts were rewarded when Governor William D. Stephens signed Assembly Bill 626 into law, which transformed the Los Angeles Normal School into the Southern Branch of the University of California; the same legislation added the College of Letters and Science. The Southern Branch campus opened on September 15 of that year, offering two-year undergraduate programs to 250 Letters and Science students and 1,250 students in the Teachers College, under Moore's continued direction. Under University of California President William Wallace Campbell, enrollment at the Southern Branch expanded so that by the mid-1920s the institution was outgrowing the 25 acre Vermont Avenue location; the Regents searched for a new location and announced their selection of the so-called "Beverly Site"—just west of Beverly Hills—on March 21, 1925 edging out the panoramic hills of the still-empty Palos Verdes Peninsula.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname "Bruins", a name offered by the student council at UC Berkeley. In 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, for whom the Janss Steps are named; the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the Chemistry Building, arrayed around a quadrangular courtyard on the 400 acre campus; the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. After lobbying by alumni, faculty and community leaders, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree in 1933, the doctorate in 1936, against continued resistance from UC Berkeley. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, as well
University of Puget Sound
The University of Puget Sound is a private liberal arts college in Tacoma, Washington. Puget Sound offers Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Music, Master of Arts in Teaching, Master of Education, Master of Occupational Therapy, Doctor of Physical Therapy degrees; the college draws 2,600 students from 44 states and 16 countries. It offers 1,200 courses each year in more than 50 interdisciplinary areas of study. Founded by what is now the United Methodist Church, Puget Sound is governed today by an independent board of trustees; the college maintains a relationship and affiliation with the United Methodist Church based on shared history and values held in common, including the importance of access to a high-quality education, academic freedom, social justice, environmental stewardship, global focus. The University of Puget Sound was founded by the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1888 in downtown Tacoma; the idea for a college in Tacoma originated with Charles Henry Fowler, the president of Northwestern University.
Fowler was in Tacoma for a Methodist conference when he spoke of his vision of a Christian institution of learning in the area. The conference released a report: We commit ourselves... heartily to the building up within the bounds of the conference of an institution of learning which shall by its ample facilities... command the respect and patronage of Methodist people within the bounds of the territory... and so by united and prayerful efforts advance to the establishment of a school of learning which shall be a praise in all the land. Two cities vied for the location of the school: Port Townsend and Tacoma; the committee decided on Tacoma. A charter was drawn up and filed in Olympia on March 17, 1888; this date marks the legal beginning of the school. At this time, the school's legal title was "The Puget Sound University". In September 1890, UPS opened its doors; the beginnings of the school were marked by moral conviction: students were warned against intoxicating liquors, visits to saloons, tobacco use, obscene drawings or writings on the college grounds.
The university had a financially tumultuous beginning. There was no endowment and the school struggled for funds to pay the professors, it moved locations three times in 13 years and, at one time, the school was merged with Portland University. It opened up a year back in Tacoma on the 9th and G Street. In 1903, the school was "reborn" and re-incorporated as a different entity, different trustees, a different name: the "University of Puget Sound"; the character of the school changed during the presidency of Edward H. Todd, who worked tirelessly to bring financial and academic stability. During his tenure, the "Million Dollar Campaign" was started, raising $1,022,723 for buildings and endowment. With this money, the campus moved in 1924 to its current location in the residential North End of Tacoma, with five buildings, setting a stylistic tone for the institution. In 1914 the university was renamed the "College of Puget Sound". President R. Franklin Thompson led a massive physical and institutional expansion: During this era all of the university's buildings were constructed.
In 1960, the university's name changed from the "College of Puget Sound" back to the "University of Puget Sound", as it is known today. Phillip M. Phibbs endeavored to change the tone of Puget Sound. In 1980, the university divested its attachment with the Methodist Church, an independent board of trustees assumed full fiscal responsibility of the university. During this time, the university began to focus on undergraduate education excellence, phasing out all off-campus programs except the law school and most graduate programs. During this time the library collections were broadened and the faculty expanded. With the advent of President Susan Resneck Pierce, the law school was promptly sold to Seattle University, in a move, calculated to focus the university's resources on its undergraduate campus. During her tenure, the university completed $100 million of new construction and renovation. Collins Memorial Library and four academic buildings were renovated, Wyatt Hall was constructed to house the growing class and office space needs of the Humanities Department.
Trimble Residence Hall was constructed, bringing on-campus student residency to 65%. SAT scores rose from the endowment more than tripled. Puget Sound's president from 2003 to early 2016 was Ronald R. Thomas, affectionately called "Ron Thom" by many students, a scholar of Victorian literature, the former vice-President of Trinity College. In February 2016, the university announced the selection of Dr. Isiaah Crawford to be its next president, upon Thomas' retirement. President Crawford assumed office on July 1, 2016. Thompson Hall, home of the sciences at the university, underwent a major renovation, including the construction of a new wing on the building's western side against Union Avenue and extensive renovations to the current wings and courtyard to allow for upgraded labs and facilities; the entire project was completed in mid 2008. The entire complex is now known locally as "The Science Center at Puget Sound." The now enclosed courtyard contains a striking Plexiglas structure where a coffee shop, Oppenheimer Cafe, is located.
In fall 2013 Puget Sound opened Thomas Hall, a residence hall for upper-division students featuring 11 "houses" organized around five academic-residential programs: the Humanities Program, environmental outdoor leadership
University of Minnesota
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota. The Minneapolis and St. Paul campuses are 3 miles apart, the St. Paul campus is in neighboring Falcon Heights, it is the oldest and largest campus within the University of Minnesota system and has the sixth-largest main campus student body in the United States, with 50,943 students in 2018-19. The university is the flagship institution of the University of Minnesota system, is organized into 19 colleges and schools, with sister campuses in Crookston, Duluth and Rochester; the University of Minnesota is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which refers to top public universities in the United States capable of providing a collegiate experience comparable with the Ivy League. Founded in 1851, The University of Minnesota is categorized as a Doctoral University – Highest Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Minnesota is a member of the Association of American Universities and is ranked 14th in research activity with $881 million in research and development expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015.
The University of Minnesota faculty and researchers have won 30 Nobel Prizes and three Pulitzer Prizes. Notable University of Minnesota alumni include two Vice Presidents of the United States, Hubert Humphrey and Walter Mondale, Bob Dylan, who received the 2016 Nobel Prize in Literature; the university organization structure consists of 19 colleges and other major academic units: The university has six university-wide interdisciplinary centers and institutes whose work crosses collegiate lines: Center for Cognitive Sciences Consortium on Law and Values in Health and the Life Sciences Institute for Advanced Study at University of Minnesota Institute for Translational Neuroscience Institute on the Environment Minnesota Population Center In 2018, Minnesota was ranked 37th in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. The Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2015 ranks Minnesota 46th in the world; the Center for World University Rankings ranked the university 35th in the world and 25th in the United States in 2018.
In 2016, the Nature Index ranked Minnesota 34th in the world based on research publication data from 2015. In 2015, Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked the university 11th in the world for mathematics; the University of Minnesota is ranked 14 overall among the nation's top research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance. The university's research and development expenditures ranked 13th–15th among U. S. academic institutions in the 2010 through 2015 National Science Foundation reports. The U. S. News & World Report's 2016 rankings placed the undergraduate program of the university as the 69th-best National University in the United States, it ranked the Chemical Engineering program third-best, the Doctor of Pharmacy program third best, the Economics PhD program tenth, Psychology eighth, Statistics sixteenth, Audiology ninth, the University of Minnesota Medical School 6th for primary care and 34th for research. The Law School recognized as a'Top Law School' by U.
S. News & World Report, is ranked 20th in the nation, is a national leader in commercial law, international law, clinical education. Additionally, nineteen of the university's graduate-school departments have been ranked in the nation's top-twenty by the U. S. National Research Council. In 2008 and 2012 U. S. News & World Report ranked the College of Pharmacy 2nd in the nation. 2016 U. S. News & Report now rank the College of Pharmacy 2nd in the nation. In 2011, U. S. News & World Report ranked the School of Public Health 8th in the nation, home to the 2nd ranked program for the Master of Healthcare Administration degree; the University of Minnesota ranked 19th in NIH funding in 2008. Minnesota is listed as a "Public Ivy" in 2001 Greenes' Guides The Public Ivies: America's Flagship Public Universities. U. S. News & World Report has ranked the Nursing Informatics program of University of Minnesota as 2nd best in the nation; the university is known for innovation in research. The inventions by students and faculty have ranged from food science to health technologies.
Most of the public research funding in Minnesota is funneled to the University of Minnesota as a result of long standing advocacy by the university itself. The university developed Gopher, a precursor to the World Wide Web which used hyperlinks to connect documents across computers on the internet. However, the version produced by CERN was favored by the public since it was distributed and could more handle multimedia webpages; the university houses the Charles Babbage Institute, a research and archive center specializing in computer history. The department has strong roots in the early days of supercomputing with Seymour Cray of Cray supercomputers; the university became a member of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory in 2007, has led data analysis projects searching for gravitational waves – the existence of which were confirmed by scientists in February 2016. Puffed rice – Alexander P. Anderson led to the discovery of "puffed rice", a starting point for a new breakfast cereal advertised as "Food Shot From Guns".
Transistorized cardiac pacemaker – Earl Bakken founded Medtronic, where he developed the first external, battery-operated, wearable artificial pacemaker in 1957. ATP synthase – Paul D. Boyer elucidated the enzymatic mechanism for synthesis of adenosine triphosphate, leading to a Nobel Prize in 1997