The Globe and Mail
The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada. With a weekly readership of 2,018,923 in 2015, it is Canada's most read newspaper on weekdays and Saturdays, although it falls behind the Toronto Star in overall weekly circulation because the Star publishes a Sunday edition while the Globe does not; the Globe and Mail is regarded by some as Canada's "newspaper of record". The newspaper is owned based in Toronto; the predecessor to The Globe and Mail was called The Globe. Brown's liberal politics led him to court the support of the Clear Grits, precursor to the modern Liberal Party of Canada; the Globe began in Toronto as a weekly party organ for Brown's Reform Party, but seeing the economic gains that he could make in the newspaper business, Brown soon targeted a wide audience of liberal minded freeholders. He selected as the motto for the editorial page a quotation from Junius, "The subject, loyal to the Chief Magistrate will neither advise nor submit to arbitrary measures."
The quotation is carried on the editorial page to this day. By the 1850s, The Globe had become an well-regarded daily newspaper, it began distribution by railway to other cities in Ontario shortly after Confederation. At the dawn of the twentieth century, The Globe added photography, a women's section, the slogan "Canada's National Newspaper", which remains on its front-page banner, it began opening bureaus and offering subscriptions across Canada. On 23 November 1936, The Globe merged with The Mail and Empire, itself formed through the 1895 merger of two conservative newspapers, The Toronto Mail and Toronto Empire. Press reports at the time stated, "the minnow swallowed the whale" because The Globe's circulation was smaller than The Mail and Empire's; the merger was arranged by George McCullagh, who fronted for mining magnate William Henry Wright and became the first publisher of The Globe and Mail. McCullagh committed suicide in 1952, the newspaper was sold to the Webster family of Montreal.
As the paper lost ground to The Toronto Star in the local Toronto market, it began to expand its national circulation. The newspaper was unionised under the banner of the American Newspaper Guild. From 1937 until 1974, the newspaper was produced at the William H. Wright Building, located at 140 King Street West on the northeast corner of King Street and York Street, close to the homes of the Toronto Daily Star at Old Toronto Star Building at 80 King West and the Old Toronto Telegram Building at Bay and Melinda; the building at 130 King Street West was demolished in 1974 to make way for First Canadian Place, the newspaper moved to 444 Front Street West, the headquarters of the Toronto Telegram newspaper, built in 1963. In 1965, the paper was bought by Winnipeg-based FP Publications, controlled by Bryan Maheswary, which owned a chain of local Canadian newspapers. FP put a strong emphasis on the Report on Business section, launched in 1962, thereby building the paper's reputation as the voice of Toronto's business community.
FP Publications and The Globe and Mail were sold in 1980 to The Thomson Corporation, a company run by the family of Kenneth Thomson. After the acquisition there were few changes made in news policy. However, there was more attention paid to national and international news on the editorial, op-ed, front pages in contrast to its previous policy of stressing Toronto and Ontario material; the Globe and Mail has always been a morning newspaper. Since the 1980s, it has been printed in separate editions in six Canadian cities: Montreal, Winnipeg and Vancouver. Southern Ontario Newspaper Guild employees took their first strike vote at The Globe in 1982 marking a new era in relations with the company; those negotiations ended without a strike, the Globe unit of SONG still has a strike-free record. SONG members voted in 1994 to sever ties with the American-focused Newspaper Guild. Shortly afterwards, SONG affiliated with the Communications and Paperworkers Union of Canada. Under the editorship of William Thorsell in the 1980s and 1990s, the paper endorsed the free trade policies of Progressive Conservative Prime Minister Brian Mulroney.
The paper became an outspoken proponent of the Meech Lake Accord and the Charlottetown Accord, with their editorial the day of the 1995 Quebec Referendum quoting a Mulroney speech in favour of the Accord. During this period, the paper continued to favour such liberal policies as decriminalizing drugs and expanding gay rights. In 1995, the paper launched globeandmail.com. Since the launch of the National Post as another English-language national paper in 1998, some industry analysts had proclaimed a "national newspaper war" between The Globe and Mail and the National Post; as a response to this threat, in 2001, The Globe and Mail was combined with broadcast assets held by Bell Canada to form the joint venture Bell Globemedia. In 2004, access to some features of globeandmail.com became restricted to paid subscribers only. The subscription service was reduced a few years to include an electronic edition of the newspaper, access to its archives, membership to a premium investment site
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The line-up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr led the band to be regarded as the foremost and most influential in history. With a sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form, to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s, they incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways, in years experimented with a number of musical styles ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, they came to be seen as embodying the era's sociocultural movements. Led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960 with Stuart Sutcliffe playing bass.
The core trio of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, together since 1958, went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings expanding their domestic success after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962; as their popularity grew into the intense fan frenzy dubbed "Beatlemania", the band acquired the nickname "the Fab Four", with Epstein and other members of the band's entourage sometimes given the informal title of "fifth Beatle". By early 1964, the Beatles were international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market, breaking numerous sales records, they soon made their motion-picture debut with A Hard Day's Night. From 1965 onwards, they produced innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul, Sgt. Pepper's The Beatles and Abbey Road. In 1968, they founded Apple Corps, a multi-armed multimedia corporation that continues to oversee projects related to the band's legacy.
After the group's break-up in 1970, all four members enjoyed success as solo artists. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980. McCartney and Starr remain musically active; the Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 800 million records worldwide. They are the best-selling music artists in the US, with certified sales of over 178 million units, have had more number-one albums on the British charts, have sold more singles in the UK, than any other act; the group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, all four main members were inducted individually between 1994 and 2015. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful artists; the band have received an Academy Award and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. In March 1957, John Lennon aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool.
They called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that a respected local group was using the other name. Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined them as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band; the fifteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon thought Harrison was too young for the band. After a month of Harrison's persistence, during a second meeting, he performed the lead guitar part of the instrumental song "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, he began his studies at the Liverpool College of Art; the three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer. Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had just sold one of his paintings and was persuaded to purchase a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals, as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
They used this name until May, when they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle. By early July, they had refashioned themselves as the Silver Beatles, by the middle of August shortened the name to The Beatles. Allan Williams, the Beatles' unofficial manager, arranged a residency for them in Hamburg, but lacking a full-time drummer they auditioned and hired Pete Best in mid-August 1960; the band, now a five-piece, left four days contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 31⁄2-month residency. Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn writes: "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August, the time when the red-light area comes to life... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer, while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities." Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues, he placed the Beatles at the Indra Club.
Molly Hatchet is an American Southern hard rock band that formed in Jacksonville, Florida, in 1971. The band was founded by guitarist Dave Hlubek in 1971; the band is best known for their 1979 hit song "Flirtin' with Disaster". Molly Hatchet was founded by guitarist Dave Hlubek in 1971; the band originated and was based in Jacksonville and shared influences and inspiration with what is the most well-known act in the Southern rock genre, Lynyrd Skynyrd. Bassist Banner Thomas and guitarist Steve Holland joined the band in 1974. Bruce Crump would become the drummer in early 1975, guitarist Duane Roland and singer Danny Joe Brown joined in 1976. Hlubek, along with Banner Thomas wrote/co-wrote and co-produced many of the band's songs. Hlubek has stated. Members of.38 Special referred the band to manager Pat Armstrong, with partner Alan Walden, had been co-manager of Lynyrd Skynyrd in 1970. Skynyrd's Ronnie Van Zant was slated to produce Molly Hatchet's first album, having helped in writing arrangements and directing rehearsals prior to his death.
Molly Hatchet cut their first demos in Lynyrd Skynyrd's 8-track recording studio using their equipment. Other demos were cut in Jacksonville's Warehouse Studios. Warner Bros. Records expressed interest in the resulting recordings from these sessions. However, the band ended up being turned down by Warner, who instead picked Van Halen over Molly Hatchet. After this setback, Hatchet toured the Florida bar circuit. About six months Epic Records signed the band to a recording contract in 1977 and brought Tom Werman in as producer. Werman, known for working with straight hard rock acts such as Cheap Trick and Ted Nugent, combined boogie and hard rock making Molly Hatchet's sound different from more country-influenced acts, such as The Outlaws; the band released their first album, Molly Hatchet in September 1978. Its song "Dreams I'll Never See" got AOR airplay. Molly Hatchet was followed by Flirtin' with Disaster in September 1979, with its title song another AOR hit, as was its first track, "Whiskey Man", from the album.
Molly Hatchet proceeded to tour behind the records building a larger fan base. Lead singer Danny Joe Brown left the band in May 1980 because of diabetes and other reasons, only to return two years later. After Danny Joe Brown left Molly Hatchet, he formed The Danny Joe Brown Band. Brown was replaced in Molly Hatchet by vocalist Jimmy Farrar, a native of La Grange, where he was lead singer for the local Southern rock band Raw Energy. With the addition of Jimmy Farrar as lead singer, a new approach came to the band's sound; the earlier albums seemed to some commentators to exhibit a distinct southern cultural influence – which changed with the addition of Farrar. Danny Joe Brown's stage persona, gruff voice and cowboy horse-whistling was replaced with Jimmy Farrar's new vocal style, mixed with a new harder-rocking sound. With the success of the next album, Beatin' the Odds, the band ventured farther away from the Southern Rock sound of their first albums. By 1981, Molly Hatchet had evolved to a straight-ahead rock style and a slicker production, as exhibited on Take No Prisoners.
The band remained a successful act on the touring circuit. Long time bass player Banner Thomas was replaced by Riff West, and in 1982, drummer B. B. Borden replaced Crump, who had moved to Los Angeles and would end up in Winnipeg, Manitoba and recording with Canadian rockers Streetheart. Farrar left the group to make way for Brown's return, he would rejoin other members of Molly Hatchet in Southern Rock Allstars and Gator Country. Brown rejoined the band in May 1982 after the departure of Farrar. In March 1983 the line-up of Brown, Holland, Roland and Borden released a new album titled No Guts... No Glory, but guitarist Holland, tired of the road, decided to leave for good in 1984 and was replaced by former Danny Joe Brown Band keyboardist John Galvin. This period saw the band return to the more overt southern style it had displayed on its debut record in 1978. Critics hailed No Guts... No Glory as the band's return to form and did rejuvenate interest from the band's fan base, who had started to drift away after the Take No Prisoners album of 1981.
In November 1984 the album The Deed Is Done was released, a straightforward pop/rock offering, with Bruce Crump returning on drums. December 1985 saw the unveiling of the band's double live album Double Trouble Live, after which the band was dropped by Epic and the group's members began to ponder changing singers again to pursue more of an 80s pop rock sound, they ended up retaining Brown and their Southern Rock sound despite it being out of fashion in the mid-80s. Guitarist/founder Hlubek, who admitted to suffering from drug troubles, left Molly Hatchet in January 1987, he was replaced by Bobby Ingram, guitarist in The Danny Joe Brown Band. On July 8, 1990 Molly Hatchet announced at a show in Toledo, Ohio that the concert would be their final one, that after that night the band would be disbanding; the greatest hits collection Greatest Hits, featuring two newly recorded songs, was released in the fall of 1990, with sales reaching gold status. In late 1990, a revised band led by Brown and Ingram featured new players Rik Blanz, Rob Scavetto, Eddie Rio and David Feagle.
But the Hatchet's lineup in the 90s was a bit of a revolving door. Rio was replaced in 1991 by Rob Sweat and Kevin Rian. Feagle was succeeded the same year by drummer Kenny Holton. Blanz left in mid-1991, P
Beverley Mahood is a country music singer-songwriter and television host in Canada. Beverley emigrated from Belfast to Canada as a child, she is formerly part of the all-female trio Lace, produced by the renowned Los Angeles producer, David Foster. From 2004 to 2005, she co-hosted Breakfast Television. Mahood was named to co-host CMT Canada's flagship show, CMT Central, she starred as the anchor judge on the series "CMT Chevy Karaoke Star." Other hosting duties have included the reality series Project Mom/Project Dad and Pick a Puppy and the countdown program Ultimate. Mahood established a business partnership in 2005 with Canadian entrepreneur W. Brett Wilson in forming BPM Entertainment Corp. to pursue creative investment opportunities in the entertainment world. She has continued to grow her entertainment business. Mahood attended Saunders High School in London. Mahood has been building her profile in the music scene throughout Canada and the United States since her debut album, Girl Out of the Ordinary, was released in 1998.
The album garnered multiple radio music videos. She signed with a record label owned by record producer David Foster. With Foster, she was part of the female trio, releasing an album, Lace, in 1999; the first single, "I Want a Man", went to number 7 on the charts in Canada and was a number one video on CMT's Chevy Top 20. A second solo CD, Moody Blue, was released in 2004, receiving recognition with another number one CMT video for the single "The First Day You Wake Up Alone." In addition to her own recorded material, Mahood co-wrote the hit single "Come to Me," recorded by Celine Dion on her 2005 Miracle album. She wrote "Good to Be Alive," the theme for the CMT reality series' Project Mother and Project Dad, released to radio in 2007 with an accompanying music video airing on CMT. In May 2008, Mahood marked her return as a recording artist with the release of the song, "This Girl." A second single, "Rewrite History," was released in October 2008. Mahood's new album, was released on 18 November 2008.
Her most recent Christmas album, This Christmas Celebrate Me Home, was on 4 November 2008. In May 2013, Mahood released a new single, "Hope & Gasoline," to Canadian country radio. Mahood's fourth album was released to iTunes on November 12, 2013, with a physical CD release in early 2014. Mahood is known for being an enthusiastic Toronto Maple Leafs fan, she has sung the national anthems at numerous home games for both the Leafs and the Nashville Predators. In 2006, Mahood contributed her name and image to the Bootlegger Jean print campaign with her image appearing in stores across North America; as an actress, she has performed in The Vagina Monologues, the stage production Heartthrobs and Castle Rocks. Mahood was cast to be the singing superheroine Dazzler in X-Men: The Last Stand. However, she did not shoot any scenes. Mahood has and continues to host the Kinsmen Telemiracle in Saskatchewan annually each March, with 2018 being the 21st year that she has done so. Mahood as the host of Telemiracle, the Saskatchewan-based telethon and sings, as well as hosting duties that include introducing talent and speaking with various people who have raised funds.
She performed at The Bohemian Ball in Toronto on 20 February 2009. The 2009 Bohemian Ball, organised by the Canada Czech Republic Chamber of Commerce, was held in support of the SickKids Foundation and the Hospital for Sick Children. Mahood is a supporter of the following initiatives: the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, the Alberta's Children's Hospital, the David Foster Foundation and the CIBC Run for the Cure, she is the spokesperson for the Pink Mitten Campaign, which raises money for breast cancer research and awareness programs. CCMA Independent Female Artist – 2004, 1999, 1998 CMT Independent Recording Artist of the Year, 1997 Ontario Country Music Association: Rising Star, Female Vocalist, Group or Duo, Single, 1998 RPM Big Country Awards: Rising Star 1998 RPM Big Country Awards: Group of The Year 1999 OCPHA: Group of the Year – 2002, 2000 OCPHA: Vocal Collaboration 2002 Beverley Mahood Official site Beverley Mahood's MySpace
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
38 Special (band)
38 Special is an American rock band, formed by neighborhood friends Don Barnes and Donnie Van Zant in 1974 in Jacksonville, Florida. Donnie Van Zant, the younger brother of Lynyrd Skynyrd founder Ronnie, began playing music himself during his teen years, forming the band Standard Production in 1968, which paved the way for Sweet Rooster, Donnie's first professional outfit that he formed in 1969 with guitarist Jeff Carlisi and bassist Ken Lyons, soon joined by drummer Steve Brookins. Carlisi left Sweet Rooster after graduating high school to study architecture at Georgia Tech and was replaced by Don Barnes in 1970. Brookins left to work as a truck driver and Sweet Rooster was defunct by 1973. Van Zant and Lyons, while continuing their day jobs and working in other bands, began working on composing original songs in their spare time. By 1974, they decided it was time to get serious and form "the ultimate band" that would be their "one last shot" at success. Van Zant was considering a higher-paying position for the railroad he worked at but was convinced by brother Ronnie to stick with music since it was "in his blood."
The new outfit comprised Van Zant, Lyons, second drummer Jack Grondin and a returning Carlisi. The band's name was thought up after an incident which found the boys practicing in a warehouse out in the middle of nowhere; when police arrived after being notified by locals of the noise, the band members were unable to come out because of a padlock on the door. One of the cops said, "That's all right. We'll let this.38 special do the talking", shot off the lock. Now that they had their name, the group spent most of 1975 and 1976 playing a steady grind of one-nighters in the South and the Midwest. Big brother Ronnie figured Donnie and the gang had paid enough dues and set them up with Skynryd's manager Peter Rudge, who handled the Who, was tour manager for the Rolling Stones. Rudge set the group up to open shows for red-hot acts, like Peter Frampton and Kiss, got them signed to A & M Records, who assigned Dan Hartman to produce their first album, 38 Special, released in May 1977. Just before the record's release, bassist Ken Lyons decided to leave the band.
He was replaced by their friend and original Lynyrd Skynyrd member Larry Junstrom, who had contributed to one track of their debut. In 1977, the band decided to add two female backup singers, Carol Bristow and Dale Krantz. Krantz would be replaced by Nancy Henderson, Lu Moss and Lynn Hineman before backup singers were dispensed with in 1987. In October 1977 Ronnie Van Zant was killed. Donnie wrote "Take Me Back" as a tribute to his brother, which appeared on the band's second album, Special Delivery produced by Hartman; the band's first two albums had a strong Southern rock influence. By the early 1980s, 38 Special had shifted to a more accessible guitar-driven arena rock style without abandoning its Southern rock roots; this shift helped to usher in a string of successful albums and singles. Engineer Rodney Mills, who'd worked with Atlanta Rhythm Section and others, assumed the producer's reins from here on and Survivor co-founder Jim Peterik became a frequent songwriting collaborator of the band's from 1979 on, which helped account for this change in sound and subsequent success.
"Rockin' into the Night", the title track from the group's third album, which Peterik and his bandmates had written for Survivor, was instead given to 38 Special. Sung by 38's guitarist Don Barnes, the tune became their first song to receive national airplay, peaking at #43 on Billboard magazine's singles chart in early 1980; this paved the way for their platinum supercharged fourth record, Wild-Eyed Southern Boys, its big hit "Hold On Loosely". Their next release, Special Forces, contained the Top 10 smash "Caught Up in You" which hit No. 1 on Billboard magazine's Album Rock Tracks chart, as did the single, "If I'd Been the One", from their November 1983 release Tour de Force. "You Keep Runnin' Away" and "Back Where You Belong" continued the sequence of hit radio favorites. In the fall of 1984, they had another hit with "Teacher, Teacher", from the soundtrack of the 1984 film Teachers, written by Jim Vallance and Bryan Adams; the song climbed to # 4 on the Billboard Top Tracks Chart. By 1987, Don Barnes had decided to leave 38 to go out on his own.
He recorded an album called Ride the Storm, though slated for release in 1989, was shelved after A & M Records was sold and did not see the light of day until 2017–twenty eight years later. In the meantime, the group moved on, bringing in guitarist Danny Chauncey, after drummer Steve Brookins decided to leave, singer/keyboardist Max Carl, from West Coast rhythm and blues unit Jack Mack & the Heart Attack; the next release, Rock & Roll Strategy, saw the group playing down their heavy guitar sound and putting forth a more'80s pop keyboard-oriented approach, led by Carl's more R&B-style voice. "Second Chance" was a No. 1 hit on Billboard's adult contemporary chart in early 1989. Carl was lead singer on "The Sound of Your Voice" from Bone Against Steel, which saw the group moving