Street photography sometimes called candid photography, is photography conducted for art or enquiry that features unmediated chance encounters and random incidents within public places. Although there is a difference between street and candid photography, it is subtle with most street photography being candid in nature and some candid photography being classifiable as street photography. Street photography does not necessitate the presence of a street or the urban environment. Though people feature directly, street photography might be absent of people and can be of an object or environment where the image projects a decidedly human character in facsimile or aesthetic; the street photographer can be seen as an extension of an observer of the streets. Framing and timing can be key aspects of the craft with the aim of some street photography being to create images at a decisive or poignant moment. Street photography can focus on people and their behavior in public, thereby recording people's history.
This motivation entails having to navigate or negotiate changing expectations and laws of privacy and property. In this respect the street photographer is similar to social documentary photographers or photojournalists who work in public places, but with the aim of capturing newsworthy events; the existence of services like Google Street View, recording public space at a massive scale, the burgeoning trend of self-photography, further complicate ethical issues reflected in attitudes to street photography. Much of what is regarded and subjectively, as definitive street photography was made in the era spanning the end of the 19th century through to the late 1970s, a period which saw the emergence of portable cameras that enabled candid photography in public places. Depictions of everyday public life form a genre in every period of world art, beginning in the pre-historic, Sumerian and early Buddhist art periods. Art dealing with the life of the street, whether within views of cityscapes, or as the dominant motif, appears in the West in the canon of the Northern Renaissance, Rococo, of Romanticism, Realism and Post-Impressionism.
With the type having been so long established in other media, it followed that photographers would pursue the subject as soon as technology enabled them. In 1838 or 1839 the first photograph of figures in the street was recorded by Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre in one of a pair of daguerreotype views taken from his studio window of the Boulevard du Temple in Paris; the second, made at the height of the day shows an unpopulated stretch of street, while the other was taken at 8:00 am, as Beaumont Newhall reports, "The Boulevard, so filled with a moving throng of pedestrians and carriages was solitary, except an individual, having his boots brushed. His feet were compelled, of course, to be stationary for some time, one being on the box of the boot black, the other on the ground, his boots and legs were well defined, but he is without body or head, because these were in motion." Charles Nègre was the first photographer to achieve the technical sophistication required to register people in movement on the street in Paris in 1851.
Photographer John Thomson, a Scotsman working with journalist and social activist Adolphe Smith, published Street Life in London in twelve monthly installments starting in February 1877. Thomson played a key role in making the capture of everyday life on the streets a significant role for the medium. Eugene Atget is regarded as a progenitor, not because he was the first of his kind, but as a result of the popularisation in the late 1920s of his record of Parisian streets by Berenice Abbott, inspired to undertake a similar documentation of New York City; as the city developed, Atget helped to promote Parisian streets as a worthy subject for photography. From the 1890s to the 1920s he photographed its architecture, stairs and windows, he did photograph some workers but people were not his main focus. Paul Martin is considered a pioneer, making candid unposed photographs of people in London and at the seaside in the late 19th and early 20th century in order to record life. Martin is the first recorded photographer to do so in London with a disguised camera.
Mass-Observation was a social research organisation founded in 1937 which aimed to record everyday life in Britain and to record the reactions of the'man-in-the-street' to King Edward VIII's abdication in 1936 to marry divorcée Wallis Simpson, the succession of George VI. Humphrey Spender made photographs on the streets of the northern English industrial town of Bolton, identified for the project's publications as "Yorktown", while filmmaker Humphrey Jennings made a cinematic record in London for a parallel branch of investigation; the chief Mass-Observationists were anthropologist Tom Harrisson in Bolton and poet Charles Madge in London, their first report was produced as the book "May the Twelfth: Mass-Observation Day-Surveys 1937 by over two hundred observers" The post-war French Humanist School photographers found their subjects on the street or in the bistro. They worked in black‐and‐white in available light with the popular small cameras of the day, discovering what the writer Pierre Mac Orlan called the "fantastique social de la rue" and their style of image-making rendered romantic and poetic the way of life of ordinary European people in Paris.
Between 1946 and 1957 Le Groupe des XV annually exhibited work of this kind. Street photography formed the majo
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art is a modern art museum located in San Francisco, California. A nonprofit organization, SFMOMA holds an internationally recognized collection of modern and contemporary art, was the first museum on the West Coast devoted to 20th-century art; the museum's current collection includes over 33,000 works of painting, photography, architecture and media arts. They are displayed in 170,000 square feet of exhibition space, making the museum one of the largest in the United States overall, one of the largest in the world for modern and contemporary art. SFMOMA reopened on May 2016, following a major three-year-long expansion project; the expansion more than doubles the museum's gallery spaces and provides six times as much public space as the previous building, allowing SFMOMA to showcase an expanded collection along with the Doris and Donald Fisher Collection of contemporary art. SFMOMA was founded in 1935 under director Grace L. McCann Morley as the San Francisco Museum of Art.
For its first sixty years, the museum occupied the fourth floor of the War Memorial Veterans Building on Van Ness Avenue in the Civic Center. A gift of 36 artworks from Albert M. Bender, including The Flower Carrier by Diego Rivera, established the basis of the permanent collection. Bender donated more than 1,100 objects to SFMOMA during his lifetime and endowed the museum's first purchase fund; the museum began its second year with an exhibition of works by Henri Matisse. In this same year the museum established its photography collection, becoming one of the first museums to recognize photography as a fine art. SFMOMA held its first architecture exhibition, entitled Telesis: Space for Living, in 1940. SFMOMA was obliged to move to a temporary facility on Post Street in March 1945 to make way for the United Nations Conference on International Organization; the museum returned to its original Van Ness location in July, upon the signing of the United Nations Charter. That year SFMOMA hosted Jackson Pollock's first solo museum exhibition.
Founding director Grace Morley held film screenings at the museum beginning in 1937, just two years after the institution opened. In 1946 Morley brought in filmmaker Frank Stauffacher to found SFMOMA's influential Art in Cinema film series, which ran for nine years. SFMOMA continued its expansion into new media with the 1951 launch of a biweekly television program entitled Art in Your Life; the series renamed Discovery, ran for three years. Morley ended her 23-year tenure as museum director in 1958 and was succeeded by George D. Culler and Gerald Nordland; the museum rose to international prominence under director Henry T. Hopkins, adding "Modern" to its title in 1975. Since 1967, SFMOMA has honored San Francisco Bay Area artists with its biennial SECA Art Award. In the 1980s, under Hopkins and his successor John R. Lane, SFMOMA established three new curatorial posts: curator of painting and sculpture, curator of architecture and design, curator of media arts; the positions of director of education and director of photography were elevated to full curatorial roles.
At this time SFMOMA took on an active special exhibitions program, both organizing and hosting traveling exhibitions. Including major presentations of the work of Jeff Koons, Sigmar Polke, Willem de Kooning; until the opening of the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles in 1987 and the modern and contemporary wing of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, San Francisco's museum tended to function as the state's flagship for modern and contemporary art. In January 1995 the museum opened its current location at 151 Third Street, adjacent to Yerba Buena Gardens in the SOMA district. Mario Botta, a Swiss architect from Canton Ticino, designed the new US$60 million facility. Art patron Phyllis Wattis helped the museum acquire key works by Magritte, Andy Warhol, Eva Hesse and Wayne Thiebaud. SFMOMA made a number of important acquisitions under the direction of David A. Ross, recruited from the Whitney Museum in New York, including works by Ellsworth Kelly, Robert Rauschenberg, René Magritte, Piet Mondrian, as well as Marcel Duchamp’s iconic Fountain.
Those and acquisitions of works by Jasper Johns, Mark Rothko, Francis Bacon, Alexander Calder, Chuck Close and Frank Stella put the institution in the top ranks of American museums of modern art. After three years and $140 million building up the collection, Ross resigned when a slow economy forced the museum to keep a tighter rein on its resources. Under current director Neal Benezra, recruited from the Art Institute of Chicago in 2002, SFMOMA achieved an increase in both visitor numbers and membership while continuing to build its collection. In 2005 the museum announced the promised gift of nearly 800 photographs to the Prentice and Paul Sack Photographic Trust at SFMOMA from the Sacks' private collection; the museum saw record attendance in 2008 with the exhibition Frida Kahlo, which drew more than 400,000 visitors during its three-month run. In 2009, SFMOMA announced plans for a major expansion to accommodate its growing audiences and collections and to showcase the Doris and Donald Fisher collection of contemporary art.
In 2010—the museum's 75th anniversary year—architecture firm Snøhetta was selected to design the expanded building. SFMOMA broke ground for its expansion in May 2013. Jackson Pollock had his first museum show at SFMOMA, as did Arshile Gorky; the museum has in its collection important works by Henri Matisse, Jean Metzinger, Paul Klee, Marcel Duchamp, Andy Warhol, Jackson Pollock, Richard Diebenkorn, Clyfford Still and Ansel Adams, among others. Annually, the museum hosts more than twenty exhibitions and ov
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
The Leica M3 is a 35 mm rangefinder camera by Ernst Leitz GmbH, introduced in 1954. It was a new starting point for Leitz, which until had only produced screw-mount Leica cameras that were incremental improvements to its original Leica; the M3 introduced several features to the Leica, among them the combination of viewfinder and rangefinder in one bright window, like on the Contax II, a bayonet lens mount. It was the most successful model of the M series, with over 220,000 units sold by the time production of the M3 model ended in 1966, it was succeeded by a number of M series cameras, including the M7 film camera. The earliest Leica M3 pre-model, built, sold at auction in 2009 for €72,000; this new bayonet mount, which has not been changed in the following half century, is called the Leica M-mount. Lenses are changed faster than with a screw mount, framelines set automatically. Non-Leitz/Leica bayonet-mount lenses can be used, a simple adapter allows the use of screwmount lenses; the M3 has an exceptionally bright viewfinder when compared to any previous or subsequent model, including the modern M9.
The M3 has a high magnification factor of 0.92×, useful in critical focusing, with long lenses. It was the first Leica to combine viewfinder into one window. Framelines for 50, 90 and 135mm are shown, although none for any wider lenses. However, Leica solved this problem in two different ways: a separate viewfinder slid into the accessory shoe; the so-called Leica "Specs" or "glasses": These auxiliary lenses/prisms are put in front of the viewfinder and rangefinder windows for the 35mm focal length. The drawback of this attachment is; the Dual Range Summicron f/2 lens came with an auxiliary fitting similar to that of the 35mm "specs" attachment with a lens & prism to fit over the view and focus windows. It was used when the camera to subject distance was from the near range minimum of about 18 inches to the maximum of 36 inches; these auxiliary "specs" were removed. The Summicron lens could not turn to the near range settings unless the auxiliary "specs" were fitted in place on the lens; the 50 mm framelines are always visible.
The viewfinder image is larger. There are two ways to select the 90mm or 135mm framelines: putting a 90mm lens on the camera will automatically select the corresponding framelines toggling a small lever on the left of the lens; this way, one can see the tele-framelines. It helps visualise the field of view for another focal length. Viewfinder cameras do not show the same image in the viewfinder and on the film, due to the distance of the viewfinder to the view axis of the lens; this parallax problem is compensated in the M3 by moving the framelines. This full parallax compensation is limited to one metre. Leica IIIf and its predecessors had used a knob to advance the film. For fear of tearing the film, early M3s had a double stroke advance lever. Models had single-stroke levers, which quickened up operation of the camera. Another type of variation is in the film pressure plate used. Early models used a glass plate to keep the film flat. Loading of the film is done by removing the bottom plate, like on III series.
The film is inserted from the bottom of the camera pre-attached to the take-up spool. Special cassettes were available. Previous screw mount Leicas used two separate shutter speed dials for fast speeds; the M3 combined the dial does not rotate during firing. This reduces vibrations in the camera. Early models used a non-geometrical series of shutter speeds. On models this became the international standard of 1s to 1/1000s. Variants of the M3 were made for specific purposes; the Leica 24x27 was a camera with neither rangefinder nor viewfinder, made for the postal service to photograph electricity meters. The M3 was supplemented by the M2 with a 0.85× viewfinder more suited to wide angle lenses. The next model was the rangefinder-less M1, intended as an interface with scientific instruments or with a visoflex. With the exception of the larger Leica M5, subsequent Leica M-series cameras have a strong family resemblance to the M3. In 2002, a miniature replica camera, the Digital Classic Camera Leica M3, was made by Minox.
Leica M Cameras Price & Information Guide Leica M3 on jck.net Leica M3 by Karen Nakamura Leica M3 - the original M rangefinder on Leica FAQ Leica M3 on pacificrimcamera.com Leica M3 by luis triguez
University of Chicago Press
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, numerous academic journals, advanced monographs in the academic fields. One of its quasi-independent projects is a digital repository for scholarly books; the Press building is located just south of the Midway Plaisance on the University of Chicago campus. The University of Chicago Press was founded in 1891, making it one of the oldest continuously operating university presses in the United States, its first published book was Robert F. Harper's Assyrian and Babylonian Letters Belonging to the Kouyunjik Collections of the British Museum; the book sold five copies during its first two years, but by 1900 the University of Chicago Press had published 127 books and pamphlets and 11 scholarly journals, including the current Journal of Political Economy, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, American Journal of Sociology.
For its first three years, the Press was an entity discrete from the university. Heath in conjunction with the Chicago printer R. R. Donnelley; this arrangement proved unworkable, in 1894 the university assumed responsibility for the Press. In 1902, as part of the university, the Press started working on the Decennial Publications. Composed of articles and monographs by scholars and administrators on the state of the university and its faculty's research, the Decennial Publications was a radical reorganization of the Press; this allowed the Press, by 1905, to begin publishing books by scholars not of the University of Chicago. A manuscript editing and proofreading department was added to the existing staff of printers and typesetters, leading, in 1906, to the first edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. By 1931, the Press was an leading academic publisher. Leading books of that era include Dr. Edgar J. Goodspeed's The New Testament: An American Translation and its successor, Goodspeed and J. M. Povis Smith's The Complete Bible: An American Translation.
In 1956, the Press first published paperback-bound books under its imprint. Of the Press's best-known books, most date from the 1950s, including translations of the Complete Greek Tragedies and Richmond Lattimore's The Iliad of Homer; that decade saw the first edition of A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, which has since been used by students of Biblical Greek worldwide. In 1966, Morris Philipson began his thirty-four-year tenure as director of the University of Chicago Press, he committed time and resources to lengthening the backlist, becoming known for assuming ambitious scholarly projects, among the largest of, The Lisle Letters — a vast collection of 16th-century correspondence by Arthur Plantagenet, 1st Viscount Lisle, a wealth of information about every aspect of sixteenth-century life. As the Press's scholarly volume expanded, the Press advanced as a trade publisher. In 1992, Norman Maclean's books A River Runs Through It and Young Men and Fire were national best sellers, A River Runs Through It was made into a film directed by and starring Robert Redford.
In 1982, Philipson was the first director of an academic press to win the Publisher Citation, one of PEN's most prestigious awards. Shortly before he retired in June 2000, Philipson received the Association of American Publishers' Curtis Benjamin Award for Creative Publishing, awarded to the person whose "creativity and leadership have left a lasting mark on American publishing." Paula Barker Duffy served as director of the Press from 2000 to 2007. Under her administration, the Press expanded its distribution operations and created the Chicago Digital Distribution Center and BiblioVault. Editorial depth in reference and regional books increased with titles such as The Encyclopedia of Chicago, Timothy J. Gilfoyle's Millennium Park, new editions of The Chicago Manual of Style, the Turabian Manual, The University of Chicago Spanish Dictionary; the Press launched an electronic reference work, The Chicago Manual of Style Online. In 2014, the Press received The International Academic and Professional Publisher Award for excellence at the London Book Fair.
Garrett P. Kiely became the 15th director of the University of Chicago Press on September 1, 2007, he heads one of academic publishing's largest operations, employing more than 300 people across three divisions—books and distribution—and publishing 72 journal titles and 280 new books and 70 paperback reprints each year. The Press publishes across many subject areas, it publishes regional titles, such as The Encyclopedia of Chicago, edited by James R. Grossman, Ann Durkin Keating, Janice Reiff; the Press has expanded its digital offerings to include most newly published books as well as key backlist titles. In 2013, Chicago Journals began offering e-book editions of each new issue of each journal, for use on e-reader devices s
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Art Institute of Chicago
The Art Institute of Chicago, founded in 1879 and located in Chicago's Grant Park, is one of the oldest and largest art museums in the United States. Recognized for its curatorial efforts and popularity among visitors, the museum hosts 1.5 million guests annually. Its collection, stewarded by 11 curatorial departments, is encyclopedic, includes iconic works such as Georges Seurat's A Sunday on La Grande Jatte, Pablo Picasso's The Old Guitarist, Edward Hopper's Nighthawks, Grant Wood's American Gothic, its permanent collection of nearly 300,000 works of art is augmented by more than 30 special exhibitions mounted yearly that illuminate aspects of the collection and present cutting-edge curatorial and scientific research. As a research institution, the Art Institute has a conservation and conservation science department, five conservation laboratories, one of the largest art history and architecture libraries in the country—the Ryerson and Burnham Libraries; the growth of the collection has warranted several additions to the museum's original 1893 building, constructed for the World's Columbian Exposition of the same year.
The most recent expansion, the Modern Wing designed by Renzo Piano, opened in 2009 and increased the museum's footprint to nearly one million square feet, making it the second-largest art museum in the United States, after the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Art Institute is associated with the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, a leading art school, making it one of the few remaining unified arts institutions in the United States. In 1866, a group of 35 artists founded the Chicago Academy of Design in a studio on Dearborn Street, with the intent to run a free school with its own art gallery; the organization was modeled after European art academies, such as the Royal Academy, with Academicians and Associate Academicians. The Academy's charter was granted in March 1867. Classes started in 1868; the Academy's success enabled it to build a new home for the school, a five-story stone building on 66 West Adams Street, which opened on November 22, 1870. When the Great Chicago Fire destroyed the building in 1871 the Academy was thrown into debt.
Attempts to continue despite the loss by using rented facilities failed. By 1878, the Academy was $10,000 in debt. Members tried to rescue the ailing institution by making deals with local businessmen, before some abandoned it in 1879 to found a new organization, named the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts; when the Chicago Academy of Design went bankrupt the same year, the new Chicago Academy of Fine Arts bought its assets at auction. In 1882, the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts changed its name to the current Art Institute of Chicago and elected as its first president the banker and philanthropist Charles L. Hutchinson, who "is arguably the single most important individual to have shaped the direction and fortunes of the Art Institute of Chicago" Hutchinson was a director of many prominent Chicago organizations, including the University of Chicago, would transform the Art Institute into a world-class museum during his presidency, which he held until his death in 1924. In 1882, the organization purchased a lot on the southwest corner of Michigan Avenue and Van Buren Street for $45,000.
The existing commercial building on that property was used for the organization's headquarters, a new addition was constructed behind it to provide gallery space and to house the school's facilities. By January 1885 the trustees recognized the need to provide additional space for the organization's growing collection, to this end purchased the vacant lot directly south on Michigan Avenue; the commercial building was demolished, the noted architect John Wellborn Root was hired by Hutchinson to design a building that would create an "impressive presence" on Michigan Avenue, these facilities opened to great fanfare in 1887. With the announcement of the World's Columbian Exposition to be held in 1892–93, the Art Institute pressed for a building on the lakefront to be constructed for the fair, but to be used by the Institute afterwards; the city agreed, the building was completed in time for the second year of the fair. Construction costs were met by selling the Michigan/Van Buren property. On October 31, 1893, the Institute moved into the new building.
For the opening reception on December 8, 1893, Theodore Thomas and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra performed. From the 1900s to the 1960s the school offered with the Logan Family the Logan Medal of the Arts, an award which became one of the most distinguished awards presented to artists in the US. Between 1959 and 1970, the Institute was a key site in the battle to gain art and documentary photography a place in galleries, under curator Hugh Edwards and his assistants; as Director of the museum starting in the early 1980s, James N. Wood conducted a major expansion of its collection and oversaw a major renovation and expansion project for its facilities; as "one of the most respected museum leaders in the country", as described by The New York Times, Wood created major exhibitions of works by Paul Gauguin, Claude Monet and Vincent van Gogh that set records for attendance at the museum. He retired from the museum in 2004. In 2006, the Art Institute began construction of "The Modern Wing", an addition situated on the southwest corner of Columbus and Monroe.
The project, designed by Pritzker Prize winning architect Renzo Piano, was completed and opened to the public on May 16, 2009. The 264,000-square-foot building makes the Art Institute the second-largest art museum in the United States; the building houses the museum's world-renowned collections of 20th and 21st century art modern European painting and sculpture, contemporary